Smallholder Farmers Perceptions and
Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change in
Tamiru Bezabih Sisay*
Debre Tabor University Faculty of social Sciences. Debre Tabor, Ethiopia
Submission: December 30, 2019; Published: August 17, 2020
*Corresponding author: Tamiru Bezabih Sisay, Debre Tabor University, Ethiopian, Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Faculty of Social Science and Humanity, firstname.lastname@example.org and Phone no 0910810401
How to cite this article: Tamiru B S. Smallholder Farmers Perceptions and Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change in Ethiopia Review. Agri Res & Tech:
Open Access J. 2020; 25 (1): 556288. DOI: 10.19080/ARTOAJ.2020.25.556288
The objective of this review on Smallholder farmers perceptions and adaptation strategies in case Ethiopia. Smallholder households obtain livelihoods through the rural labour market, self-employment in rural non-farm economy, migration and rain-fed agriculture. Agriculture is the major source of rural livelihoods. Climate refers to the average weather and represents the state of the climate system over a given time period. Due to natural variability and human interventions, there is increase in the emission of the greenhouse gases reflecting variation of the mean state of weather variables including temperature, precipitation and wind. Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are more important for their ability to trap heat from the sun and create atmosphere that supports the life on Earth. However increasing levels of these gases is the cause of global temperatures, resulting in the most severe ecological crisis that earth has witnessed in the whole of human history. Adaptation is adjustment in ecological, social or economic systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli and the effects or impacts. This term refers to change in processes, practices or structures to moderate or offset potential damage or to take advantages of opportunities associated with changes in climate. It involves adjustment to reduce the vulnerability of community’s regions or activities to climate change and variability. Adaptation is important to climate change issue in two ways- one relating to assessment of impacts and vulnerabilities, the other of the development and evaluation of response options. In Ethiopian diverse type of e climate adaptation strategies considered crop variety; improve crop and livestock, soil and water conservation practices and irrigation. The main factor influence to farmers’ adaptation strategy climate changes such as group of age, family number or size, farm profits, farm dimension, distance to the farm, distance to the market, access to credit, livestock holding, farm to farm extension and access to climate information is basic one. The crucial barrier to type of weather transform altered copy on the farmers’ side are luck of knowledge, lack of capital, lack of sufficient land and luck of information. Therefore, future policy should focus on awareness creation on climate change to adaptation through different ways such as mass media and extensions, encouraging informal social net- works, improving the availability of credit and enhancing research on use of new crop varieties are more suited in different agro ecological zones.
Agriculture is the dominant sector of the economy in most of least developing countries. Ethiopia is one of the developing counties in which agriculture is the main source of the Economy. It contributed 41.6 percent to GDP, 60 percent for employment and 80 percent for export earnings. This sector is expected to have a base and primary determinant for GTP. In line with this environmental conservation it plays a great role in sustainable economic growth and development. The issue of climate change stands at the heart of this transformation agenda. Currently the issue of climate is one of the key agenda worldwide. Ethiopia is highly vulnerable to climate change and low capacity to adopt
and perceived. Climate change is a natural phenomenon which influences agricultural production and negative effect on the social and economic activities and lead to food insecurity in particular . According to IPCC  Africa is one of the regions that will be hard hit by the impact of climate change like increasing in temperature and reduction in rainfall. Agricultural production and food security in many African countries could be affected by climate change and variability. By 2020 some countries rain-fed agriculture could be reduced by up to 50 percent, with smallholders being the most affected. The impact of climate change could be reducing the economic growing in some parts of Africa and these effects are expected to get worse. This implies that reduction in agriculture production of the smallholder farmers
and would be further adversely affected food security. To sustain
current levels of food production and to meet future challenges
smallholder farmers` may have to respond to the impact of climate
change using an adaptation strategy. Climate change affects
all aspect of economic growth especially in least developing
countries. To reduce the impact of climate change and enhance
food security, adaptation measures are urgently required. The
process of adaptation options is needed to be location, integrated
and flexible. This climate change affects to all agricultural sector
in a multitude way. For example, changing weather pattern
such as heavy flood and storms makes the agricultural production
low and leading to extreme events of poverty and slow down
economic development. In general, there is a relationship between
climate vulnerability, poverty and food insecurity .
