Contribution of New Korean Rice Varieties to Food Security for Households in the Senegal River Valley
Amadou Abdoulaye FALL,Ph D*
1Researcher at the Senegalese Institute of Agricultural Research (ISRA), CRA de Saint-Louis, Senegal
Submission:August 01, 2019Published: September 19, 2019
*Corresponding author:Amadou Abdoulaye, Researcher at the Senegalese Institute of Agricultural Research (ISRA), CRA de Saint-Louis, Test Garden, Saint-Louis, Senegal
How to cite this article:Amadou Abdoulaye, Researcher at the Senegalese Institute of Agricultural Research (ISRA), CRA de Saint-Louis, Test Garden, Saint-Louis, Senegal.Agri Res& Tech: Open Access J. 2019; 22(4): 556213. DOI: 10.19130/ARTOAJ.2019.22.556213
Rice farming in Senegal relies on small family farms and plays a crucial role in meeting food needs. However, local supply is insufficient and threatens food security in terms of availability, stability and accessibility. This justifies the generation and dissemination of Korean technologies aimed at increasing rice production. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of the project on small hold farmers’ food security. The treatment effect method was used with the double difference approach following a baseline study in 2015 on a random sample of 1200 households in the Senegal River Valley. The study shows that the project led to a 22% increase in yields and an 18% increase in rice production, with an impact of 19% on income from rice cultivation, which accounts for 62% of total household income. This produced an impact of 236,087 CFA francs or an increase of 34% on average household income with a very significant statistical difference. This impact is 22,256 CFA francs per capita and 31,371 FCFA per equivalent adult (UEA). The impact on food consumption is 293 kcal/UEA per day and induces a reduction of 10% in households at risk. The impact on income has also increased the means of managing health needs. As a result, the producers have benefited greatly from the productivity gains in rice production induced by technologies. This highlights the crucial role of bringing innovations into rice production. The policy decision makers must develop strategic options for the widespread dissemination of these innovations in order to improve income and reduce food insecurity in rural areas.
Rice has become the staple diet of Senegalese people. The change in the country’s rice consumption has increased from 70 kg per head in 2008 to 90 kg in 2016 . Now, the gap between domestic rice production and demand has negated efforts to seek self-sufficiency and even food security. Rice farming plays a major role in meeting the food needs of a population that is growing at a rate of 3% per year . However, it relies on small family farms with a medium cultivated area ranging from 0.25 to 1 ha  and representing more than 85% of producers . Thus, it is a major strategic commodity in the state’s macro-economic policy options to ensure domestic demand, but also to increase the income and level of food security of small hold famers. It is in this context that ISRA, in collaboration with Africa Rice and the KOICA Cooperation Program, introduced and released 15 new varieties and good farming practices in 2015. This research program, which aims to strengthen the varietal portfolio and good farming practices, aims to increase the income and well-being of small hold producers in the Senegal River Valley.
Food security is defined as everyone’s access to a healthy and sufficient diet at all times as to live healthy . The complexity of this concept lies in the fact that it involves both national and international scale, starting from the capacity and political will of the state to deal with it. With the globalization of markets, food security relies on tripod whose first ensures adequate availability of food supply at both national and local levels. This availability is used for domestic consumption or to generate export earnings. The second is the stability of this availability in time and space. The last is the accessibility of food, materially (whether produced or available in the locality) or in monetary terms (access to products through income). National governance or agricultural policy frames this. These dimensions show that food insecurity can result from a combined effect of several factors. In other words, food security revolves around national food production in healthy conditions and that disadvantaged sections of the population retain adequate access to food. This is why ISRA/KOICA project introduced innovations to maximize the level of productivity whose purpose is to seek food security for small hold famers.
The goal of this study is to assess the impact of these Korean
innovations on income and food security of targeted populations.
