Niazboo (Ocimum Basilicum) As Medicinal Plant Establishes Against Salinity and Sodicity
Muhammad Arshad Ullah1*, Muhammad Rasheed2 and Imdad Ali Mahmood1
1Land Resources Research Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre, Pakistan
2Department of PMAS - Agronomy, University of Arid Agriculture, Pakistan
Submission: November 20,2018;Published: February 13, 2019
*Corresponding author: Muhammad Arshad Ullah, Land Resources Research Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan
How to cite this article: Md Arshad U, Md Rasheed, Imdad Ali Md. Niazboo (Ocimum Basilicum) As Medicinal Plant Establishes Against Salinity and Sodicity. Adv Biotech & Micro. 2019; 12(5): 555846. DOI: 10.19080/AIBM.2019.12.555846
Salt stress is one of the most serious limiting factors for crop growth and production. Salinity stress negatively impacts the growth and yield of plants. Niazboo (Ocimum basilicum). This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of (4 dSm-1+ 13.5 (mmol L-1)1/2, 5 dSm-1 + 25 (mmol L-1)1/2 , 5 dSm-1 + 30 (mmol L-1)1/2, 10 dSm-1 + 25(mmol L-1)1/2 and 10 dSm-1 + 30 (mmol L-1)1/2 on biomass yield of guar against salinity tolerance. Maximum biomass yield (43.10 gpot-1) was produced by 4 dSm-1+ 13.5 (mmol L-1)1/2 treatment. Biomass produce was reduced with the increase of the salt’s toxicity. Minimum biomass yield (30.33 gpot-1) was attained under 10 dSm-1 + 30 (mmol L-1)1/2. 5 dSm-1 + 25 (mmol L-1)1/2 treatment exhibited improved outcome i.e. the least diminution % over control (11.83). Salinity cum sodicity showed staid effect on the growth reduction from 11.83% to 29.62%. This reduction fissure was impacted by the toxic effect of salinity and sodicity on Guar growth. Salinity- sodicity behaved toxic impact on the growth reduction from 11.83% to 29.62%. Based on the findings, Niazboo (Ocimum basilicum) establishes better at 4 dSm-1+ 13.5 (mmol L-1)1/2 treatment.
Salinity stress negatively impacts agricultural yields throughout the world, affecting production, whether for subsistence or economic gain. At present, about 20% of the world’s cultivated land and approximately half of all irrigated land and 2.1% of the dry agriculture land is affected by salinity. Salinization is spreading more rapidly in irrigated lands because of inappropriate management of irrigation and drainage. Moreover, rain, cyclones and wind add NaCl to coastal agricultural lands. The rapid increase in the world’s population requires an expansion of crop areas to raise food production. Salinity imposes serious environmental problems that affect grassland cover and the availability of animal feed in arid and semiarid regions. Salt stress is one of the most serious limiting factors for crop growth and production in the arid regions. About 23% of the world’s cultivated lands is saline and 37% is sodic . Considerable research work has been conducted on the effect of salinity on different growth characters of different crops worldwide [2-9].
Niazboo (Ocimum basilicum) commonly known as sweet basil is a popular herbaceous plant belongs to Lamiaceae family widely used for flavoring and medicinal purposes. It is an annual herb, 20-60 cm plant height with white and pink flowers and characterized by great morphological and chemical diversity. The useful parts of the plants are leaves and seeds, these highly aromatic leaves used either fresh or dried for spice. It comprises 65 species, adapted to grow in warm conditions and originally it is native to India and other countries of Asia .
Hot tea of basil plant leaves is good for treating nausea, dysentery and flatulence. Externally it can be used for different skin infections such as treatment of acne, snake bites and insect stings. In addition to these, basil has been used as a remedy for an enormous number of ailments, including cancer, convulsion, deafness, diarrhea, epilepsy, insanity, sore throat, toothaches, and whooping cough. Ocimum basilicum is being utilized as a source of essential oils mainly in industries, perfumery, dental, oral products and traditional ritual. As a part of the tradition and religious rituals, basil needs more attention for the furtherance of its cultivation on a commercial scale as compared to other medicinally important plants. The aim of this study is to promote the cultivation of basil plants as well as utilization of saline lands which are unproductive for a number of field crops and reduce the average output of major crops greater than 50% .
