Black Gold: The Best alternative in Waste Management via Agriculture
El-Jawaher A. Bin Dohaish*
Department of Biology, University of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Submission: April 01, 2019; Published: April 15, 2019
*Corresponding author: El-Jawaher A. Bin Dohaish, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, University of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
How to cite this article: El-Jawaher A. Bin Dohaish. Black Gold: The Best alternative in Waste Management via Agriculture. Agri Res& Tech: Open Access
J. 2019; 21(1): 556153. DOI: 10.19080/ARTOAJ.2019.21.556153
Vermicomposting is a modern technique in agriculture to transform different kinds of organic waste into utilizable products that contain different plant nutrients. Special types of worms are being used in Vermicomposting and in this review, we discuss the scientific results of different kinds of composting and the best choice in agriculture to get rid of waste and cultivation with vermi-worms (earthworms). In Addition, we discuss the previous studies in vermicomposting that proves it is a unique addition and a sustainable method to control waste and manage it.
The constant increase in population, urbanization and economic growth have led to a massive increase in solid wastes and pollutants . When these contaminants aren’t disposed or managed in a safe way, they cause major threats to the ecosystem in air, water, land and living organisms, which can cause serious and critical health hazards. The amount of municipal solid waste disposed of in the environment worldwide is estimated between 1.3 and 1.9 billion tons per year and is expected to rise to approximately 2.2 billion tons per year by 2025, which is considered to be a hazardous crisis and a matter of high concern .
Solid Waste Management (SWM) is characterized as a discipline associated with the collection, control, storage, transfer, process, and disposal of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in a civilized manner that best serves the environment, the public health and the economy . Globally, an outstanding amount of money goes towards waste management. Asian countries alone have spent around 25 billion American dollars on solid waste management per year in the early 1990s and the figure is expected to rise in 2025 to reach 50 billion American dollars .
Besides the increasing need of controlling waste, there has been a request for agrochemical free crops and vegetables. Since the 1960’s the green evolution relied mostly on agrochemicals, it enhanced the productivity of the crops but also severally harmed the environment and society as the health of agriculture is directly related to the public health . It destroyed the beneficial
organisms in the soils and impaired their natural fertility and pest resistance.
In the last few decades, various techniques have been introduced in association with waste management to save our environment from life-threatening pollutants as it is an essential public request and highly important to preserve our environment. One of those techniques known in agriculture is known as vermicompositing where it is an economical alternative, socially safe and sustainable.
Traditionally, worms have been used as fishing bait and a protein source for many animals. Several studies on different animals, birds, and fish have shown excellent results when feeding animals with a worm  and view earthworms as being a natural source of food for birds and other animals in the wild. Recently, vermi-worms have proven their ability in transforming waste into a utilizable product as well as their ability to be used as an excellent tool in improving the health of the agriculture due to them working as cleansers that are capable of biologically and safely degrading wastes .
Composting is a natural biological process that leads to the biodegradation of organic wastes to a stable end product known as compost which can be used for different agricultural needs. Therefore, interest in compost is considered a component of waste management as it limits the pollution caused by overusing other forms of chemical composts . Composting works on degrading all organic materials that are biodegradable as well as degrading
the polluting matter that can cause unpleasant odors which in
return would impact the ecosystem . There are various types of
composting, a few of them being; a) Anaerobic composting and b)
Aerobic composting c) vermicomposting.
a. Anaerobic composting is the degradation of organic
matter in the absence of air where the anaerobic organisms
produce intermediate compounds such as methane, organic acids
and other substances such as hydrogen sulphide . Anaerobic
composting is a low-temperature process. In Addition, the
compost isn’t transformed completely and can contain lumped
mass and compounds that are toxic to the plant.
b. Aerobic composting is the degradation of organic matter
in the presence of air where the microorganisms degrade the
organic matter producing carbon-dioxide, ammonia, water, heat
and humus  and forms an organic stable product. Humus is a
fully decomposed compose and is made up of remnants of leaves
and grass and other organic matters . Other intermediate
products are formed that are made of organic acids, although
the compost produced is of low toxicity on the plant. The heat
produced from the microorganisms and bacteria’s activities
fastens the process of breaking down the proteins, fats and
complicated carbohydrates in the plant. Thus, “Hot composting”
takes less time and therefore aerobic composting is considered
more effective than anaerobic composting.
c. Vermicomposting is a simple process of composting
where certain species of earthworms (such as Eisenia feotida and
African Night Crawler) are used to enhance the process of waste
conversion and produce a better product. Vermicompost is used
extensively due to its low price point and high efficiency .