With the extent and heterogeneity of the study area, multistage
sampling method was used. These stages are elaborate
steps to select basic observation units (household) where the
requirements of representativeness are respected. The first stage
is devoted to the identification of study areas and sites with a
reasoned choice based on the knowledge acquired (target areas of
the KOICA project and control areas with the same features).Thus
in the Senegal River valley, the areas of delta and lower-middle
valley were chosen. At the delta zone, project targeted villages are
Mboubène, Mbagame, Ndombo Thiago and Dagana, while Gaya
and Bokhol represent the control villages. In the lower-valley,
the village of Guia is the site of the project, while Ourro madi,
Fanaye and Donaye represent the control villages. Following the
reasoned choice on study areas and sites, the second step is to
randomly select 1200 households at a rate of 600 per zone, 50%
of which are for target villages and 50% for control villages. For
each zone, the sample size in each group is distributed among
the selected villages in proportion to their size. The overall size
of the study sample is divided between 600 households having
access to project innovations (demonstration tests, field visits or
training session and/or access to varieties, seeds and equipment)
and 600 households without access to the project’s innovations.
A questionnaire geared towards the collection of information on
new technologies released was administered to household’s head
(technology-exposed) and control (unexposed) as to assess the
impact of the adoption of improved technologies on income and
The analysis of food security uses a structural dimension
that reflects the ability of people to meet their food needs, either
through sufficient and sustained local production or by the
possibility of generating in a sustainable manner income stake
allowing them to acquire food. The food must therefore be available
and accessible in a sustainable way. Therefore, the inability of
populations to independently compensate for the effects of a
cyclical imbalance is linked to an environment that demonstrates
the inherent vulnerability of the considered populations. This is
measured by the degree of permissiveness to food, health and/or
resource allocation in the environment due to the combination of
negative physical-climatic, economic and/or social factors. Thus,
the complexity of the factors requires a three-tiered vulnerability
a. the level of satisfaction of the household’s food
consumption needs or consumption profile,
b. health care needs or health profile and
c. the state of the property conditions -be expressed
in terms of the endowment of equipment and real estate
sustainable strengthen the household’s investment and
The consumption profile of each household is determined by
its nutritional calorie consumption requirements (kcal) per adult
equivalent unit (UEA). It is a question of assessing the calorie
consumption requirements of each household member by age
and gender (Table 1). According to the African Food and Nutrition
Research Office (1993), the required standard is estimated at 3000 kcal corresponding to the real need for a healthy life per equivalent
adult per day under Senegal’s conditions. However, 80% of this
standard (or 2400 kcal) is considered a minimum acceptable
requirement. Thus, after estimating the resources available at the
household level to achieve this standard, is declared a household
at risk, any household that will be below this threshold of 2400
The second level is the coverage satisfaction of health
needs, while the last indicator assesses the level of endowment
of equipment and sustainable goods that shows the state of the
household’s living conditions. These three strata combined with
available household resources are used to analyze the effect
of meeting food security needs. The resources available at the
household level are the level of agricultural production, income of
all sectors including agricultural, and equipment and real estate
in the year under review. This allows us to estimate the level of
real household income decomposed per capita and per equivalent
unit, etc. Thus, the household’s real income level determines its
potential capacity to meet its multiple needs, including calorie
satisfaction for a healthy and normal life, but also good health
coverage. The analysis is at the community level of beneficiaries
and control households.
The basic problem with the impact assessment is the
construction of unobserved counterfactuals. The introduction
of the ISRA/KOICA research project cannot affect all potential
populations in the valley. Thus, individuals in the target
population are divided into two categories: (1) individuals treated
by the project or beneficiaries and untreated individuals who did
not have access to project innovations. In order to describe this
situation econometrically, the treatment effect method is used.
This is to specify a binary variable w that will take the value 1
when an individual is treated and 0 when it is not treated. When
an individual is treated, we will denote the outcome result by Y-Y1,
while when the individual is not treated, we will have Y-Y0 [3, 4].
The impact and adoption of innovations of the ISRA/KOICA project
are estimated with the average treatment effect (ATE).The binary
variable w=1 represents the case where the individual is being
treated and is not treated w=0. The average impact of adoption in
the treated subpopulation is given by conditional value, which is
by definition the average treatment effect on the treaties (ATT).