Moreover, adaptation is critical and necessary in developing
countries, especially in Ethiopia where the fact that vulnerability is
high. Most people of livelihoods and living standard are affected by
the impact of climate change. Farmers with better knowledge and
information on climate change and agronomic practices enable
to use adaptation methods to cope up with change in climate and
other socioeconomic conditions . A better understanding of the
local dimensions of climatic change is also essential to develop
appropriate adaptation measures that can mitigate the adverse
impact of climate change. Therefore, awareness of the potential
benefits from adaptation is an important issue. According to
Deressa et al.  increasing temperature and rainfall variability
in different part of Ethiopia were adversely affect the agricultural
production of the rural household farmers. To minimize the impact
of climate change on stallholder farmers’, adaptation strategy is
vital instrument. The main critical points such as social, economic,
technology and environmental trends are able smallholder
farmers to perceive and adapt to climate change. In addition,
knowledge by itself on the adaptation method and factor affecting
farmer’s choice of the adaptation strategies are enhancing efforts
directly towards tackling to the impact of climate change. (ibid)
By understanding all of these facts, effort should focus on
finding mechanisms in which smallholder farmers can reduce
these problems and improve effort to strength smallholder
farmers’ adaptation to climate change. Generally, it is believed that
the adaptation strategy of smallholder on agriculture to climate
change is imperative to enhance the resilience of agricultural
sectors. Agriculture is the major driver of economic growth
especially in developing countries. Ethiopia is one of the least
developing countries in which majority of its population depend
on agriculture sector. Raising the agricultural production at the
national level leads to improve overall economic growth and
development. However, currently climate change has become a
serious threat to sustainable economic growth . The impacts
of climate change have been adversely affecting the economic
growth. These impacts affect all economic sensitive sectors
especially agriculture sector. Ethiopia is a poor country and its
economy is highly depending on agriculture which had failed to
meet the growing food demand. This is due to the fact that the
negative effect of climate changes on agricultural production .
Moreover, According to Deressa  Ethiopian agriculture sector is
negatively affected by climatic related disasters with drought and
flood being the major one. Adaptation is an essential strategy to
enable farmers to cope with the adverse effect of climate change
and variability which in turn increase the agricultural production
of the poor farm households . Similarly, knowledge of the
adaptation methods on the side of smallholder farmers may make
it better to tackle the challenge of climate change .
Climate change is unexpected impact because it is a natural
phenomenon that varies with location, socio economic and
environmental conditions. The capacity to adapt to climate change
is unequal across and within societies. This fact implies that the
adaptation measures at micro level farm household are important
to get truth and appropriate policies. According to Maddison 
there is a difference in the propensity of farmers living in different
locations to adapt. Farmers in different area or agricultural zone
have unequal propensity and capacity to climate change impact
and adaptation. According to Admassie et al.  in-depth study
on vulnerability and adaptation should continue. To address this
studying one specific site area is appropriate
Climate is a thin sense more often than not distinct as
the standard weather or more rigorously, as the arithmetical
explanation in provisions of the indicate and unpredictability
of appropriate quantity over a stage of time from months to
thousands or millions of years. Climate change refers any change
in climate over time through natural variability or as a result
of human activities [2, 12]. Climate change refers a change of
climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human being
activities that alter the composition of the global atmosphere and
which are in addition to natural climate variability observed over
comparable time period. Africa is highly stressed, low adaptive
capacity and easy vulnerable to climate change. The main penalty
of this negative impact of weather change or present climatic
hazards are poverty, unequal access to resources, food insecurity,
globalization trends, social and political conflicts and incidences of
diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS. This impact
of climate change presents a substantial challenge to regional
agricultural development. The sub Saharan Africa country are low
adaptation mechanism and vulnerable to the widespread effect of
climate change. According to IPCC  increase in global average
temperature above the range of 1.5-2.50 which is negatively
influences species distribution and survival. In most of developing
country where the majority of the population has the dependence
on natural resources-based livelihoods, this can an crash on
socio economic and difficulty to the overall threats to sustainable
The agricultural sector remains at the centre of developing
countries’ economies. It plays significant role in food safety for
all human being. In spite of their developmental significance,
the rural communities are also characterized by poverty and
marginalization, which aggravate and are aggravated by the effects
of climatic variations, seasonal changes and uncertainty caused by
climate change. According to FAO , farmers in some regions may
benefit temporarily from the effects of CO2 emissions in the form
of higher yields, the general consequences of climate change are
expected to be adverse, particularly for the poor and marginalized
who in turn, constitute the main inhabitants of rural agricultural
communities. The main reason is that, the rural agricultural
communities are dependent on the fragile agricultural activities
for their means of livelihoods and they are located in areas of high
environmental risk and climatic exposure and easily affected.
