Production of Broccoli on No-Tillage and
Darley Tiago Anunes*,Santino Seabra Júnior, Franciely Silva Ponce, Marcio Roggia Zanuzo, Claudia Lima Toledo,Douglas Dos Santos
Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso – UFMT, Brazil
Submission:September 06, 2019Published: October 14, 2019
*Corresponding author:Darley Tiago Antunes, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso – UFMT, Brazil
How to cite this article:Darley T A, Santino S J, Franciely S P, Marcio R Z, Claudia L T, Douglas D S. Production of Broccoli on No-Tillage and Surrounding Range.Agri Res& Tech: Open Access J. 2019; 22(4): 556220. DOI: 10.19200/ARTOAJ.2019.22.556220
The broccoli (bráassic oleracea var. ittheLica) is a kind of great consumer demand and attractive price to producers in Mato Grosso. The present Work had as objective to develop a cultivation system using no-tillage and surrounding range, aiming to improve the production of broccoli. The experiment was conducted open Field and between the period of17/07/2016 to 31/12/2016.In the plots were evaluated the presence and absence of the surrounding range with Sorghum broom (sorghum vulgare) and in the subplots were evaluated four soil covers on no-tillage of Millet (pennisetum Glaujizz), sorghum (sorghum bicolor), Crow’s foot grass (elusive indica), fallow (spontaneous species) and conventional cultivation with soil revolting. The parameters evaluated were fresh mass of leaves, stem and inflorescence (production - kg Plant-1), inflorescence and stem diameter at inflorescence insertion (cm), number of leaves and visual aspect index of Inflorescences. The type of soil cover did not influence any of the evaluated parameters. The use of the surrounding range provided better results for fresh stem mass, inflorescence diameter and fresh inflorescence mass.
Keywords:Brassica oleracea var; ItalicsL; Tropical horticulture; Ground cover; Cultural practices
Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italics) is a species that awakens cultivation interest to the olericultures of the state of Mato Grosso, mainly due to its high market price in the state Seabra, et al. This species despite being originated from the Mediterranean, being, therefore, adapted to mild climate conditions, in Brazil is being cultivated in tropical climate regions, presenting good performance Production (Seabra et al. Antunes et al. . This confirmation was ACCABY Lalla et al. , Seabra et al.  and Seabra et al. Antunes et al.  you emphasize that in Regions tropical crops, genotypes should be cultivated that present thermotolerance, aiming at obtaining quality inflorescence for the market. A problem faced in the cultivation of vegetables is soil management, which due to intensive conventional tillage, revolting with plow, grid and enchantment, cause environmental damage and Mainly soil loss due to erosion, as well as degradation of organic matter and reduction of fertility.
Conservation practices such as minimum cultivation and no-tillage have been studied in order to improve the chemical and physical properties of soil, cycle Nutrients, break cycle of pests and Diseases, Consequently decreases the breakdown of soil particles, contributing to the increase and maintenance of porosity, conservation of moisture and reduce the temperature of Soil, factors that can provide better conditions for the plant to express the productive performance. The use of roofing plants has
influenced the productivity of vegetables due to contributions in soil quality, mainly by chemical and biological processes Pereira [3-4] Rossi , and due TO weed suppression Gomes . In Mato Grosso, research on no-tillage has significantly influenced the productivity and quality of B-rocolis and Face, presenting promising results, compared to the system Conventional, mainly when cultivated on the cover of species such as grasses Nespoli & Silva [6,7].
Another factor influencing the production of vegetables in the and Stood is the incidence of pest’s rotundas of monoculture soybean and maize Vargas [8,9]. In this way, employment of FAI surrounding Basin the cultivation environment has the ability to Reduction Zir Pest Infestation and Increase the presence of natural enemies, and this brings advantages such as increased productivity, quality of Crops and reduction of the use of pesticides, producing more food Health and decreased cost of Production PICI [10,11]. The adoption of agronomic practices, which aim at a more sustainable cultivation environment, such as crop rotation, consortia, no-tillage or minimum cultivation, green fertilizers and the use of a surrounding range (plant barrier), Has the ability to promote the balance between insect pests and natural enemies, by providing the development of a more complex agroecosystems with a FUNCTIONAL biodiversity Michereff Filho . The present Work had as objective to develop a cultivation system using no-tillage and surrounding range, aiming to improve the production
The experiment was carried out in Nova Mutuum-MT, in
the experimental area of the Campus of the State University of
Mato Grosso -Unmeet, which is located in the south latitude 13,
05 ‘ 04 “and longitude West 56 º 05 ‘ 16”. The soil is classified as
Oxazole dystrophic yellow red EMBRAPA, (2013). The climate is
of the type Aw (Koppel), tropical, with rainfall concentrated in the
summer (October to April). The average annual rainfall is 1900
mm and the average temperature is 26 °C Nogueira . During
the experiment, the average daily thermal amplitude was 12.64
ºC, and the temperature averages were 32.9, 20.2, 26.5 °c, for
maximum, minimum and mean, respectively (Figure 1).