Since we observe y_1 for households treated or exposed to project
Where P(w=1) is the probability of access to technology.
Thus, once ATE, ATT and the probability of exposure, P(w=1)
are estimated, we can obtain from (1) the non-exposure bias
=P(w=1)×ATT-ATE; the expected bias using the sample’s average
adoption rate based on knowledge and access to the technology.
The doubly robust regression method was also used to estimate
both the average effect of the program on beneficiaries and the
average effect of the treatment. In the project frame, a baseline
study was conducted on two populations with the same
characteristics, one of which was targeted and the other a control
or untreated group. Thus, the second passage (end of the project)
allows to use the double difference approach. The method is to
compare a treatment group with a control group (first difference);
and both before and after an intervention (second difference)
. The impacts of the intervention, according to this method,
are estimated by calculating the average difference in outcomes
between treatment and control groups after the intervention
minus the average difference in outcomes between treatment and
control groups before intervention (Table 2).
Several technologies have been disseminated as part of
the ISRA/KOICA research project. It consists of 15 new ISRIZ
varieties, seed production and distribution, the introduction
of small agricultural equipment for tillage, transplanting and
protection. It also focused on technical capacity building sessions
on good cultural practices with the “School Fields” approach
or demonstration fields at the five-level target villages: Guia,
Mbagame, Dagana, Ndombo Thiago and Mboubène. This two-year
project (2015- 2017) had an overall goal of contributing to rice
self-sufficiency by developing new rice technologies that could
boost the productivity of small hold farmers.
The acreage analysis shows that the
average usable area is 2.77 ha in raining season and 1.17 ha in
the hot dry season. Nevertheless, the project had no impact on
usable areas with a non-significant statistical difference (Table
3). However, a positive and relatively significant impact was
achieved on the areas actually exploited in 2017. The project had
to improve the area exploited by 69% with a level of significance
of 6.3%. This indicates a positive result with a relatively significant
statistical difference (less than 10%) . The descriptive acreage
statistics show the positive evolution of the areas exploited in
previous years compared to the areas that can be exploited at the
target zones between before and after project (Table 4). In terms
of usable areas, there is a decrease between the two periods, on
average from 8.06 ha to 7.5 ha, for respectively before and after the project. This produces the same trends between target and
control households during the raining season. However, the study
reveals an increase of 24% in usable lands in hot dry season for
target households after the project (from 0.89 ha to 1.13 ha).
This highlights the general trends of more embalming acreage in
hot dry season in the Senegal River valley at the expense of the
raining season that used to be the main rice-cropping season.
Several reasons were raised, including the high presence of pest
birds, delays in input credits access, long periods of heat, etc. This
debate raises a call for research. In terms of cultivated land, there
is a dynamic increase in both target and control households across
both periods. The area exploited increased by two percentage
points among control households and by four percentage points
among project beneficiaries. This increase justifies the impact of
the project on rice acreage with a statistically significant difference
of 1%. For control households, the difference in averages is
not significant. This shows that innovations induced for target
households have motivated the expansion of the rice-cultivated
area leading to intensification.
In the areas of the ISRA/
KOICA project, rice production increased by 18% in the target
areas compared to the control areas with a statistically significant
difference at the 5% significance level (table 5). Similarly, rice yield
levels increased by 22% from 5.5 t/ha to 6.72 t/ha on average in
target households. This difference is statistically significant at 5%.
This suggests that technologies introduced on rice have affected
acreage expansion, production and yield. These small hold
famers had an average yield of 5.72 t/ha below the valley average
estimated at 6.5 t/ha. With the various initiatives, they were able
to level and even be above the regional average in two years. Thus,
the project has had a strong impact on yields and has encouraged
the extension of the embalming and thus to the improvement
of production. These producers have benefited greatly from the
increase in rice productivity induced by the technologies and good
agricultural practices introduced by the project as to improving
level of production and food security .