Moreover, the subsistence of these communities is largely
resource-based. More intense and uncertain weather patterns
and extreme events such as floods and droughts contribute to
deforestation, desertification, land degradation, depletion of
water sources, infrastructural and social damage, among others.
This erodes not only local income but ultimately the ability of rural
agricultural communities to respond to the challenges posed by
a changing climate. This makes rural agricultural communities
a priority in the design of innovative climate change responses.
In addition, climate-smart agriculture, contributes to the
achievement of sustainable development goals. It integrates the
sustainable development of economic, social and environmental
by jointly addressing food security and climate challenges.
It is composed of three main pillars:
a. Sustainably increasing agricultural productivity and
b. Adapting and building resilience to climate change;
c. Reducing and/or removing greenhouse gases emissions,
Climate-smart agriculture is an approach to developing the
technical, policy and investment conditions to achieve sustainable
agricultural development for food security under climate change.
The effects of climate change on agricultural systems create a
compelling need to ensure comprehensive integration of these
effects into national agricultural planning, investments and
programs. The Climate-smart agriculture approach is designed
to identify and operational sustainable agricultural development
within the explicit parameters of climate change FAO .
There are different ways of classifying the climatic systems of
Ethiopia, including the traditional and the agro-climatic zone in
classification systems . The most commonly used classification
systems are the traditional and the agro climatic zones. According
to the traditional classification system, which mainly relies on
altitude and temperature for classification, Ethiopia has five
climatic zones. The agro-ecological classification method is based
on combining growing periods with temperature and moisture
regimes. According to the agro-ecological zone classification
system, Ethiopia has 18 major agro ecological zones, which are
further subdivided into 49 sub agro-ecological zones. These agroecologies
are also grouped under six major categories , which
include the following:
a. Arid zone: This zone is less productive and pastoral,
occupying 53.5 million hectares (31.5 percent of the country).
b. Semi-arid: This area is less harsh and occupies 4 million
hectares (3.5 percent of the country). Sub moist: This zone
occupies 22.2 million hectares (19.7 percent of the country),
highly threatened by erosion.
c. Moist: This agro ecology covers 28 million hectares (25
percent of the country) of the most important agricultural land of
the country, and cereals are the dominant crops.
d. Sub humid and humid: These zones cover 17.5 million
hectares (15.5 percent of the country) and 4.4 million hectares (4
percent of the country), respectively; they provide the most stable
and ideal conditions for annual and perennial crops and are home
to the remaining forest and wildlife, having the most biological
e. Per-humid: This zone covers about 1 million hectares
(close to 1 percent of the country) and is suited for perennial crops
and forests. Over these diverse agro ecological settings, mean
annual rainfall and temperature vary widely.
