Submission: July 29, 2022; Published: August 15, 2022
*Corresponding author: Tijjani Abu Rim, Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Sociology, Federal University, Nigeria
How to cite this article: Tijjani Abu R, Abba Y Abdullah, Dandela I. Awareness on the Effects of Irrigation Farming on Farmers’ Yield and Income: Evidence
from Jibia Irrigation Katsina State, Nigeria. Agri Res & Tech: Open Access J. 2022; 26 (5): 556354. DOI: 10.19080/ARTOAJ.2022.26.556354
Peasantry irrigation farming is cardinal to food security, livelihood improvement and poverty alleviation of rural dwellers. However, little has been done to ascertain its effects on farmers’ yield and income. Therefore, the current research examined the effects of irrigated farming in yield and income of the smallholder farmers, in Jibia, North Western Part of Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was employed to select two hundred and thirty four farmers. Data was analyzed using standard tools of descriptive statistics. The results shows that male dominate farming and majority are in productive age, also, respondents had adequate years of irrigation experience and households size, but large number lack western education and doesn’t participate in cooperatives. The analysis further revealed that respondents’ main information sources were input dealers, followed by farmers’ group and family/friends. Additionally, the outcome of the research indicates that farmers’ cultivate both cereals/vegetable crops such as wheat, maize, rice, beans, groundnut, millet, onion, cabbage and water melon. Further findings indicated that farmers’ obtained high yield and income. However, constraints to irrigation farming identified include; low women involvement, limited literacy and weak participations in cooperatives. It was concluded that, crop production under irrigation farming is crucial for enhanced yield and income. The findings recommend that augmenting farmers’ access to production inputs, inculcating appropriate knowledge of the practices and provision of adequate irrigation resources are crucial to meeting food security and poverty eradication globally, in all its appearances.
Keywords: Awareness; Effect of irrigation; Farmers’ yield and income; Jibia Katsina State
Improvement of irrigation infrastructure would facilitate small-scale farmers’ access to portable irrigation water, enhanced crop yield and economic performance [1-8]. Therefore, augmentation and sustainability of irrigation facilities is a fundamental for attaining food security and improvement of peasantry livelihoods. An aggregate empirical findings have shown improvements on farm economic returns and household welfare from irrigation improvement [8-18] For instance,  revealed that agricultural income has been overwhelmingly witnessed from farmers’ adoption of small-scale irrigation farming in South Africa. While,  affirmed that farmers partaking in irrigation farming demonstrated more economic returns on rice production than their counterpart under the rain-fed production in Ghana. Previous researches in Ethiopia and Malawi, both Ahmed , and , confirmed that irrigation development has impacted substantially on the farming families’ crop yield and net income.
However, in Nigeria most of the dams are either under-utilized for irrigation or abandoned, with utilization of the project at just about 50% of the crop area under conditions of water shortage or insufficient irrigation . Though, studies have been done in the country on economic analysis and impact of irrigation on crop yield, income, food security and livelihoods. While,  studied impact of irrigation technology use on crop yield, income and household food security in Nigeria. Whereas, , assessment of irrigation system on crop production and farmers ‘economy in Lagos state, south west Nigeria. According to , efficiency,food security and differentiation in small-scale irrigation agriculture
in Sokoto state northwest Nigeria. Similarly, in the study
area , examined economic analysis of crop production under
Jibia irrigation project. Also, Sulaiman , analyzed the impact
of Jibia dam irrigation project on wheat production and farmers’
livelihood. However, none of the studies done in the research area
that examine yield and income, and this justify the research. It is
against this background that this research seek to investigate the
extent at which farmers’ tap this resources in terms of crop yield
The main objective of this research is to examine Awareness
on the Effects of Irrigation farming on farmers’ yield and income:
Evidence from Jibia irrigation Katsina State, Nigeria. Specifically,
this study is undertaken to:
a. Describe the socioeconomic characteristics of irrigation
farmers in the study area
b. Explore the source of farmers’ information on irrigation
c. Examine various crops production undertaken in the
d. Determine the effect of irrigation farming on yield and
The study specifically covers Jibia Irrigation Project that is situated
in Jibia Local Government Area of Katsina State. The LGA is
blessed with abundant productive arable land that enable numerous
crop to thrived, and thus, attracts intensive crop production of both vegetables and arable crops respectively . Geographically,
Jibia Local Government area is situated at the north-western
enclave of Katsina State. It borders Batsari and Batagarawa Local
Government areas to the south, Katsina and Kaita Local Government
areas to the east, Zurmi Local Government Area of Zamfara
States; to the west and to the north it shares an international
border with Niger Republic. It lies between latitude 1205’ and
13016’N and longitude 702’ and 7049’E, whereas, the project is
between latitude 1205’ and 1309’N and longitude 701’ and 704E
. The area is belongs to savanna vegetation and a single rainfall
regime. Temperatures are high throughout the year, reaching
a peak of 40 degrees Celsius in March and June. Agriculture is the
main economic activity in the study area. Major crops grown in the
area include maize, rice, yam, groundnut, and soybean. Majority of
the farmers in the study area produce at subsistence level.