The results of the project recorded an estimated average
household income of 694,372 CFA francs (Table 6). The study
reveals that the ISRA/KOICA research project improved the
average household income level by 34% with a very significant
statistical difference to 1%. This result confirms that the project’s
progress has greatly improved the average household income
in its actions to improve the households’ livelihood and to fight
poverty. The net effect of the project reveals an increase of 19% in
rice income to targeted populations with a statistically significant
difference. This is justified by the increase in rice production and
acreage induced by the project. In fact, rice income accounts for
62% of the total household income and any increase has a positive
effect on overall income. This shows the importance of rice in the
composition of household income. Thus, the improvement drivers
in real household income need to be more focused on rice farming
activities. On the other hand, other types of income (farm incomes
other than rice, non-farm incomes) are not statistically different
between target and control households. This indicates that the contribution of the project’s innovations has greatly benefited
rice cultivation. In fact, the technologies introduced by the project
open up prospects for increased revenues from rice sector through
higher yield and expansion in cultivated area.
With an estimated average household income of 694,373 CFA
francs, the driven income from rice farming has increased by 19%
with a significant statistical difference induced by the project.
Reported per capita (Table 7), the average income of the target
group is 246,825 CFA francs, slightly higher than the national
average income estimated at 244,000 CFA francs . The control
group has a lower income of 201,427 CFA francs per capita. This
implies 18% difference, or less than 46,398 CFA compared to
treated group with a relatively significant statistical difference.
However, compared to the poverty line estimated at about $1.25
per day (228,125 CFA francs/year), it appeared that the majority
control households still live below threshold poverty. The average
income per equivalent adult (UEA) is 249,904 FCFA in 2018 for
the project beneficiaries and 244,904 FCFA for non-beneficiaries
with relatively significant statistical difference. This means that
the UEA income for project beneficiaries is 5,182 FCFA or 3%
higher than non-target populations with a statistically significant
difference. The overall analysis showed that the project has had a
positive impact of 236,087 FCFA or 34% more than the average
household income with a significant statistical difference. The
impact is 20,637 FCFA on per capita income and 27,251 FCFA
on UEA income with a relatively different statistical difference
The research project was introduced to help reduce food
insecurity by sustainably increasing rice production and incomes.
According to the results of the study, the project would have
a positive impact. This impact is reflected in both the level of
meeting food consumption needs and the ability of producers to
meet their health and other non-food needs. The situation differs
between target/non-target communities and indicators [10-14].
Coverage of food consumption needs
Level of caloric consumption: According to the results,
households across the study area consume an average of 2,964
kcals per adult equivalent unit per day in 2018 (Table 8). The
consumption level was 2,777 kcals in 2015 before the project
starts. As a result, the level of kcal consumption has improved
by 15%. Nevertheless, it remains below the optimal standard
required of 3,000 Kcal per equivalent adult per day. However, it
is 13% above the minimum threshold of 2400 Kcal of acceptable
satisfaction. Indeed, any equivalent adult that is at least 80% of the
3,000 kcals required, or 2400kcals, is at an acceptable minimum
. This shows that households surveyed overall have made a
qualitative leap in improving their level of consumption. However,
this overall picture masks large variations at the community level
between target and no-target households of the ISRA/KOICA
Coverage of food needs has varied widely between households
benefiting from the ISRA/KOICA project and non-beneficiaries
(Table 8). At the time of the baseline situation in 2015, the
level of coverage of food needs had no significant statistical
difference between target and non-target households. This
indicated good targeting of the sample with target and target
households characteristically similar. With the introduction
of new technologies in the project, surveys show a significant
improvement in Kcal consumption of beneficiary households
compared to non-beneficiaries. Indeed, the study shows that
beneficiary’s households consume an average of 2,951 kcal per
UEA/day. This induces an increase of 19% in calories compared
to before project (2,390 kcal/UEA/day in 2015). Non-target
households consume on the other hand, 2587 kcal per UEA per
day. Although they have improved their level of consumption since
the baseline study by 10%. However, the consumption level is
less than 14% of the required optimal standard of 3000 kcal. The
beneficiary’s households are below 2% of the optimal standard
and well above the acceptable standard of 2,400 kcal.