It is a porous process where microorganisms and earthworms
are used that are active at 10-32 ºC (not temperature around
but temperature within the pile of moist organic material) and
the earthworms feed on organic waste and pass it through their
digestive system where it comes out in the form of compost known
as Vermicompost. This compost enhances the growth of plants,
reduces plant diseases, increases porosity and microbial activity
in the soil, enhances water retention capacity and aeration within
the soil [14,15]. Vermicomposting is called the “cold” composting
due to the low range of heat created during the process; and if
the temperature increased within the pile, the worms wouldn’t
continue in the vermicomposting operation .
Although there are over 3000 types of worms around the
world, only 384 types are suitable for agriculture such as Eisenia
fetida, Lumbricus rubellis [16,17], Eisenia Andrei, Perionyx
excavatus, Eudrilus eugeniae, Enchytraeids, Dendrobaena veneta,
and Perionyx hawayana. Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus rubellis
are the most often used species due to their high efficiency and
easy maintenance . They are vastly used in Vermicomposting
as well as in the form of fish bait and can be found in organic
materials such as compost or litter manures or near fresh water
and even in snowy patches .
The classification of Eisenia fetida falls under Epigeic species
and has many different names such as manure worms, tiger worms,
red wigglers, and red worms. Eisenia fetida is shortly known as “E.
fetida” and has proven to be highly effective in converting waste
of many forms such as wastewater [19,20] into materials that
can be benefited from. This species grows effectively in a room
temperature environment and normally feeds on organic materials
and wastes and converts them into utilizable materials rather
than their accumulation in the environment and food web .
Eisenia fetida was previously known as Eisenia foetida and lives in
the European continent and recently all around the world except
for Antartica due to its environmental condition. Eisenia fetida is a
red worm with a yellowish orange tail (Figure 1). Earthworms are
cylindrical in shape and have a segmented body that tapers off at
both ends. Worms have a brain and 5 hearts and a digestive system
that is responsible for the composting process. Earthworms are
photophobic, which means they’re highly sensitive to light. They
have the ability to process large amounts (almost its body weight)
of organic matters in ideal conditions. Eisenia fetida has an
effective defense mechanism where it can deplete a yellow liquid
with an unpleasant odor that makes possible predators flee away
from it .
Worms are hermaphrodites, which means they are both male
and female. However, each worm still needs another worm of its
species to mate, where each worm fertilizes the other eggs. The
fertilized eggs contain a mucous tube that slips over its head and
then into the soil through its mouth as an egg-case or commonly
known as a cocoon. Cocoons are small spherical balls that contain
various worms inside it. They are about the size of a match stick’s
head and change colors as the juvenile worms develop. It starts out
as pale yellow and before hatching, when the hatchlings are ready to emerge, the cocoons are reddish-brown. They reproduce every
7 to 10 days if they are kept in the recommended environment with
other worms for mating. The difference between the juveniles and
adult worms is their color being slightly lighter. It takes around
60-90 days for the worm to mature and would weigh about 0.55g
 and can reach 3-10cm in length. The initial worms can remain
healthy and in sustainable amounts if it is reared in a safe way .
There are various places in which vermiworms can be obtained.
Vermiworms are termed on the certain types of earthworms
that act as biological agents to consume those wastes and to
deposit excreta in the process called vermicompost. Vermiculture
is termed on the sustainable preservation of the number of worms
to receive a sustainable product . Vermicomposting is a term
of the process by which all types of biodegradable wastes such
as farm wastes, kitchen wastes, market wastes, biowastes of
agro-based industries, livestock wastes etc are converted while
passing through the worm gut to nutrient rich vermicompost.
