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Wheat Baseline Study 2012/2013 Characterization
of Wheat Producing Households in Sudan
Alawia Osman Hassan¹*, Abdelaziz A Hashim¹, Ishtiag Faroug Abdela¹,², Adil Yousif ¹, Zuhal Alnour Hamad¹ Izzat Tahir² and Solomon Assefa³
1 Agricultural Economics and Policy Research Center, Agricultural Research Corporation, Sudan
2Department of Agribusiness and Consumer Science, Faculty of Agriculture & Food Sciences, King Faisal University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
3Wheat Research Program, Agricultural Research Corporation, Sudan
4International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Sudan
Submission: December 21, 2019, Published: January 11, 2019
*Corresponding author: Alawia Osman Hassan, Agricultural Economics and Policy Research Center, Agricultural Research Corporation, Sudan
How to cite this article: Alawia OH, Abdelaziz AH, Abdalla IF, Adil Y, Zuhal AH, et al. Wheat Baseline Study 2012/2013 Characterization of Wheat
Producing Households in Sudan. Agri Res& Tech: Open Access J. 2019; 19(3): 556094. DOI: 10.19080/ARTOAJ.2019.19.556094
The Support to Agricultural Research for Development on Strategic Commodities (SARD-SC) Project in Africa was launched to enhance food and nutrition security, poverty alleviation, improve productivity and increase income in target crops value chains on a sustainable basis. Wheat is an important food security crop in the Sudan and demand for wheat has increased rapidly in recent years while production falls short to meet the rising demand leading to increased importation of wheat from international market. The overall objective of the study is to document baseline information about the key variables upon which the Project seeks to make impacts among households in the targeted intervention areas. Primary data was collected through baseline survey, which was conducted in the major wheat producing areas in the Sudan, in four States. A total sample of 951 farmers’ households was randomly selected and surveyed in the whole country using structured questionnaire. Data was analyzed using mainly descriptive statistics. Results of the survey showed that average wheat area grown by farmers was about 2.01ha for all Sudan. Overall respondents, Condor accounted for the highest share of the varieties grown by sampled farmers in season 2012/2013, followed by Imam, whereas only about 13% of the farmers surveyed across Sudan indicated that they grew Baladi (local) types of wheat. The average wheat yield across all Sudan was found to be about 1.98tons/ha. Nevertheless, it exhibited high variations across production locations ranging from 1.19 - 2.93tons/ha. Gross margin of wheat was positive across all locations but relatively low. The study recommended increasing productivity of wheat through development of enabling policy environment that include provision of formal credit and strengthening research and advisory services and technology transfer activities.
Abbrevations: SARD-SC: Support to Agricultural Research for Development on Strategic Crops in Africa; CGIAR: Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research; AfDB: African Development Bank; ICARDA: International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas
The Support to Agricultural Research for Development on Strategic Crops in Africa (SARD-SC) is a multinational Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) - project of the African Development Bank (AfDB) . The Project was launched to enhance food and nutrition security, poverty alleviation, improve productivity and increase income in target crops value chains on a sustainable basis. The International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) is the executing agency for the wheat component. Wheat is an important food security crop in the Sudan and demand for wheat has increased rapidly in recent years while production falls short to meet the rising demand leading to increased importation of wheat from international market.
About 85% of the wheat area in Sudan is found in the central irrigated plains (14 - 16°N). The soils are mostly black clay
Vertisols. The crop is adequately irrigated and fertilized. Relative humidity is generally low during the growing season. The crop is sown during November and harvested during March.
Wheat has emerged as an important calorie source in the Sudanese diet especially in urban areas. The Sudan wheat situation is characterized by rapid growth in consumption, continuous and variable deficit between domestic need and local production. In that respect the Sudan national efforts in increasing wheat production has been a priority.
The overall objective of the baseline survey is to document baseline information about the key variables upon which the Project seeks to make impacts among households in the targeted intervention areas. These expected key impact areas are: food security, household income, seed procurement and usage, knowledge and practices of agriculture, access to technical
information and extension services, access to credit and farm
support. The specific objectives of the baseline survey are as
a. To provide information on the initial situation (“snap
shot”) of the above-mentioned key project impact variables in
the Project pilot sites. The information should provide insights
into questions such as the following:
Who are the folks we are targeting in the Project?
What does the situation look like in the village presently (at
this point of departure or “baseline”)?
b. To help monitor some key project variables as the
implementation of the Project progresses over time.
c. To create a dataset upon which future evaluations and
assessments of the changes regarding key variables in the
Project areas may be measured. e.g. what has changed with
respect to a given key variable in the intervention area? (say in
X years from now)?
Primary data was collected from the four main producing
states (Northern and River Nile States, Gezira Scheme (Gezira
State), and New Halfa Agricultural Scheme (Kassala State))
through intensive households’ survey using a predesigned
questionnaire and also meetings with key informants. Six regional
sites were selected as the intervention sites, where innovation
platforms were established.