The study shows a gain of 364 kcal/UEA/day of beneficiary
households with a very significant statistical difference (Table 8).
Recipient households have benefited from the productivity gains
induced by the project to improve their level of food coverage
from crops and incomes. Indeed, a good part of the needs (53%)
is supported from purchases through increased income and
production. Rising rice production has significantly improved
coverage of household calorie consumption requirements. The
intake of calories in household diets comes from basic products
for 58% (mostly from harvest), condiments for 23% and animal
products (19%). During the reference situation, commodities
contributed 4% less, while condiments and animal products
contributed 1% and 3% more, respectively, than in 2018.
This rich intake of basic products (especially rice) and market
garden products (onion and tomato) highlights the diversity of
opportunities to satisfy food security in terms of the availability
of consumption products. Although the beneficiary households
are generally in favorable conditions, the fact remains that
47% of them are at risk. The minimum consumption of the
beneficiary group is 2,106 kcal/UEA/day (13% above the 2400
kcals minimum acceptable). This situation is mostly induced by
the low level of their resources (land, capital, inputs, etc.) and
agricultural equipment to maximize the gains from the project.
Thus, despite the efforts made, food insecurity niches remain at
the level of recipient households that need to be further supported
to mitigate their vulnerability. Nevertheless, the majority of
target households (53%) are in a satisfactory situation with the
introduction of innovations, 31% of which are at very satisfactory
levels that are above the optimum standard. The study shows an
increase of 7% in the category of households at very high levels of
satisfaction compared to those who are non-beneficiaries with a
highly significant statistical difference (Table 8).
Among households not benefiting from the project, the
average level of consumption per UEA/day is 2,587 kcals.
Although their level of consumption increased between 2015 and
2018, the vast majority of these households (57%) remains at risk
with consumption levels ranging from 1,874 to less than 2400
kcal/UEA/day. This indicates that the vast majority of control
households fail to ensure the acceptable minimum. In 2015, the
vulnerable households in non-target group represented 55%, so
roughly the same as the target group. Despite limited access to
large cultivated areas, they diversify less their crops. In addition
to at-risk households, the survey indicates that 19% of control
households manage to meet their minimum acceptable calorie
requirements (2400 kcal/UEA/day), while 24% of them are above
the 3000 kcals per UEA/day required. In the non-beneficiary
community, the self-consumption represents 51% of calorie
intake, driven from lower yield levels induced, among other
things, by the absence of innovations. In this consumption, cereals
represent 54% of calories intake; and by animal/fish products
(22%) and condiments (24%).
Impact of project on food consumption: The situation before
and after project of beneficiary and control households shows a
clear food consumption improvement induced by the project.
The study reveals that the impact of the introduction of new
project innovations has led to an additional 293 kcal per UEA/day
(Table 9). The increase in exploited areas of 69% and rice yields of 22% justifies the improvement of the availability of consumer
goods, particularly rice from beneficiary households. Similarly,
the project has greatly improved the level of food insecurity for
beneficiary households. As a result, the number of households
at risk in 2015 (55%) improved with project support. Currently,
only 47% of beneficiary households are still in a critical situation,
while 57% remain so for non-beneficiary households. The study
shows that the project resulted in a 10% reduction in households
at risk and an 8% increase in moderately satisfactory households
with a statistically significant difference (Table 9). However, the
impact of the project on the consumption of households with
very satisfactory food situation knows by the double difference,
an increase of only 2% with significant statistical difference at the
5% significance level. This shows a leveling in the vulnerability
of households with a large reduction of households at risk to
households with moderately satisfactory consumption. The
introduction of innovations showed a positive effect of the project
with a 10-point decrease in the level of vulnerable households.
The health status of populations is
also perceived as a good indicator of quality of life or food security.
It constitutes the primary condition of resources or investment
capital at the household level. Thus, the level of health status of
household members reveals the perception of the quality of its
human resources. The survey found that in the last 4 weeks before
the interview, more than 92% of households recorded sick or
injured, and 75% of whom consulted in the whole area (Figure
1). This indicates a high rate of patients for a period of one month.