Agriculture is the backbone of the Ethiopian economy. In
line with this climate is the key determinant factor for economic
growth and development. This is due to the fact that most of
population in Ethiopia is the dependence of rain fed agriculture
sector. This sector is an important for the communities and also
use as an engine for the country’s economic growth.
The agriculture sector they expressed in the form of crop
production, livestock production, forestry, fishery etc. Each
of them contributed to agriculture sector, for instance crop
production is estimated to contribute about 60 percent, livestock
27 percent, forest and other sub sector around 13 percent of
the total agricultural value in the country . According to ,
Ethiopia as one of the country’s the most vulnerable to climate
change with the least capacity to respond. Indeed, Ethiopia has
experienced at least five major national droughts since 1980,
along with literally dozens of local droughts. Cycles of drought
create poverty traps for many households, constantly thwarting
efforts to build up assets and increase income. Food shortage and
famine associated with rainfall variability cause a situation of high
dependency on international food aid. And Ethiopia is one of the
biggest food aid receipt countries in Africa that accounts to 20-
30% of all food aid to sub-Saharan Africa . This is due to the fact that agricultural production in Ethiopia is adversely affected
by climate change and weather variability’s, which is decreasing
crop yield, decrease in livestock feed availability, affecting animal
health, expansion of tropical dry and expansion of desertification.
Morover, agriculture sector is the Key determinant to the life of
human being. However, it is affected by drought, floods, storms
and rainfall failures. This effect is attributed to the fact that those
factors that affect by climate change can be seriously depressing
agricultural production in the country. As a result the country
leads to shock the economy as a whole and loss malnutrition of
livelihood for the households in particular .
The effects of climate change on agricultural production of
Ethiopia is manifested through shortening of maturity period and
then decreasing crop yield, changing livestock feed availability,
affecting animal health, growth and reproduction, depressing
the quality and quantity of forage crops, changing distribution of
diseases, changing decomposition rate, contracting pastoral zones,
expansion of tropical dry forests and expansion of desertification,
etc. Rainfall is highly erratic, most rain falls with high intensity,
and there is a high degree of variability in both time and space.
According to IPCC , the successes and failures of crops
have always been subject to prevailing environmental factors.
Crop production is increasingly vulnerable to risks associated
with new and evolving climatic changes. These are variations
in environmental conditions that pose significant challenges to
smallholder farmers. The planet is facing more extreme weather
events, such as heavy precipitation, higher coastal waters,
geographic shifts in storm and drought patterns and warmer
temperatures. Besides, Climate change is regularly listed as a
major contributor to the food insecure state of Ethiopia and
drought remains the top priority by the government . Farmers
also reflect this in their claims that the weather is indeed different
to what it was a few decades ago . However, evidence does not
bear out any significant change in rainfall; although it has some
changes in the pattern of rainfall have been observed.
According to NMA , there has been a warming trend in the
annual minimum temperature over the past 55 years. It has been
increasing by about 0.370C every ten years. The country has also
experienced both dry and wet years over the same period. The
trend analysis of annual rainfall shows that rainfall remained more
or less constant when average over the whole county. Ethiopia is
the vulnerable country to climate variability and change due to
lower adaptive capacity, low level of socio-economic development,
high population growth, inadequate infrastructure and lack of
institutional capacity and heavy reliance on natural resourcebased
socio-economic activities which are highly climate sensitive.
The country will experience an increasing level of temperature
and precipitation in the coming decadence.
The heavy rainfall and temperature patterns in the different
regions in Ethiopia and the differences in the level of socioeconomic
development implies that the regions differ in their
vulnerability and adaptive capacity to changing climate related
hazards. According to Deressa T, Hassan M, Ringler C  found
that Afar, Somali, Tigray and Oromiya regions more vulnerable
to climate change than other rigion of the country. The study
revealed that Afar and Somali is attributed to their low level of
rural service provision and infrastructure development and that
of Tigray and Oromiya to the higher frequency of drought and
flood, lower access to technology, fewer institutions and lack of
institutions. This increasing frequency of droughts and floods
have negatively affected agricultural production, demonstrating
agriculture’s sensitive to climate change.