Vermicompost is termed on the excreta of earthworm that is
capable of improving soil health and nutritional status.
a. The organic matter used in vermicomposting isn’t
considered the main factor in the process, there are other factors
that can easily effect vermicomposting such as: Carbon to nitrogen
ratio in the compost (C/N) is a significant factor. The fungi and
bacteria in vermicompost will digest or oxidize carbon as an
energy source and ingest nitrogen for protein synthesis, therefore,
carbon can be considered as the nutrimental source and nitrogen
is the digestive enzyme, which is why the organic matter placed in
the pile should have enough “food: enzyme” ratio, aka, “Carbon:
Nitrogen” ratio. The estimated measurement is 30 parts carbon
to 1 part nitrogen (30:1), which should be enough or sufficient for
the rapid composting process. However, the presence of too much
nitrogen may create ammonia gas which will create an unpleasant
smell and affect the composting process or even kill the worms
b. Moisture inside the pile is one of the make or break
factors in vermicomposting. The microorganisms in the pile can
only use organic molecules that are dissolved in water. Therefore,
the pile must contain a moisture content of 50-80%. When the
moisture level drops, the microbial activity will slow down and if
it increases above 80% it will hinder the aeration needed . The
change in moisture level (such as the manure being too soaked or
too dry) can significantly affect the safety of the worms and can
even lead to their death .
c. Aeration or the amount of oxygen present in the pile
should be carefully maintained as the decomposition takes up all
the available oxygen. Aeration means to provide a passageway
for oxygen in the middle of the pile where it is needed. Efficient
and successful decomposing can only occur with the right amount
of oxygen available for the worms. Aeration can be done with a
special tool called “Aerator” . A high rate of aeration, however,
would decrease the moisture level of the pile and increase the
temperature which would kill the worms .
d. Due to the microorganisms generating heat in the
process of decomposing, the pile can easily get overheated which
can be lethal to the worms. Thus, the temperature should be
around 15-32 °C (59-77 °F), where the worms feed most rapidly.
Vermi worms can live in temperature as cold as 10 °C although the
process would slow down while temperatures above 30 °C would
harm or even kill the worms .
e. One of the steps that would speed up the composting
process is increasing the surface area of the material to be
composted. It is an essential factor to make it easier for
microorganisms to ingest the waste material. This technique can
be done by shredding or cutting up the material into small pieces
as the increase in surface area means that the microorganisms
will be able to digest more material where the earthworms and
bacteria will also break down the matter into smaller pieces.
Materials such as bread tend to mold and cause an unpleasant
smell as well as reduce the oxygen level in the pile so it is best to
use food such as melons or cantaloupes .
f. The pH level in the compost pile depends on the
decomposition rate by the worm and the type of feed material.
Organic acids may be released during the process which causes
a decrease in the pH. The production of ammonia gas from the
increase of nitrogen level can raise the pH level. Therefore, a pH
level of 6.5 to 8.5 is suitable for the compost’s microorganisms
g. The bedding of the vermiworm is its shelter, it needs to
be comfortable and ready for the worm to keep them healthy and
safe. The bedding provides a balanced diet (waste), a moisture
filled environment, and an aerated home for the worms. It is
essential to keep the bottom of the bin covered by bedding for a
depth of at least 4-6 inches. Mixing materials for bedding would
ensure you a more successful process (such as cow dung or soil
Figure 2). Providing shredding newspaper, or using straw, or
coconut fibers (Coir) or shredded leaves mixed with soil will
provide a good source of nutrients for your worms. It is important
to use material that wouldn’t compact the bedding to avoid the
earthworm’s death .
Setting-up a bed and harvesting: There are different types
of Vermicomposting settings that depends on the intention of use,
materials used, and quantity of the worms and the location of the
composting system. A vermicompost’s bed or “pile” is the shelter
in which the vermi-worms would live, feed, reproduce and make
the end product. Thus, the bedding is a very necessary part of the
system that would determine the success or failure of the process.
Small scale vermicomposting systems: Small scale is often
called bins or windrows and their size depends on the amount of
waste that is going to be composted and the number of worms.
