Physicochemical Properties of North African
Mohamed Aroua1,3*, Bayrem Jemmali2, Samia Ben Said3, Hayet Ben Haj Kbaier3 and Mokhtar Mahouachi3
1Institut National Agronomique de Tunis, Université de Carthage, Tunisie
2ADIPARA Lab-Ecole Supérieure d’Agriculture de Mateur, Université de Carthage, Tunisie
3Ecole Supérieure d’Agriculture du Kef, Université de Jendouba, Tunisie
Submission: March 23, 2019; Published: April 17, 2019
*Corresponding author: Mohamed Aroua, Institut National Agronomique de Tunis, Université de Carthage, Tunisie
How to cite this article: Mohamed Aroua, Bayrem Jemmali, Samia Ben Said, Hayet Ben Haj Kbaier, Mokhtar Mahouachi. Physicochemical Properties of
North African Donkey Milk. Agri Res& Tech: Open Access J. 2019; 21(2): 556155. DOI: 10.19080/ARTOAJ.2019.21.556155
The present work was undertaken to study the physicochemical characteristics of North African donkey milk. Chemical composition of donkey milk was carried out for dry matter, fat, crude protein, pH, lactose and ash using an automated milk analyzer. The results showed that the North African donkey milk composition was: dry matter 9.42%, ash 0.35%, fat 1.09%, lactose 7.02% and protein 1.44%. Further research on milk production, milk functionality, and valorization, market development, and genetic selection will help to better preserve and use of donkeys.
Keywords: Donkey milk; North african; Physicochemical; Production
Abbreviations: TN: Total Nitrogen; NPN: Non-Protein Nitrogen; NCN: Non-Casein Nitrogen
The donkey is an animal that first started to localize in northeastern Africa. It was tamed in Egypt around 4000-5000 BC and in the Middle East around 100 BC [1,2]. The donkey’s milk was utilized as a breast milk substitute because for its comparative dietary synthesis unusually low casein content , and high substance of lysozyme 1mg/l . It is increasingly more used to sustain unfavorably susceptible children to dairy animals milk [5,6]. Lately, a few analysts demonstrated the impacts of donkey’s milk on atherosclerosis aversion , they additionally shown that it has an antibacterial, antiviral and antitumor effect [3,8-11]. In the end, Donkey’s milk is exceptionally utilized for corrective reasons.
In Tunisia, the donkey was utilized in homesteads for horticultural work. Donkey’s milk wasn’t valorized yet. National insights demonstrate a headcount of 123000  unequally appropriated in a Tunisian area; actually, rugged, fringes and focus districts hold most of a donkey.
Barely any examinations concerning this topic were completed, for example, which is keen on the phenotypic portrayal of donkey breeds in Tunisia,  has considered the microbiological nature of Arabian donkey milk. Along these lines, it appears to be imperative to concentrate on this species that is by all accounts
a commercial potential for Tunisian ranchers later on. For these reasons, this examination is keen on donkey milk piece of Tunisian donkey breed.
The study was conducted among North African donkeys reared in the traditional breeding system in El Kef (Northwest of Tunisia) and Zaghouan (Northeast). This breed is considered very useful in a mountainous area for agricultural work. A total of 80 records were used to analyze the milk yield. Milk samples were immediately cooled and transported to the laboratory under refrigerated conditions (4 °C).
Milk samples were analyzed for dry matter, fat, protein, ash, and lactose contents using an automated milk analyzer “Lactoscan MCC” calibrated for donkey milk. Nitrogen fractions of milk (total nitrogen (TN), non-protein nitrogen (NPN) and non-casein nitrogen (NCN)) were determined using Kjeldahl method according to the ISO 8968-1 (2014) in order to calculate casein concentrations TC = (TN–NCN)* 6.38 and whey proteins WP = ((NCN- NPN)* 6.38).
Average daily milk yield and physicochemical composition
of donkey milk have been presented in Table 1. The average milk
production of North African doneky’s breed is 0.723 ± 0.12kg. It is
higher than that of the littoral-Dinaric donkey (0.172kg)  and
the Ragusana asses (0.55kg) . The distinction in milk creation
is influenced by the genetic potential, milking number, both breed
and the reproducing season .
The dry matter (9.42%) is higher than the results revealed by
 for the Arabian donkey (8.62 %). The total unrefined protein
content (1.44%) is as per the outcomes acquired by [17,18]. It
is composed of 0.64% of casein, 0.59% whey protein and 0.22%
of NPN. Donkey’s milk three noteworthy whey protein are
β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg), α-lactalbumin (α-La) and lysozyme which
is a special additive, giving an extensive period of usability to crude
donkey’s milk . Besides, it contains immunoglobulin (Igs),
lactoferrin which has a critical antimicrobial bacterial activity
by hydrolyzing of glycosidic obligations of mucopolysaccharides
in bacterial cell walls  and lactoperoxidase which add to
improving the regular additive activity of donkey milk.
The whey protein content is a crucial part in jenny milk for its
properties in the skin maturing rebuilding process , in quieting
bothering  and lessening the frequency of gastrointestinal
diseases in new born children . The observed standard milk
fat substance is like the data detailed by  1.15% for Italian
jackass and higher than element specified for by . The solid
substance is helpful for the treatment of some atopic dermatitis
The regular lactose content (7.02%) is as per their established
by [13,17]. The high lactose content adds to the sweet taste of
jenny milk, advances the intestinal retention of calcium and
phosphorus and impacts the mineral collection in bone structure
. Donkey milk has a neutral pH (7.06), it is in accordance with
their founded by [13,17,18].
For its different healthful and functional characteristics,
donkey’s milk has been considered an exciting substitute for breast
milk; it can be the best “pharma food” for people experiencing
distinctive nourishment hypersensitivities, skin and bone issues.
These days, for its multidisciplinary, utilize, for example, beauty
care products, therapeutic and medical problems donkey milk
turn out to be increasingly more looked for which makes the
exploration of their creation likely outcomes sensible. Further, it is
required to improve rearing practices to upgrade milk generation
and potential impacts on milk quality.