Performance Evaluation and Adaptability
Study of Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum
var. durum) Varieties in Moisture Stress
Areas of East Hararghe, Oromia
Zeleke Legesse*, Fuad Abduselam and Habte Berhanu
Faddis Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia
Submission:April 22, 2019; Published: May 28, 2019
*Corresponding author: Zeleke Legesse, Faddis Agricultural Research Center, P.O. Box, 904. Harar, Ethiopia
How to cite this article: Zeleke Legesse, Fuad Abduselam, Habte Berhanu. Performance Evaluation and Adaptability Study of Durum Wheat (Triticum
turgidum var. durum) Varieties in Moisture Stress Areas of East Hararghe, Oromia. Agri Res& Tech: Open Access J. 2019; 21(4): 556174.
Seven Durum wheat varieties were evaluated at Faddis Agricultural Research Center (FARC) at Boko research station during 2013/14 cropping season. The results revealed that the tested Durum wheat varieties differed significantly for grain yield, plant height, spike length and seed per spike. Among the varieties Mangudo, Ude, Dembi and Asassa produced higher grain yield (3387.5, 3345.8, 3112.5 and 3101.4kg ha-1, respectively). Durum wheat varieties Yerer recorded maximum spike length (6.5cm) variety Mangudo recorded minimum spike length (4.5cm) whereas variety Mangudo recorded maximum seed per spike followed by Ude (58 and 54 respectively). Among the tested varieties Mangudo, Ude and Dembi recorded higher grain yields and maximum seed per spike and were good performing varieties in the study area.
Keywords: Grain yield; Durum wheat; Varieties; Cropping
Wheat (Triticum spp.) is widely produced in the highlands and mid-altitudes of Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, it is one of the major cereal crops grown between 6 and 14o N latitudes; and between 35 and 42o E longitude ranging in altitude from 1500m to 3200m. Wheat is the fifth most important cereal crop in area of production, after teff, maize, barley and sorghum and in total grain production, it ranks 4th after maize, teff and sorghum. In productivity, wheat ranks 2nd next to maize and accounts for more than 15 percent of the total cereal output. Ethiopia is the second largest producer of wheat in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is an important crop commodity, which could contribute a major part in achieving the country’s agricultural policy objective of food grain self-sufficiency
Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) and durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum L.) are the two major species of wheat cultivated in Ethiopia. Durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) is derived from a tetra-ploid hybrid of the diploid T. monococcum (einkorn) and a diploid wild grass of unknown origin . It is traditionally grown on heavy black clay soils (vertisols) of the highlands. A premium price is paid for durum wheat containing a high amount of protein. The demand for high protein durum wheat (in excess of 13%) stems primarily from pasta manufacturers inEurope, Japan and North America (ESSO Farm-Tek, 1997). Somecultivars inherently produce more protein; however, protein content is influenced more by environment than genotype. Proper fertilization may help to increase the protein levels. For example, both grain and total nitrogen uptake increased with split nitrogen applications in Ethiopia, where continuous cropping has depleted the soil .
Traditionally, durum wheat is an economically important crops used for bread, biscuits and pasta products such as macaroni, spaghetti and noodles are some of the industrial products. In Ethiopia wheat is known to be a major source of energy and protein. Traditionally, durum wheat is used for making “dabo”, “dabokolo”,”ganfo”, “kinche” and other types of food. The straw is good source for animal feed and is also used for thatching roofs. The potential of wheat will be its entry into the export market, if production is expanded and productivity is increased. This will save the foreign currency used to import wheat
However, owing to its economic importance, the area under durum wheat production has been lower as compared to bread wheat production. The reasons for this were:
a. The use of traditional production system.
b. The influence of biotic (e.g. diseases) and abiotic factors.
c. The unavailability of production inputs (e.g. improved
seeds) and/or suboptimal use of recommended packages.
In the past in Ethiopia, phenotypic-genetic variations and
environmental influence studies for disease resistance and yield
on durum wheat have been reported . It was well adapted to the
steppes or semi-arid regions, which typically have hot, dry days and
cool nights with winter rains and dry summers . It is especially
well adapted to droughty areas such as the Mediterranean region
of the Syrian wheat belt, which receives only about 300-400mm of
rainfall annually .
In Ethiopia there are also different varieties of improved
durum wheat released from research center. However, seed of
this cultivar and other cultivars were multiplied and distributed
all over the regions thus were being produced on limited scale
by the research centers and some farmers. The something is
true to Eastern Hararghe, these varieties were not produced and
known by the farmers. In the case of Faddis, it was uncommon
to grow durum wheat in the area. So, people in the area used to
grow local sorghum which took around eight months to mature
without rotating year after year. Therefore, this activity designed
to make adaptation of these different durum varieties and select
the most adaptable, high yielder and different disease and insect
The experiment was conducted on a location of Faddis district
of Boko research station of Eastern Hararghe Zone of Oromia
region. Faddis district has latitude between 8°22’ and 9°14’ North
and longitude between 42°02’ and 42°19’ East, in middle and
low land areas: altitude range is from 1200-1600m. a. s. l, with a
prevalence of lowlands. The district receives average annual rain
fall of 400-804mm; the minimum and maximum air temperature
of 20-25 °C and 30-35 °C, respectively .