A small Vermicomposting bin can vary in structure material (like
wood or plastic) but should contain 1 pound of food for 1 pound of worms. The overloading of food would create a reaction (rotting of
the food) that would generate heat and potentially kill the worms.
Large scale vermicomposting system: Is used when the
quantity of worms and waste is usually enormous and requires
more space. They are usually kept outdoors or in fields.
Precautions for small and large scale vermicomposting:
Bins can be kept a) indoor or b) outdoors but certain measures
need to be considered in each case.
a. If the bin is well maintained it is going to be odorless and
thus can be kept indoors without any discomfort to the farmer or
breeder. It can be kept under the kitchen sink or in a place away
from light and possible predators while maintaining the same
b. Outdoor bins can be more suitable if there is more than
one bin or the space inside the house is insufficient. However, special
measures should be taken during outdoors vermicomposting. The
bin should be maintained in a temperature that is suitable for the
worms production at all times. The bins should be protected from
rain and wind and any possible aggressors such as rodents or
Setting up a vermicompost station requires certain steps as
illustrated by Ramnarain et al.  where he followed the famous
vermitechnique pattern by Ismail :
a. A vermicompost station can be built in a shaded area
with measurements of 10×8×3m3.
b. The vermi-worms is to be cultured in a concrete unit of
150 × 100 × 60cm3 with drainage holes (of 2 × 2cm2) to maintain
the right moisture level by draining the excess water.
c. The roof of the unit shall be made up of zinc sheets and
the bottom should be isolated with paper while the walls of the
unit would be built with wire mesh for a cooling effect and stable
d. The first layer of the compost bed can be covered with
broken bricks with 6-7.5cm thickness with sand mixed within (or
it can be substituted by sawdust or shredded dry paper mixed
with soil ). This step is essential to maintain the drainage of
water that would otherwise harm the vermi-worms.
e. The feeding material would be added days before the
worms for the “initial composition” to take place.
f. The Eisenia foetida would be added to moistened soil as
a layer of 15cm into the unit.
g. Feeding material in Ramnarain et al.  study was
cattle dung as the aim of the study was to test cow manure’s effect
on vermicompost. Some studies have used agricultural wastes
 or domestic wastes when the system is built to recycle wastes
h. The 4th layer shall consist of dry grass clippings (and rice
straw) where Ramnarain et al.  obtained it from the University
of Guyana’s Garden in Georgetown, Guyana with the thickness of
i. The unit shall be covered with layers of banana leaves (or
a jute bag as recommended by S Karmakar et al. ) to protect
the worms from direct sunlight and sprayed with water twice a
week to maintain the recommended moisture level.
j. The temperature, pH, moisture, and carbon: nitrogen
ratio should be maintained throughout the process.
Harvesting the vermicompost is considered the final step
in the process. The end product is usually black or dark brown
crumbly soil. To maintain the worm’s health and sustainability of
the process, it is necessary to harvest the compost and change the
bedding at least twice a year. The product can be harvested through
placing the compost on a plastic sheet and shining a light on it or
using direct sunlight, and as vermi-worms are photophobic, they
would crawl away and the remaining compost can be brushed
gently by hand on the outside . The crawling worms can then
be recollected for reuse. Some researches and farmers use a sieve
to collect the vermicompost and separate it away from the worms.
Although this method is effective, it has been reported that it can
be traumatic for the worms and cocoons can be lost along the
Every type of worm depends on the type of waste available, its
quality and quantity and the type of composting system a breeder
wishes to set up. Worms will eat almost all organic materials that
a breeder or a farm would provide them but it is essential that the
food being placed in the bin should not exceed the size of half an inch or smaller to ensure a quick process of decomposition. Macro
and microorganisms in the pile will first break down the chopped
and shredded food into smaller pieces by a process called “Initial
composting” to prepare it for the worm’s consumption since it is
in a form that doesn’t require teeth or biting (as a worm doesn’t
have the ability to do that). Some forms of wastes or “feed” can
lack softness for the worm to consume but it would degrade
eventually by the help of the macro and microorganisms as well
as the bacteria present in the pile. There are specific kinds of food
that are prohibited upon worms due to their negative effects on
them. This might include any material that contains the chemical
limonene, which is a chemical compound found mostly in citruses
that are considered poisonous for vermi-worms.