The current study adopted a two-stage sampling procedures
were used to select the sample for the study. In the first stage,
the entire irrigation project operates within six intakes i.e. (F1,
F2, F3, F4, F5 and F6) and based on this, stratified sampling was
employed to select respondents from each strata in order to have
equal representations. In the second stage, and based on the lists
of farmers obtained from (SRRBDA) office, a systematic random
selection was done to select respondents from each stratum proportionately
that give a total of 234 farmers for this study.
The sets data extracted were then transformed to descriptive
and inferential statistics which includes frequency tables and percentage
in order to show brief background information as regards
the socioeconomic features of the population under study. Statistical
Package for Social Science (SPSS) 2017 version was the software
utilized in analyzing the results (Table 1).
The results of gender in Figure 1 showed that (98%) of the respondents
were males, with a minority (2%) proportion belongs to female counterparts. This finding revealed that women headed
households failed to adopt small scale irrigation technologies because
of technological characteristics and its labor demands in the
The age of the farmers in the households in (Figure 2) ranged
from 20 to 60 years. About (71%) of the respondents fell within the productive age of 21-50 years. This advocates that the large
proportion of the respondents were within their economic active
age and this enhances their efficiency for food security. The age
group 51-70 had little effect in farm work constitute (27%).
The result of years of farming experience in Figure 3 shows
that (86.3%) of the respondents had between 6–20 years’ experience.
The group with less than 5 years’ experience was the least
(13.7%) and this signify that greater majority embrace irrigation
The household size of the respondents revealed that majority
(55.5%) had 6-15 household size, whereas 15.0% had 16-20
household size, even though (24.8%) had less than 5, and the least
(4.7%) had above 20 people in the household. This implies that
greater majority (75.2%) had adequate household size to curtail
labor costs to be incurred (Figure 4).
The result of educational level adduce that (62.4%) of the re-spondents
are literate in Islamic education (Ajami), also, (23.1%)
had primary and secondary education respectively. Only (14.6%)
respondents possessed higher education (Figure 5).
The finding of the analysis in Figure 6 document that the minority
percentage (28%) belongs to farmers group cooperative.
While very close to two-third percentage (72%) doesn’t partake
in any form of farmers’ group. The absence of group participation
denied farmers’ access to information and other institutional supports
in terms of loans facility to boost production, as current government
and foreign interventions are channeled through group approach.
Result in Table 2 illustrate farmers source of irrigation farming
information, which inferred that input dealers are the most
reachable source (34.2%) followed by farmer groups (25.6%).
Family/Friends (23.1%) was the next, followed by extension services
(10.7%), radio 4.3% and mobile phone (2.1%).
To ensure maximum production efficiency in the face of total
crop failure, farmers cultivate both cereals and vegetable crops.
The finding in Table 1 infers that among respondents that cultivate
cereals, the larger 18.8% were maize producers, followed by
millet 16.2%, whereas, 13.7% and 13.2% dwell on groundnut and
beans production respectively, while 9.4% for wheat producers,
with the least 2.7% cultivate rice. Furthermore, between cultivators
of vegetables, onion occupy the highest proportion 12.4%, followed
by cabbage 8.1% and water melon 5.1%, with the smallest
0.4% cultivate pepper.