The experiment was carried out with Salinas Hybrid
Broccoli® from Sakata and the treatments were arranged in splitplots
in randomized blocks with four replications. In the plots
were evaluated the presence and absence of the surrounding
range with Sorghum broom (sorghum scoparium cavadas ) and
in the subplots were evaluated four soil covers on no-tillage of
millet (Pennisetum glaujizz L. B. R.), sorghum (sorghum bicolor
L. Moenc), Crow’s-foot grass (eleusine indica L. Gaertn.), fallow
(spontaneous species), and conventional tillage with soil tillage.
During the experiment, the average relative humidity was 73.34%
and the accumulated precipitation in the period was 1189mm
Each parcel unit consisted of 2.7 x 3.0m, being conducted
in two beds in the dimensions of 1.2 x 3.0m. The seeding of the
cover species was performed at 88 days before the broccoli
transplantation, and sowing in spaced lines of 0.30m, using 40kg
ha-1seed for Millet CV. Adr 300, 30kg ha-1for sorghum CV. ADV
200 and 20kg ha-1for the chicken foot grass cv. ANPG 207. The
cutting of the species used for soil cover was performed on Day
05/10/2016, totaling a CYCLE of 82 Days After Sowing (DAS). The
surrounding range was sown on the same day of implantation of
the species of soil coverings, which was implanted in 15/07/2016
and had three cultivation lines in the spacing of 0.50 m between
line, with a population of 5 plants m-1 and surrounded , the parcel,
with distance of 5 m of the parcel without surrounding range. The
soil presented the following physical characteristics S (0-20cm):
Sand 82.5%, silt 3.7%, clay 13.8%, and chemical: PH (CACL2)
= 6.9; H + Al = 1.2 Comic DM-3; Al = 0.0 cmolc DM-3; Mg = 1.0 cmolc DM-3; Ca = 3.8 Cmolc DM-3; K = 0.04 cmolc DM-3; P = 99.7
mg DM-3; CTC = 6.0 Cmolc DM-3; V = 80%; MO = 15.0 g DM-3.
The planting mineral fertilization was performed by applying the
doses of Thirty of them Kg ha-1of N, four of them 00Kg ha-1of P2
in the The Five of them and48Kg ha-1from K2 in the O, using as a
source the urea(44% N), potassium chloride(58% K2O)and Simple
superphosphate(18% P2O5),the fertilization was performed
aiming at a productivity of 30 T ha-1, Second Ribeiro .
The Semirural of broccoli cultivar Salinas was carried out
in 25/08/2016, in plastic cups of 300 milliliters filled with
commercial substrate Vivato® and were maintained in Nursery
seedlings until they reach the appropriate size to be conducted in
the openfield. The transplant of the seedlings was performed on
day 11/10/2016 when they reached3 to 5 definitive leaves, with
about 47 Das. The plants were transplanted in double spacing
of 0.8 m between double lines, 0.5 meters between lines and 0.5
m between plants, totaling 30,769 plants ha-1. The pit where the
seedlings form packed, possessed Dimensions of approx. 25 cm
deep and 15 cm in diameter. The irrigation used after Transplant
was sprinkling with Santino -type hoses installed in between
lines, with an approximate distance of 2.5 m between the hoses.