The questionnaire was administered to a random sample
of households’ farmers and the data collected pertains to the
agricultural season 2012-2013. A total sample of 951 farmers’
households was selected and surveyed in the whole country.
Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as means and
Secondary data was collected from relevant sources,
publications from Ministry of Agriculture, and different annual
reports from Bank of Sudan and Food and Agriculture Organization
statistic website. As well as reviewing of some of the documents,
publications and reports related to the topic. A set of data from
1970 to 2012 was collected mainly about areas harvested, yield,
production, consumption and imports for wheat.
Analysis of the survey data showed that the average wheat
area was about 2.02ha for all Sudan, with the highest area recorded
in Gezira (3.93ha), followed by New Halfa Scheme (2.31ha) and
relatively small in Northern (1.73ha) and the River Nile State
(1.41) as displayed in Figure 1 .
Overall Sudan, Condor accounted for the highest share of
the varieties grown by sampled farmers in season 2012/2013,
exclusively in Kassala (76%) and the River Nile States (45%),
followed by Imam (22%), which was widely cultivated by sampled
farmers in the Gezira (73%). Only about 13% of the farmers
surveyed across Sudan indicated that they grew Baladi (local)
types of wheat in season 2012/2013, with the highest percentage
of growing Baladi types reported by farmers in the Northern State
(51%) as shown in Figure 2.
The sources of credit varied, but the main source of credit
was formal from the Agricultural Bank of Sudan (37.2%). Overall
Sudan, the scheme management supplied about 26% of credit to
the farmers, with remarkable high percentage of farmers (78%)
in Kassala State received credit from project management. About
one quarter (23%) of farmers depended on informal sources of
credit represented by traders and agents (Figure 3) .
Analysis of survey data indicated that average wheat yield
across all Sudan was found to be about 1.98tons/ha. Nevertheless,
it exhibited high variations across production locations. Wheat
yield was highest in the River Nile State (2.93tons/ha), followed
by Northern State (2.31tons/ha), Gezira Scheme (2.12tons/ha)
and lowest in New Halfa Scheme (1.19tons/ha) as displayed in
Wheat profitability represents an important incentive for
farmers to grow it especially as cash crop. Gross margin of wheat
was positive across all Sudan but relatively low (Table 1). It was
highest in the River Nile State (417 USD$/ha), followed by Gezira
Scheme (332 USD$/ha) and Northern State (165 USD$/ha) and
it was very low in New Halfa Scheme (9 USD$/ha), apparently
because of the low crop yield in that season .
SDG denotes Sudanese Pound; 1$=5.69 SDG in 2012; 1 sack approximately 100kg
Sampled farmers indicated that, high production costs of
wheat, was the major problem facing wheat producers in Sudan.
Overall Sudan high cost of inputs was reported by about 47% of
farmers (Table 2), while in Northern State higher percentage of
farmers (74%) reported this problem, apparently because of
the high costs of water pump operation. High costs of irrigation (14%), credit (10%), pests, diseases and weeds (9%), and water
problems (8%) were also highlighted by farmers as problems
facing production of wheat.
Benefit from growing improved wheat varieties compared
to the past: Farmers were asked about the benefits from growing
improved wheat compared to the past when traditional varieties
were grown. In general, all farmers reported positive increase in
their livelihoods conditions (Table 2). More than half the farmers
indicated benefits and improvements in a variety of items of their
livelihood conditions, including availability of wheat for food at
home (thus improvement in their food security) and acquiring
Perceived benefit compared to those farmers not growing
improved wheat varieties: Farmers adopting improved wheat
varieties perceived positive benefits compared to farmers growing
traditional varieties. About 80% of sampled farmers indicated that
they were able to produce more than before and thus reduced
their purchase of wheat for food (Table 3), while 72% of them
reported that they were able to produce enough for annual home
consumption. Moreover about 63% of wheat producers showed
that they were able to produce surplus for the market and thus
increase their cash income. Other benefits were also perceived by
farmers including production of more crop residue for animals
and crop tolerance for drought and other risks
Figure 5  presented wheat area, production and yield during
1954/53 to 2010/2011. The wheat area cultivated in Sudan in
2012-2013 is about 445 thousand feddan and the average yield is
about 713Kg/fed. Wheat area showed three high peaks, mainly in
1975/76, 1990/91, and 2008/2009. Wheat yield is fluctuating but
the trend line is increasing. The yield reached 800kg/fed later in
1997/98 and then increased up to 1074kg/fed in 2002/03. Then
start to decrease up to 2012/2013. Ijaimi  indicated that the
wheat yield from 1988/89 to 2004/05 significantly improved and
contributed by 88% in the change in wheat yield.