Result of the analysis on crop yield indicate that farmers’ obtained
32,408 Kg of wheat, 93,694 Kg of maize, 5,925 Kg of rice
were recorded, whereas, 39,592Kg of beans was produced during
the irrigation season. They also obtained 34,575Kg of groundnut
and 62,032.00Kg of millet. On the part of vegetable production,
four vegetables (Cabbage, Onion, Watermelon, Pepper) exceled
during the irrigation production season. Farmers at Jibia Irrigation
Site harvested 35,200Kg of cabbage, which was the highest
yielded vegetable, 34,992Kg of onion, 19,725Kg of watermelon,
and 1,500Kg of pepper (Table 3).
Source: Field survey, 2021.
Source: Field survey, 2021.
Source: Field survey, 2021.
The finding in Table 4 displays incomes accrued to farmers’
from the sales of various crops. Beans has the highest generating
revenue from the staple food, it generate the income
of ₦15,836,800.00 followed by Groundnut had the income of
₦13,830,000.00, preceded by Maize ₦13,774,730.00 then Millet
₦9,006,400.00. Others are wheat with income of ₦3,852,000.00
and rice provide an income of ₦1,027,000.00. On the vegetable
crops, Onion generated the highest income of ₦8,717,965.00, followed
by Cabbage which has the income of ₦8,462,700.00, Watermelon
was the third that generate an income of ₦3,486,000.00,
and Pepper generates the least income of ₦450,000.00 (Table 4).
The results of demographic factors in Figure 1 infers that male
dominated (98%) farming, and this could be possible due to marriage
ties in the study area that subjected marriage women into
daily household responsibilities in respect to family up-keeps,
which restricted them from full irrigation farming participations.
This is consistence with  study in Ethiopia showed that 90%
and 84% of adapters and non-adapters were males respectively,
while10% and 16% of adapters and non-adapters were females.
Also, age of the farmers in (Figure 2) ranged from 20 to 60 years.
About (71%) of the respondents fell within the productive age
of 21-50 years. This advocates that the large proportion of the
respondents were within their economic active age, and this enhances
their efficiency for food security. This corroborate with
 discovered that the adoption of irrigation technology fall
within age categories of 41–50 years. The outcome of the analysis
of years of farming experience in Figure 3 shows that (86.3%) of
the respondents had between 6-20 years’ experience, and this imply
that greater majority had sufficient years of irrigation experience.
In the same context,  adduced that gravity irrigators have
more years of experience in harnessing irrigation water (12 years)
comparable to other alternatives.
Figure 4 unveil the household size of the respondents revealed
that majority (55.5%) had 6-15 household size, and having 6-20
occupying (75.2%) implies that greater majority had adequate
household size to curtail labor costs to be incurred. Conversely,
 found that both the farmers that have access River Basin Development
Authority facilities and those without access, have approximately
4 household members. The findings of education in
Figure 5 adduce that (62.4%) had Islamic education and (23.1%)
had primary and secondary education respectively, an indication
that, more than two-third (85.5%) had limited western education
to be conversant with irrigation practices that posed serious
threat to food security. On the contrary view, study in Mississippi,
USA by  found that more than half (65.6 percent) of the irrigation
farmers had Bachelor degree. Lack of western education
by the greater majority of farmers’ impede appropriate understanding
of irrigation techniques. Consequently, result in Figure 6
document that very close to two-third percentage (72%) doesn’t
partake in any form of farmers’ group. The absence of group participation
denied farmers’ access to information and other institutional
supports in terms of loans facility to boost production,
as current government and foreign interventions are channeled
through group approach. On the other hand, group involvement
provide trust and embrace of technology due to peer influence. In
line to this, a research conducted by  reported that membership
in water organizations upsurges the likelihood of adoption indirectly,
because its effects are mediated through subjective norms.
Findings in Table 2 illustrate farmers source of irrigation farming
information, which inferred that input dealers are the most
reachable source (34.2%) followed by farmer groups (25.6%)
and Family/Friends (23.1%). Surprisingly, extension agents was
amongst the least sources that negate the theoretical assertion
that extension contact is related to adoption of innovation .