Soil moisture was controlled through the use of metal acoumeter
tensiometers to maintain soil tension at 15 kPa at 0.2 m depth
Tangune . For the cover fertilization, 120kg ha-1 of N and 192kg
ha-1 of K2 were used, using urea (44% n) and potassium chloride
( 58% K2O) respectively, divided into seven times throughout the
cycle (8, 15, 24, 35, 43, 54 AND 62 days after transplantation -
DAT). Foliar fertilization was also performed with b-acid (17%
B) and ammonium molybdate (54% Mo) at concentrations
of 1g l-1 and 0.5g L-1, respectively, applied at 15, 30 and 45 DAT
Ribeiro et al. . The following parameters were evaluated:
fresh mass of leaves, stem and inflorescence (production, kg plan
t-1), inflorescence and stem diameter in inflorescence insertion
(cm), number of leaves and visual aspect index of Inflorescences
Seabra. During the experiment, the rainfall data, air temperature
and relative humidity were measured daily with the assistance of
the Campbell Scientific automatic Meteorological station, which
is equipped with rain gauge CS 700 pluviometer, and is located
10 meters from the experimental unit. The collected data were
stored in the internal memory of the equipment DATALOGGER
model CR1000. In order to provide a better understanding of the
data presented, as well as to sharpen the comprehension under
the adaptability of the hybrid studied under tropical climate
conditions, Pearson ‘s correlation was applied to the data of
Massa Fresca calls, Diametric of inflorescence and Massa Fresca
of inflorescence, for Better understanding of the aspects affecting
plant development. The harvest of Broccoli began on the day
16/12/2016, extending until the day 31/12/2016, comprising
a harvest period of 15 days. In Order to combat pests in culture,
insecticides were used recommended for the same. For data
analysis, they were subjected to analysis of variance (F test) and
the averages compared by Tukey test at 5% probability, using the
program (software) Assistat Silva; Azevedo.
Despite the occurrence of elevated temperatures in the
cultivation environment (Figure 1), there was inflorescence
emission in most plants. These temperatures (Figure 1) are much
higher than those indicated as ideal for the species, according to
Trevisan , the ideal average temperature for the development
of broccoli is from 15 to 18 °c with a maximum of 24 °C, according
to schiavon , the Plant growth is paralated with temperatures
above 28 °C. However, the genetic improvement of broccoli has
obtained genotypes with higher thermotolerance as evidenced by
the results of Schiavon & Melo [17,18], Lalla , Seabra & Antunes
. This fact has enabled production in tropical conditions at
different times of the year. The incidence of prolonged periods of
temperatures higher than 25 °c may interfere with the incidence
of flowering, the development of inflorescence, inflorescence
size, quality parameters as the occurrence of Hollow stalk,
bracts in the inflorescence, can also increase the productive cycle
and the incidence of diseases Trevisan . However, Seabra.
Obtained good productivity indices even under high temperature
conditions, with averages varying from 19.2 to 33. 4, considered
high for the crop. Antunes  who obtained satisfactory indices
of productivity in high temperature conditions, with Misdays from
21.25 to 38.67 °c for Maximum and minimum respectively, with
Cultivation in a protected environment. The soil cover species did
not provide significant differences for all the variables analyzed,
but the surrounding ranges provided better performance for the
parameter Massa F Resca do caule (Table 1). The type of soil cover
did not provide significant statistical difference for the parameters;
Fresh Pasta Total (MFT), Fresh Stem Mass – MFC, Fresh Leaf Mass
(MFF), Plant Diameter (DP), Number of Leaves (NF)and Plant
height - (AP). Plants cultivated under the effect of the surrounding
range were more, but these tendencies were not observed for the
other parameters (Table 2). Means followed by the same letter
in the column do not differ from each other by the Tukey test
(P<0.05). The production (G plant-1) obtained was inferior to the
results found by Cecílio  who developed Their study in Itatiba-
SP from March to July, and obtained average productivity between
430.08 and 706.56 G plant-1; Lalla  cultivated IN a large-MS field
between June and September obtained mean values of 99.2 to
568.7 G plant-1; the author Seabra who develops Ram His research
in Cáceres – MT in the period from June to September, reached
averages of 150 to 964 G plant-1. In relation to the inflorescence
diameter (DI), there was statistical differentiation between the
treatments with the presence and absence of the surrounding
range in the cultivation environment, with which the environment
with the surrounding range was superior. Recent studies
conducted by Lalla. , Seabra & Schiavon , obtained higher
results in the inflorescence diameter. The highest results may be
related to the conditions of culture development. In cauliflower,
another Brassica, with similar behavior to broccoli, Zanuzo .
Verified a positive correlation of the inflorescence diameter with
stem diameter, leaf area, biomass and fresh weight.