According to World Bank  in Ethiopian context agriculture is
the dominant sector of the economy. It contributes near half of the
GDP and for the vast of majority of the employment, for generating
income, foreign currency and also supplying basic needs of food
security. Even though, Ethiopia is highly vulnerable to climate
variability and change. Due to the fact that highly depend on rain
fed and traditional practices in major part of the area.
Over the upcoming year all models agree that temperature
will be enlarge in Ethiopia, model predict precipitation give
contentious grades of both rising and decreasing Precipitation.
Similarly, According to the World Bank  Climate change is
projected to reduce yields of the wheat staple crop by 33% in
Ethiopia. This amounts to a serious threat to food security and to
the achievement of major developmental goals.
Hence, there is a strong observable link between climate
change variations and overall economic performance. The
models predicting future climate change scenario in Ethiopia put
conclusion that temperature will increase in the coming decades.
However, there is conflicting results concerning the predicted level
of precipitation . There is constant, decreasing and increasing
level of projected precipitation level are generated using different
models. According to NMA  indicate that temperature will
increase in the range of 1.7- 2.1C0 by the year 2050 and 2.7-3.4C0
by the year 2080 over Ethiopia. The country will experience an
increasing level of temperature and precipitation in the coming
decades. However, it stated that a small increase in rainfall can
be expected. Studies indicate that Ethiopia in the coming year
will face a decrease in agricultural production due to the adverse
impact of climate change and variability’s .
This suggests that agricultural production as an engine of
growth and development and vulnerable to climate change and
climate variability. While the more pronounced effects on crops
and livestock are likely to materialize in later decades, efforts
to enhance the resilience to climate shocks of crop yields and
livestock production should be improve, this mechanism become
increment in agricultural output and lead to achieve the overall
objective of Ethiopian growth and transformation plan.
There are diverse definition of adaptation to climate change.
These definitions are given as follows. Adaptation - Adjustment
in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected
climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploit
beneficial opportunities. Various types of adaptation can be
distinguished, including anticipatory and reactive adaptation,
private and public adaptation, and autonomous and planned
Adaptation - Practical steps to protect countries and
communities from the likely disruption and damage that will
result from effects of climate change. For example, flood walls
should be built and in numerous cases it is probably advisable
to move human settlements out of flood plains and other lowlying
areas…” (Website of the UNFCCC Secretariat). Adaptation -
Is a process by which strategies to moderate, cope with and take
advantage of the consequences of climatic events are enhanced,
developed, and implemented (UNDP, 2005). All these three
definitions differ from one another in several ways. First, all are
used different words to describe the definition of adaptation.
The first key words in the definition that express adaptation as
‘adjustment’, ‘practical steps’ and ‘process’ can be interpreted
differently by various stakeholders. ‘Process’ seems to be a very
broad and open-ended term that does not include any particular
time or subject references and can easily incorporate
‘steps’ and ‘adjustments. ‘Adjustment’ seems to imply a process
that leads toward some standard or goal. These seemingly small
differences might create different expectations from different
stakeholders, depending on the meaning of the term that they
decide to use.
The IPCC provides a broad definition by distinguishing various
types of adaptation (e.g., anticipatory, reactive, public, planned
adaptation, etc.) and focuses not only on technical adaptation
measures but also on institutional responses. The IPCC definition
also includes adaptation of natural systems not just human. One
can already see that some stakeholders (e.g., community-based
adaptation practitioners) use a more technical interpretation
of the term (the one closer to the definition from the UNFCCC
Secretariat website), while others (e.g., adaptation policymakers)
use a broader definition and emphasize the institutional/policy
side of adaptation. These varied interpretations could have serious
financial implications. Adaptation and mitigation are two split
policy responses to climate change. Both are; however, basically
linked. Mitigation is needed to reduce the impacts and allow for
adaptation to takes place, for ecosystems these boundaries are
generally narrower than for human systems. Because mitigation
measures will not be able to immediately avoid global warming
, adaptive measurements will be needed to avert the negative
consequences of climate change at the short term. On the longerterm
mitigation measures will be able to avoid further warming or
even reduce the effect.