This has connection with gross shortage of the extension personnel
in the study area, as attested by the respondents’ that there haven’t
functional extension agent designate to the project. This concurred
with empirical studies of  cited in  reported that
the extension agents/farmer ratio in Katsina State to be 1:4000.
That is far above the UN global standard of 1:500–800 and FAO
1:1000 for ease of coverage .
In the same vein, appearance of farmers groups as the second
most information source become obvious, taking into cognizance
of near to two-third (71.8%) of the respondents’ were not actively
involve into any farmers’ group, and hence, they have no alternative
than seek knowledge from this affiliations, since previous
findings outlined the efficacy of such participations in terms of access
to institutional interventions in terms of loan facilities, as well
as a source of farmers’ information . Furthermore, the finding
of the varieties of crops farmers’ cultivate in Table 2 infers that under
cereal crops, maize growers are the larger (18.8%), whereas,
groundnut producers assume the leadership under legume crops
(13.7%). Furthermore, onion emerge on top (12.4%) amongst
vegetable cultivators. The result corroborate with empirical discoveries
of  and  affirmed that, similar to rain fed production,
farmers also cultivate multitude of crops during irrigation
farming. Consistence to this,  documented that drip irrigation
farmers’ in Ethiopia, cultivated tomato, onion, cannonball cabbage
and garlic. Whereas, in Ghana, combined sweet potato, cucumber
and green pepper. As in the case of Tanzania, they produced Chinese
cabbage and African nightshade.
Result of the analysis in Table 3 on crop yield indicate that
farmers’ obtained substantial outputs. Under cereal crops, maize
has the highest 93,694Kg (936.94) bags. Followed by beans that
belongs to leguminous crops having an outputs of 39,592Kg
(395.92) bags. On vegetable crops the highest yield goes to onion
34,992Kg (269.17) bags. This milestone of production outcomes
achieved is attributed to steady water supply free of charge, couple
with subsidized fertilizer among others. Consistence to this,
is the study by  revealed that the enhancement of irrigation
access and input supply have considerably facilitate yield increase
of farmers in China. Additionally, Table 4 displays incomes accrued to farmers’ from the sales of various crops. Within cereal crops,
beans has the highest generating income of ₦15,836,800.00. More
so, onion generated the highest turnover from vegetable crops
₦8,717,965.00. It is pertinent to note that, the sum of Sixteen Million,
One Hundred and three Thousand, Six Hundred and Ninety
Two Naira (₦16,103,692) were expended in the course of production,
while, Seventy Eight Million, Four Hundred and Forty Three
Thousand Five hundred and Ninety Five Naira only (₦78,443,595)
accrued in the producers coffers. Efforts to curtail food insecurity
via irrigation augmentation has been steadily progressing, considering
the substantial yield and revenue accumulated within one
growing season, and if other production constraints are ameliorated,
the fortune of the irrigation farming families and the country
could reach an enviable height. This corroborate with a research
in India by  claimed that access to irrigation in rural areas
boosted households incomes. In line to this, research conducted in
Northwestern Ethiopia by  established that irrigation farming
has overwhelmingly enhanced the lots of smallholder farmers in
respect to revenue generated, leading to high purchasing power
and wellbeing of their livelihoods.
Conclusively, the study provides knowledge on the effect of irrigation
farming on farmers’ yield and income, provide inferences
to stakeholder in formulating future research policy direction on
irrigation investment in the study area and beyond, as well as to
informed farmers on the fortune associated with the enterprise
for embracing it enthusiastically. The findings unveils that male
and youthful age dominate production, while, respondents have
adequate years of experience and household size to cater production
and it further reveals that, more than two-third have neither
had western education nor partake in farmers’ cooperative. The
outcome also indicate that the major sources of information were;
input leaders, farmers’ group and friends/relative, and the least
were extension agent, radio and mobile phone respectively. The
analysis equally portrays that farmers cultivate a wide range of
crop varieties in mixture of cereals and vegetables. Furthermore,
the result documented that farmers’ obtained a substantial yield
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