The experiment was conducted in 2014/15 cropping season
at Faddis Agricultural Research Center (FARC) on Boko research
station in moisture stress areas of Eastern Hararghe zone which.
Seven (7) genotypes of durum wheat including one standard check
had been planted at Faddis on station to see their adaptability and
their yield performance [7-9].
The Experiment was laid out in RCBD design with three
replications in plot size of 3m x 4m and path between plots 1m.
The seeds were sown in row with drilling methods with a row
spacing of 25cm. The management practice had been undertaken
as per the recommendation. Data on days to 50% emergence, days
to 50% flowering, days to maturity, plant height, Average Kernel
size, protein content in the laboratory, grain yield per plot and
thousand seed weight had been collected. Disease such as leaf
spots, rusts, scab (Fusarium head blight), black point, root and
crown rots, powdery mildew and smuts had also recorded in 1-5
scale. The stands of the varieties were evaluated in team [10,11].
All agronomic data, disease and insect records had been
collected and the collected data were subjected to the analysis of
variance (ANOVA) and evaluated for significance of treatments
and the means had been compared and ranked by using Least
Significance Difference (LSD) in order to select the most adaptable
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that there was
significance difference among durum wheat varieties for grain
yield, spike length and seeds per spike tested at 5% probability
level. However, no significance difference was observed between
varieties for days to 50% heading, days to 50% flowering and days
to physiological maturity.
The analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that there was
significant difference among varieties for yield (Table 1). The
grain yield ranged from 3387.5kg/ha to 1759.7kg/ha and grand
mean of 2573.6kg/ha. The highest yield (3387.5kg/ha) was
gained from Mangudo variety followed by the varieties Ude
(3345.8kg/ha), Dembi (3112.5kg ha-1) and Asassa (3101.4kg ha-
1) while the lowest yield (1759.7kg/ha) was obtained from local
check (Kronis) variety. Statistically, significance difference was not
observed among durum wheat varieties of Mangudo, Ude, Dembi
and Asassa. The variation in grain yield of the tested varieties
showed the difference in adaptability of these varieties to the
moisture stress areas of the study. The highly performed varieties
revealed that the most adaptability to this environment
Analysis of variance revealed highly significant difference
(p<0.01) among varieties for plant height (Table 1). The plant
height ranged between 52.3cm to 83.5cm. The highest height was
given by variety “Quamy” while the lowest was by variety “Kronis”.
As the data indicated; Quamy, Asassa and Ude were taller
standing: 83.50, 78.1 & 63.3cm respectively, while Dembi & Kronis
were shorter standing: 58.9, 52.3cm respectively. Even though,
plant height has no direct relation with grain yield, the tallest
plant is important for its highest biomass which is desirable for
different purposes. From this study, spike length had no significant
effect on grain yield recorded. The shortest spike length was
recorded by the variety Mangudo but highest yield was obtained
by this variety
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that significance
difference was observed among varieties tested (Table 1). The
spike length ranged between 6.5cm and 4.5cm. The highest spike
length was recorded by variety Yerer (6.5cm) and the lowest was
recorded by variety Mangudo (4.5cm). Varieties Yerer, Kronis and
Quamy revealed the longest spike length while Mangudo and Ude
had the shortest head size respectively.
**p<0.01 (highly significant), *p<0.05 (significant) and NS (Not significant)=p>0.05, DH= Days to heading, DF= Days to flowering , DM= Days to
mature, PH= Plant height, SL= Spike length, SPS= Seed per spike and YKGHA= Yield kg per hectare.
Significance difference was recorded among the tested
materials and the seed per spike ranged between 57.67 and 36.00.
The highest seed count was obtained from Mangudo (57.67),
Ude (53.67) and Dembi (51.67) and the fewest seed count was
obtained from Kronis (36.67) and Quamy (36.00) respectively. As
the data of study indicates, seed per spike has significant effect on
grain yield and thus the highest seed per spike gave the highest
grain yield and similarly, the lowest seed per spike recorded the
lowest grain yield (Table 1).
The finding of this study showed that the durum wheat
varieties responded differently to drought stress study area. The
analysis of variance revealed significant (P<0.05) differences
in the parameters studied of all durum wheat varieties were
observed at the study area. The results revealed that the highest
grain yield and seed per spike was recorded by variety Mangudo
and while the standard check revealed the lowest. The longest
plant height was obtained from varieties of Quamy, Asassa and
Ude and the lowest was observed from Dembi and Kronis varieties
Generally, it can be concluded that Durum wheat varieties
Mangudo, Ude and Dembi resulted the best results in terms of yield
and yielding component (seed per spike). Therefore, increasing
production and productivity of farmers and improve sustainable
durum wheat in the study area these varieties were recommended
and need to be demonstrated with standard check for further
evaluation along with their improved production packages
The authors would like to thank the Oromia Agricultural
Research Institute (OARI), Faddis Agricultural Research Center
(FARC) for financing and providing working facility. We would like
also to thank Faddis research station (Boko) guard for keeping
the experimental field from different wild animals. Moreover, we
acknowledge Adane Ashebir, Amsalu Wakgari for their assistance
in field data collection
Harlan JR (1981) The early history of wheat: Earliest traces to the sack of Rome. In: Evans LT, Peacock WJ (Eds.), Wheat Science – Today and Tomorrow. Cambridge University Press, Cambridg Inglett, George-1974. p. 1-7.