Ocimum basilicum L., commonly known as Sweet Basil, belongs to the genus Ocimum of the family Lamiaceae. Ocimum (from Greek ozo for smell) is appropriate for the genus since its various species are known for their peculiar strong odours. Basilicum is the Latin translation of the Greek basilikon meaning king and due perhaps the same reason the herb is called “Herbe Royale”
in French. The Urdu/Punjabi name Niazbo is also reflective of its
Various effects like immunomodulatory, hyperglcaemic,
hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective,
antimutagenic, antimicrobial, antifungal, antioxidant, lipid
peroxidation, insect repellency, antiviral, antierythmic,
depigmenting, antitoxic and CNS activity analysis reports are
mentioned. The wide range of study on this herbal plant shows
that it is very beneficial for the improvement of current drugs and
more work can be done to take advantage of the potential remedial
qualities of it. It is reported that some plant seeds showed major
reduce under salt stress i.e. Ocimum basilicum , Petroselinum
hortense , sweet marjoram  and Thymus maroccanus
. The other stage is seedling growth which influenced by
salinity negatively. It has been reported that, seedling growth of
Thymus maroccanus , basil, chamomile and marjoram 
were severely decreased depend on salt stress. Some researchers
said that morphological characteristics of number of medicinal
plants were effected under salt stress conditions such as number
of leaves, leaf area and leaf biomas in reduced form as Majorana
hortensis , peppermint, geranium, Thymus vulgaris, sage and
Mentha pulegium [16-21].
In this study, sweet basil was used as an experimental material.
This plant is commonly used by local people in treatments of
various diseases. For example, it is used for treatment of dry
mouth and dental complaints, diarrhea and chronic dysentery,
respiratory disorders, and effective in the treatment of fungal
diseases and stomach discomfort in addition, the influential
antitussive, diuretic, anthelminthic, tranquilizer and expectorant
roles in medicinal approach [22,23].
The use of medicinal plants on phytotherapy is a result of
empirical knowledge accumulated over the centuries about
plant actions in several ethnic groups. Therefore, there are many
questions about the standardization techniques for the production
and exchange of phototherapeutic agents .
The indiscriminate medicinal use of plants, usually toxic ones,
may entail risks to health, because, similarly to the allopathic
drugs, there is a threshold dosage for each phytotherapeutic
agent. Thus, after an inadequate use, several disorders may occur,
from intoxications to mutation events in somatic and germinative
tissue, and it can lead to the development of somatic diseases,
teratogenic effects and inherited genetic damages [25-28]. Most
carcinogens, for example, trigger their tumorigenic activity by
the interaction of natural inductors of mutations with the DNA,
leading to permanent genetic lesions, which are expressed as
genetic mutations or chromosomal aberrations involving the cell
The presence of secondary metabolites in plants is
characterized by their ability to provide defenses against biotic
and abiotic stress . The mechanism of defense varies from
plant to plant, their environmental conditions and climatic
variations. However, the presence of these metabolites in plant
are usually in minimum amounts though several molecular
techniques are available to either increase or decrease the
quantity of a particular metabolite by blocking competitive
pathways and enriching metabolites of choice . Terpenes,
alkaloids (N-containing compounds) and phenolics constitute
the largest groups of secondary metabolites. The shikimic acid
pathway is the basis of the biosynthesis of phenolics while the
terpenes which are comprised of isoprene units arise from the
mevalonate pathway .
Aspirin (1) from white willow, quinine (2) from the cinchona
plant and artemisinin (3) from Artemisia annum are all plant
secondary metabolites. The biological application of these
metabolites as therapeutic agents for a broad spectrum of ailments
and the microbial infections has been salutary in human history.
Aromatic and medicinal plants are still a major part of
alternative and traditional medicine in the developing countries.
Numerous herbal therapies are currently widely used in medicine
[33,34]. The use of medicinal herbs as anti-inflammatory,
antifungal, and analgesic drugs is common in Algeria. In most
cases, the active molecules of the herbs are unknown. Studying
the biological and pharmacological properties of medicinal plant
extracts is a rational approach in our quest for new drugs [35-38].