There are many different strategies that the farmers can
implement to reduce the risk of climate change impacts. Farmers
use different adaptation strategies that fit with the types of the
problems caused by climate change they faced. This is due to the
fact that impact of the climate change is unevenly distributed over
different geographic areas and hence the adaptation mechanisms
also vary with types and level of the impact of climate change.
Therefore, adaptation strategies that the farmers used to reduce
the impact of climate change in different way: for instance changing
crop variety, changing planting dates, mix crop and livestock
production, decrease livestock, moving animals/temporary
migration, change livestock feeds, soil and water management,
planting trees, change from livestock to crop production, change
animal breeds, seek off-farm employment, planting short season
crop, and irrigation/water harvesting are among some of the
several strategies available to enhance social resilience in the face
of climate change [7,26].
Adaptation strategies are differing among individual farmers
depending on their capacity and willingness to adopt. There are
factors that are restricting adaptive capacity and willingness to
adopt as a potential source of limits and barriers to adaptation.
The main constraints and barriers to adaptation are biophysical,
economic, social, and/or technological in nature. According to FAO
 Climate change has strong impact on the agricultural sectors
and forestry by modifying or degrading productive capacities and
by directly and indirectly increasing the risks associated with
production. Due to the fact, most of developing countries are
particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change.
In coming decades, millions of people whose food and livelihood
security depends on farming, fishing, forests and livestock-keeping
are likely to face climatic conditions that are unprecedented in the
history of agriculture. To sustain current levels of food production
and to meet future challenges adaptation is often underestimated
by the international community. Climate-smart agriculture seeks
to maximize benefits and minimize negative trade-offs across the
multiple objectives that agriculture is being called on to address:
food security, development, climate change adaptation, and
mitigation. The key elements include increasing productivity and
resilience, reducing GHG emissions or enhancing sequestration,
and managing interfaces with other land uses. Climate-smart
agricultural options will in many cases be sustainable agriculture
practices that take into account the need for climate change
adaptation and mitigation. Increasing productivity and the
resilience of agricultural systems to climate change impacts,
both from extreme events and slower-onset changes, as well as
enhancing agricultural adaptation by altering exposure, reducing
sensitivity, and increasing adaptive capacity, are considered
fundamental to the continued viability of agriculture sector .
Information on climatic condition very important in order to
response the impacts of these changes. Therefore understanding
the linkage between climatic condition and socio-economic
activities are essential method to minimize impact of climate
change. The understanding of adaptation to the impact of climate
change can be decrease the adverse effect of climate change at
the presence as well as for future climate. Adapting to present
climate is not the same as adapting to future climate change. The
responsible bodies can be learned from the past for the future
about adaptation options and the process of their adoption. this
is due to the fact that the responsible body can be learn from the
past satiations. Studies of adaptation to current climate also make
it clear that human activities are not now always as well adapted
to climate as they might be. In the development context, therefore,
a prudent adaptive response to the threat of climate change may
be to improve adaptation to existing climate and its variability,
including extreme events. Improving adaptation to current
climate variability is not an alternative to preparing for adaptation
to longer term changes in climate. It is an adjunct, a useful first
and preparatory step that strengthens capacity now to deal with
future circumstances  cited in Muleta, . Adaptation is
initiatives and measures to reduce the vulnerability of nature
and human systems against or expected climate change effect.
There is various type of adaptation, for example anticipatory
and reactive, private and public, and autonomous and planned.
Adaptive capacity is intimately connected to social and economic
development, but it is uneven distributed to the societies. There
are a lot of limitations that barriers the effectiveness of adaptation
measures. The adaptive capacity is depending on the community
productive bases, capital asset, social network, human capital and
institutions, government, national income, health and technology.