These results vary, however, depending on the beneficiary status.
At the community level, 97% of the control households had to
report sick and injured patients against 86% of the beneficiaries.
Unlike in 2015, they were in the same proportions, for respectively
94 and 93%. In care, the beneficiary households consult the most
a health agent (79% among beneficiary households against 71%
among non-beneficiaries). This indicates an increase in the level
of health agent consultations for 15% of beneficiary households
and 10% for non-beneficiaries compared to the reference year.
Although the average consultation rate has changed positively, the
fact remains that, overall, nearly 25% of patients did not consult
a health agent. The main reasons (Figure 2) that justify the lack
of consultation of households that have registered patients in the
whole study area, are for the most part the lack of resources (43%),
followed by the use of traditional practitioners or non-treatment
drug availability (14%). These results show the vulnerability of
rural populations with the constant increase of diseases during
raining season, but also the relatively low level of consultations.
At the community level, the lack of means and the unavailability
of drugs contributed significantly to the lack of consultation
among non-beneficiary households, while lack of resources and
consultation to traditional practitioners are the main raison for
the target households. The non-availability of drugs and their high
cost represent respectively 14 and 11% in the whole sample. The
absence of consultation also results from long queues at the level
of the health posts.
The health expenditure analysis shows a relatively average cost
of 8,480 CFA francs per month per household in all communities.
This level shows more sustained patient management compared
to the baseline year when it averaged 6,043 CFA francs. This
expenditure ranges from an average of 8,650 F for target
households to 8,310 CFA francs for non-target households. This
estimate made it possible to make a household typology based on
the satisfaction of the level of coverage of health expenditure per
patient at the level of targets and non-target households (Table
10). The majority of target and non-target households manages
to cover their health needs moderately. More than a third of all
households are adequately covered. Although health costs have
increased, households have improved their health coverage.
Overall, 28% of households are at risk with fewer households at
risk in target households (26%). The satisfaction of health needs
was greatly facilitated by the 19% increase in income generated
by rice production. Indeed, the level of health spending has
increased, as has the level of consultation. It is recalled that the
ISRA/KOICA research project has not focused on health. However,
the induced effects of the project contribute to the improvement
of production and income that can support health needs. Indeed,
health conditions contribute to a better quality of life and therefore
food security. It is shown that care appears to be reported in
at least one-third of households. However, from one-third to a
quarter of households as well targeted as that non-target, fails to
cover properly their health needs. This trend is also similar to that
of baseline in 2015.
Nevertheless, there is a slight improvement in the case of
households at risk at the project target household level (26%).
This indicates that rising incomes and the level of employment
in households are factors of stability in people’s living conditions.
However, much remains to be done for a significant change in the
correct management of health needs. Nevertheless, measures such
as the Generic Bamako Initiative have indirectly contributed to the
decline in health spending. Indeed, lower drug costs are a factor
in the proper management of diseases. Indeed, lowering drug
costs is one factor that contributes to the correct management of
diseases. There is also the strong presence in the area of traditional
medicine. The use of the latter with low costs access, especially in
rural areas, also leads to reductions in health expenditure.
of household equipment and durable goods levels is illustrated
in Table 11. This information shows that most households
are of modest to poor type. The most striking element is that
house materials are less than 4% made of concrete / cement
for all households. At the study area level, the strong presence
of zinc materials (54% of households) and zinc (37%) shows
the peculiarity of rurality in Senegal. This is also evident in wall
materials made of banco for 43% of houses and straw for 17%.
These particular signs are those of the rural habitat. Households
in the study area retain this rurality with a strong presence of
zinc roofing and mud wall materials. In overall study areas, most
households are poorly endowed with durable goods. The average number is 10 durable goods at the household level (Table 11).
Thus, in the sample as a whole, control households have an average
of 10 durable goods against 11 households in target households.
This information shows that most households are modest to poor.