The Visual Aspect Index (IAV) is considered an important
parameter for assessing the quality of broccoli inflorescence, as it
is directly related to the acceptance of consumers to the product
when commercialized Seabra et al. Not There was a significant
difference between the treatments used for this parameter,
where the cultivar Salinas presented acceptable indexes of visual
appearance of the inflorescence, even in adverse conditions of
cultivation, among them the incidence of high Temperatures
and precipitation according to Figures 1 & 2. The production
performance of the hybrid reached productivity values lower than
the minimum achieved by Cecílio  who developed his STUDY
in Itatiba-SP and demonstrated a promising production when
compared to the Authors Lalla  who implanted their study in
Campo Grande-MS and Seabra who carried out their experiment
in Cáceres-MT, this demonstrates the production capacity of the
hybrid in high Temperatures, through its Thermotolerant CIA
The mean crop cycle was 128 Days After Sowing (DAS),
requiring 113 days for inflorescence emission. These data are
of great importance as to the knowledge of the culture and
its responses to the adverse conditions, and thus improve
the applicability of its cultivation in the production systems.
Andstudo de farnham and Bjorkman , demonstrates that
the abiotic stresses suffered by culture directly affect their cycle
and productivity. Although no difference was observed for most
of the parameters studied, it was observed that the treatment
surrounding range was better than the without surround in
some aspects, being directly related to productivity, making
it a good Alternative in the production of single inflorescence
broccoli in unfavorable periods of cultivation. In regions with
tropical climate, it is remarkably common to observe that during
the process of adaptability of the studied materials there is an
increase in the number of leaves and, consequently, of the leaf area
Zanuzo ; Da Penha Ribeiro . This physiological response
of the plant is interpreted as compensation and/or advantage of
the photosynthetic adaptation apparatus to maintain or establish
the fresh weight of the inflorescence. Pearson’s correlation was
applied on the data of Massa Fresca of the Caules, DIâmetro of the
Inflorescence and Massa fresca inflorescence, with the purpose
of presenting the existence of a correlation between these three
variables, and can be presented as a characteristic of adaptability
of the crop to the conditions of cultivation which were submitted
Through the analysis of the correlation of the parameters
presented above, a moderate correlation was obtained for
the hybrid in all aspects analyzed. In the study developed by Brandeleroi , carried out in the CITY of Pato Branco-PR, in a
dystrophic red latosol and climate considered as humid subtropical,
it was At the Pearson correlation to analyze the data, and observed
that the highest linear correlation was obtained between the
head mass and the canopy of the part area D The plant, showing
this way the Relation of the production of inflorescence with the
number of leaves and leaf area of the plant. Given the above , it can
be concluded that the surrounding range provided greater fresh
mass of the inflorescence, possibly resulting from the action of
the surrounding range As for the possible reduction of insect pest
population in the cultivation environment, this fact is described
by the author Medeiros et al. (2010). Zanuzo  verified the
positive correlation of the diameter of the inflorescence with the
stem diameter, leaf area, biomass of the disc and mass Fresca of
cauliflower plants. In Cauliflower, another similar brassica in
behavior to broccoli. During the conduction of the experiment, the
incidence of elevated temperatures was observed, as shown by
Figure 1. This factor was crucial for the decrease in the quality of
the inflorescence. This aspect contributed positively to the authors
‘ assertionLalla  and Seabraet, who affirm that Temperature
High S area limiting factor for production. The accumulated
precipitation in the period was the main limiting factor of the
production (Figure 2), with the decrease of productivity and quality
of the inflorescence. The characteristics analyzed for harvesting in
general can vary greatly according to the genetic material adopted
in the study, as well as the climatic conditions found, and other
factors considered uncontrollable. The data of this study present a
great variation and discrepancy regarding the data found by other
authors cited above, this is due to the climatic conditions observed
throughout this research, where there was the occurrence of high
temperatures Accompanied by the incidence of pests and diseases
throughout the crop cycle, however it was possible to obtain
acceptable and promising results considering the environmental
conditions of cultivation [22-44].
The type of soil cover did not influence any of the evaluated
parameters. The use of the surrounding range provided better
productive performance in Broccoli. Despite the climatic
conditions that did not favor the development of culture, the
cultivar sendu inflorescence and end or cycle, thus showing that
the material It has thermos tolerance for cultivation in the region.
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