But societies with high adaptive capacity may be vulnerable to
climate change . Agricultural sector is adversely affected by
climate change and variability. This can minimize the negative
impact by using adaptation strategies like adjustment of planting
and crop variety, crop relocation, improved land management (e.g.
erosion control and soil protection through tree planting) [29-54].
In spite of this disparity in the perceived direction of changes in
these elements of climatic change, the adaptation strategies such as
different crop variety and improve crop and livestock are the most
commonly practiced adaptation strategies to climate change by
the households. These includes lack of knowledge, lack of capital,
lack of sufficient land, lack of information and unobserved climatic
related problems are the major ones. In addition, lacks support
from the governmental body as well as not giving emphasis by the
farmers themselves are also among the barriers to climate change
adaptation in the study area. For instance, age of the household
head has positive effect on the probability of farmers to use soil
and water conservation adaptation strategy to climate change. An
increase in age of the household head, increase the probability of
farmers to use soil and water conservation adaptation strategy.
On the other hand, a family size of the household has positively
influence on the probability of farmers to use crop variety and
irrigation adaptation strategies. An increasing in family size
of the household head, increase the probability of farmers to
use different crop variety and irrigation adaptation strategies.
Similarly, the household income from farm is also positively
effects on the probability of farmers to use irrigation and soil and
water conservation adaptation methods. An increase in household
income from farm, increase the probability of farmers use irrigation
and soil and water conservation adaptation methods. Farm size
of the household head has positively influenced the probability of
farmers to use crop variety adaptation strategy. Moreover, Access
to climate information has also positively influence the probability
of farmers to use soil and water conservation strategy to climate
In addition, access to credit, farm to farm extension and livestock
size are positively determines the probability of farmers use
different crop variety and improve crop and livestock adaptation
strategies to climate change. Distance to the farm and distance
to the market are also positively influence on the probability of
farmers no to adopt any adaptation strategies to climate change.
On the other hand, distance to the farm is negatively determine
the probability of farmers to use improve crop and livestock
adaptation strategy. Besides, Social and physical infrastructure
should be improved and institutions dealing with climate related
issues including the meteorology agency be strengthened to
increase adaptive capacity and also access climate information
is very crucial for pre-informing the farmers about the future
weather condition. Therefore, in this case the role of metrological
agency is very worthwhile in communicating information about
weather condition to the farmer using different mechanisms like
radio and/or television. This awareness creation effort should
be combined with the different types of crop and livestock
production and management practices that farmers could use
different adaptation mechanisms to climate change. Policies
aimed at promoting farm-level adaptation need to emphasize on
the crucial role of providing information on better production
techniques and enhancing farmers’ awareness on climate change
to enable farmers adapt to climate change. In addition, addressing
the climate related problems calls for the government as well as
NGOs working on this issue to first tackle the barriers to climate
change adaptation in the study area.
These include provision of the necessary capital inputs at
reasonable price, initiating the farmers to give emphasis for the
issue of climate by creating detailed awareness about the causes
and consequences of climate change as well as the adaptation
methods together with continuous follow up from agricultural
extension officers. For example, provisions of material and
technical support for the farmers necessary to tackle the adverse
impact of climate changes. Moreover, Government policies should
support the provision of access to education, credit, extension
services on crop and livestock production, and information on
climate and adaptation measures are necessary to better cope with
climate change in the study area. Additionally, policy interventions
that encourage informal social networks i.e farm to farm extension
services can promote group discussions. This is very necessary for
farmers to share experience, information and knowledge among
them. Therefore, policy program which is intended at reducing the
climate related problems should also focus on accessing improved
inputs such as better seeds, improved livestock and fertilizer to
farmers with fair price. In addition, provision of crop and livestock
insurance has very crucial role in supporting the smallholder
farmers to recover from risks against climate related problems.
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