For target and non-target households, this particularity in
sustainable equipment and goods remains almost the same.
There was no change between the two passages (baseline and
current study). In roofing materials, it is noted that 55% of
target households are in zinc, 32% in straw, while in non-target
households, only 52% are zinc and 43% are straw. In terms of
wall materials, the majority of target households (48%) are in
banco and 35% in cement. This shows a slight habitat format
to modernity in target households. In non-target households,
the dominance of banco walls is still observed, but for 36% of
households. The rest constitutes of is shared cement wall materials
for 33% of households and straw for 23% households. The nature
of these types of habitat most often characterizes the poverty
profile. Indeed, households, the wealthiest of these localities, are
gradually adapting to the type of so-called modern or “urban style”
housing. However, housing per se is not the most important for
many rural populations who maintain the traditional architectural
aspect for principles of cultural beliefs and amenities. This only
shows, that this indicator can mislead in stratification according
to wealth. However, it is one of the indicators of the level of
assets for several experts. The level of endowment of capital and
durable goods is another pillar in living conditions (Table 12). In
target households, those with low equipped households account
for 49%, while those with high durable goods account for 20%.
Medium-equipped households make up one third of this group.
However, in non-target households, the low-durable goods are
50%, while well-equipped households are 23%. Medium-equipped
households account for 27% of this non-target group. This
balanced distribution between the two types of rural communities
provides a fairly homogeneous and representative mapping of the
target and non-target households in the sampling. It is noted that
the project introduced two equipment per grouping in the target
villages. This equipment is collective and not individual and aims
to facilitate ploughing and harvesting rice.
the three food security indicators, it is noted that the level of
coverage of primary needs has been significantly improved at
the target household level. Project innovations spurred a 293kcal
improvement in consumption levels and increased the means to
address health needs. It is noted that in consumption, most of the kcal comes from own production (53%). The households that
emerge are those that benefit from the strong contribution of rice
production and induced income. This highlights the crucial role
of the contribution of innovations in rice production. Thus, access
to agricultural extension services, technical support, inputs and
technological innovations leads to net improvement in production.
These types of programs will help weak households to increase
their investment capacity and survival strategies. However, the
endowment level in durable goods is quite low in the study area.
Thus, the low endowment of durable goods remains a concern.
This requires programs to support agricultural equipment to
strengthen rice farmers’ productive capacity. In sum, while income
levels are improving, the majority of households are still at risk in
the allocation of durable goods in all communities. This reveals
the vulnerability of these households in order to maximize the
opportunities offered by technological innovations. These results
also show that households are not homogeneous in rural areas.
This diversity forges differentiated dynamics and trajectories of
Satisfying caloric intake needs is important, but it is not the
only criterion for assessing the risks of food insecurity. The analysis
of the state of vulnerability calls for a multiple dimension that
reflects the capacity of populations to meet their food, health and
endowment of equipment and durable goods needs. The results
in Table 13 show a leveling of situations in the two households’
group. The proper consideration of the capacity to meet health
needs and the level of satisfaction of the needs of durable goods
reduce the level of vulnerability of households. Thus, households
at risk in the study area dropped from 52% to 43%. Overall,
households at risk for meeting their calorie needs benefit by
taking into account leveling in the management of health needs.
Under these conditions, they ensure a less vulnerable level of
global situation. This leveling affects much more the category of
average households, which register an increase of 28% with all
criteria of vulnerability, while it represents 21% in the satisfaction
of consumption food needs. At the community level, the state of
vulnerability has fallen sharply with the inclusion of the other
components. The leveling of the situations has contributed to the
decline in households at risk of non-target and target households.
At the level of beneficiary households, those at risk decrease by 47
to 40% or by 15% (Table 13). Less than a third of households are
at risk in meeting health needs. Good coverage of the consumption
needs of the majority of beneficiary households (53%) and durable
goods (51%) has improved the overall level of food security. This
leveling affects much more the category of average households,
which register an increase of 24%. Thus, average households
meeting all criteria represent 29% of beneficiary households
while they were 22% with the sole criterion of satisfaction of food
consumption needs. The contribution of improved income from
rice production has had a significant impact on the leveling of this
situation. The very high level of satisfactory household has not
changed and remained represented by 31% of households.