A pot study was conducted to evaluate the salt tolerance of
Niazboo (Ocimum basilicum) as medicinal plant under different
saline and sodic concentrations at green house of Land Resources
Research Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre,
Islamabad, Pakistan during, 2017. The soil used for the pot
experiment was analysed and having 7.4 pH, 1.7 ECe (dSm-1),
4.9 SAR (mmol L-1)1/2, 21.7 Saturation Percentage (%), 0.40 O.M.
(%), 7.0 Available P (mg Kg-1) and 97.7 Extractable K (mg Kg-1).
Considering the pre- sowing soil analysis, the ECe (Electrical
Conductivity) and SAR (Sodium Absorption Ratio) was artificially
developed with salts of NaCl, Na2SO4, CaCl2 and MgSO4 using
Quadratic Equation.10 Kg soil was used to fill each pot. 10 seeds of
Niazboo (Ocimum basilicum) as medicinal plant were sown in each
pot. Fertilizer was applied @50-45-40 NPK Kg ha-1. Treatments
were (4 dSm-1+ 13.5 (mmol L-1)1/2, 5 dSm-1 + 25 (mmol L-1)1/2,
5 dSm-1 + 30 (mmol L-1)1/2, 10dSm-1 + 25 (mmol L-1)1/2, 10dSm-1
+ 25 (mmol L-1)1/2 and 10 dSm-1 + 30 (mmol L-1)1/2). Completely
randomized deign was applied with three repeats. Data on
biomass yield were collected. Collected data were statistically
analysed and means were compared by LSD at 5 % .
Intense salinity decreases efficiency of many crops including
most vegetables by causing various irregular morphological,
physiological and biochemical alternations that basis late
germination, high seedling transience, poor plant population,
diminutive growth and lower yields. Biosaline agriculture (utilization of these salt- affected lands without disturbing
present condition) is an economical way to reclaim the saltaffected
soils and bring this area under cultivation. Keeping in
view, a pot study was carried out to assess the salt tolerance of
Niazboo (Ocimum basilicum) under different salt concentrations.
Significant divergence was initiated with treatments on biomass
yield (Table-1). Highest biomass yield (43.10gpot-1) was gained
by 4 dSm-1+ 13.5 (mmol L-1)1/2 treatment. Biomass yield was
decreased as well as the toxicity of salts was increased. Minimum
biomass yield (30.33 gpot-1) was produced at 10 dSm-1 + 30 (mmol
L-1)1/2. Germination and seedling emergence may be influenced
by temperature, sowing depth and seedbed conditions like
available moisture and salinity [40,41]. Salinity leads to delayed
germination and emergence, low seedling survival, irregular
crop stand and lower yield due to abnormal morphological,
physiological and biochemical changes [42,43].
Table 1 also explained the % decrease in biomass yield over
control. 5 dSm-1 + 25 (mmol L-1)1/2 treatment performed better
results i.e. the least reduction % over control (11.83). Salinitysodicity
showed serious effect on the growth reduction from 11.83
to 29.62%. This huge fissure was impacted by the negative effect
of salinity cum sodicity on Niazboo (Ocimum basilicum) growth.
Salinity- sodicity showed staid effect on the growth reduction
from 11.83 to 29.62%. This reduction fissure was impacted
by the harmful effect of salinity and sodicity on coriander
growth. Salinity- sodicity behaved toxic impact on the growth
reduction from 11.83 to 29.62%. Such problems affect water
and air movement, plant-available water holding capacity, root
penetration, runoff, erosion and tillage and sowing operations.
In addition, imbalances in plant-available nutrients in both saline
and sodic soils affect plant growth [44-48].
Based on the findings, Niazboo (Ocimum basilicum) was
able to how grow against more salt tolerance at 4 dSm-1+ 13.5
(mmol L-1)1/2 treatment. Therefore, Niazboo (Ocimum basilicum)
is suggested to be cultivated in farmlands having salinity cum
sodicity up to. 4 dSm-1+ 13.5 (mmol L-1)1/2.