In the non-target households, the situation of households
at risk also fell sharply. From 57% in terms of meeting food
consumption requirements, they are currently readjusted to 46%
with all the other criteria. Although there is progress, almost half
of the non-target households remain vulnerable. They were more
affected by the high level of households at risk in consumption
needs (57%). In addition, 50% of non-target households have very
little equipment and durable goods. The slight increase is largely
attributable to health needs coverage issues for 70% of households.
The provision of resources to address health needs has improved
the level of household vulnerability. In both communities, levelling
is done from the compression of at-risk households to the benefit of households moderately satisfied with their food security needs.
The coverage rate of health needs contributes to the relative
decline in the vulnerability rate. However, the risk rate remains
high for the endowment of durable goods because half of the
households in the study area are not immune to the crisis effects.
The ownership profile of capital and durable goods tradable in a
crisis is vulnerable in both communities. This shows the need to
strengthen programs to support rural equipment.
The results of this study showed that households by
community are at varying degrees of satisfaction with food
security. With the introduction of Korean technological
innovations, recipient households have been able to increase their
level of yield, production and rice income. This has reduced the
level of vulnerability to food insecurity. It emerges gain of 364
kcal / UEA / day of beneficiary households. The latter benefited
greatly from the rice productivity gain induced by the project to
improve their food consumption needs from crops and incomes.
Thus, the level of households at risk decreased by 10% with an
improvement in the living conditions of moderately satisfactory
food consumption households. The level of project-induced rice
production and income has enabled beneficiary households
to improve their level of food consumption and health needs
coverage. This is not accompanied, however, satisfactorily by the
endowment of durable goods, which may serve as a palliative for
cyclical crises. Thus, these goods can be sold for the acquisition of
consumer goods or as incentives for increased rice productivity.
The majority of targeted as non-target households lack durable
goods. While it is recognized as necessary (e) facilitating access
to technological innovations to drive productivity momentum
for the rice sector, it is also crucial to improve the potential for
equipment and other incentives for local wealth creation. The
State must intervene to reverse the trend (access to inputs, basic
infrastructure, credit (for self-financing) and equipment...).
In addition to political reforms, a long-term solution to food and
hunger issues will depend, to a large extent, on agricultural, agrofood
research successes, and farmer empowerment. Significant
increases in spending on research and technology transfer will be
required. Improving the technical coefficients of rice production
should be a priority in order to increase the availability of
producers’ resources. Increasing rice productivity through access
to technological innovations is a fundamental aspect of the
combating against food insecurity. However, beyond technical
aspects, food security levers must also be based on the promotion
of incentives to strengthen factor endowments. Investments in
basic social factors (access to health posts, market, credit, etc.)
are prerequisites. This will participate to the contribution of an
environment conducive to development, the creation of rural jobs
and opportunities, therefore, the fixation of populations at the
level of their terroir. The territorial nature of most of these policies
does not take into account local development dynamics and
trajectories. The results of this study on the existence and the level
of vulnerability of rural households are an issue in the formulation
of homogeneous and appropriate policies and development hubs.
The author warmly thanks the Korean International
Cooperation Agency (KOICA) and the South Korean Government
for partially funding the research activities. The author also
thanks ISRA and AfricaRice for facilitating the work. Colleagues Dr
Oumar Ndao Faye (rice breeder), Dr Madiama Cissé (agronomist)
and Dr Moussa Dieng (agroforestry) are warmly thanked for
their valuable comments. Thanks also go to the collaborators and
doctoral assistants at ISRA: MM Selle Cissé Diatta, Pope Makhoudia
Mbengue, Tall Tall, Awa Bar, and Cheikh Tidiane Ndoye; and
investigators Bara Tine, Amadou Moustapha Diallo, Fatou Mbodji,
Abdoulaye Niang and El Hadji Waly Dièye.
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