Therefore, it is advised to limit citrus food and spicy substances
such as hot pepper, even hair, and eggs. Although materials such
as dairy, oils, and meat can be allowed, it is advised to prevent
them due to the smell they might create in the pile that can affect
the worm and the breeder. Food such as vegetable wastes (in
certain quantities), grains, manure, fruits, coffee grounds, and
agricultural wastes are highly recommended for the feeding of
earthworms and for an effective and quick Vermicomposting .
Vermi worms have the capability of digesting different kinds of
wastes as well such as agricultural wastes , municipal solid
wastes , animal wastes , organic solid wastes [36,37] even
herbal pharmaceutical wastes . In addition, recent studies
have shown that vermicompost can also be used to recycle human
The climate varies from a country to another which is why
there is a noticeable difference in some of the vermicomposting
methods. If the temperature is not monitored inside the pit every
week, it can cause an unexpected death of the worms due to the
heat generated in hot continents. The worms would work at a 5-10
ºC but the process would be slower, thus, even in cold continents,
the pile should be measured for maintenance. Eisenia foetida feeds
most when the pile is in the suitable temperature of about 15-30
Therefore, in order to receive fast and effective vermicompost,
green waste should be added moderately to avoid overheating the
bin and outdoors bins should be kept in the shade to avoid direct
Vermicompost is an excellent soil additive made up of digested
compost by earthworms, therefore, is considered as a higher
value product  and is capable of being exported as a global
contestant. A chemical study of worm manure was conducted by
Ruz-Jerez et al.  and Parkin and Berry  respectively that
proved worm manure can contain 5 times the available nitrogen,
7 times the available potash (alkaline potassium compound) and
1.5 times more calcium than that found in 15cm of good topsoil.
In addition, the nutritional life of vermicompost is up to 6 times
more in comparison to the other types of organic composts. The
phosphorous passes through the worms gut and is transformed
into the plant suitable component . Therefore, any process
that can increase the availability of phosphorus to the plants is
considered essential for the plant’s growth and better agriculture.
Vermicompost is rich in microbial organisms and nutrients
(that is important for plant growth and productivity) that have
long lasting effects, unlike potting soil mixes in the market that
are usually sterile. Vermicompost enhances the water retention
capacity of the soil by modulating its physical structure.
Vermicompost has also been observed to increase the aggregated
stability and soil porosity of a plant  and increases the number
of largely elongated soil macropores, which is the space in the soil
that holds water and oxygen. These changes enhance the access of
moisture and air which is a major factor in controlling root growth
and seedling emergence of a plant . In a study by Kale , it was
reported that the nutritional status of vermicompost increased an
average of 1.5% to 2.2% nitrogen (N), 1.8% to 2.2% phosphorous
(P) and 1.0% to 1.5% potassium (K) with the use of organic waste.
In addition, the vermicompost also contained micronutrients, like
Calcium and Magnesium, Copper, Zinc, and Sulphur where they
all increased noticeably. In addition, a noticeable decrease in C/N
(carbon to nitrogen ratio) has been observed when Vermicompost
was applied to soil for 60 consecutive days, as well as an increase
in heavy metal content of iron, copper, and manganese has .
In another study by Nagavallemma et al. , it was observed
that the worm manure contained a higher percentage (nearly
two-fold) of both macro and micronutrients than other garden
composts, which proves that Vermicompost enhances the uptake
of nutrients by the roots.
Another study was conducted in India by Ansari  where
he observed the production of potato (Solanum tuberosum) after
application of vermicompost in a reclaimed sodic soil (of high
sodium content) and concluded that with good potato growth, the
sodicity (ESP) of the soil was also reduced from an initial 96.74kg/
ha to 73.68kg/ha in the 12 weeks of the study. In addition, the
average available nitrogen (N) content was also observed to
increase in the soil from an initial 336.00kg/ha to 829.33kg/ha.
This is due to the vermi-worms containing enzymes like amylase,
lipase, cellulase, and chitinase in their canal, which can degrade
the organic matter in the soil to release the essential nutrients and
make it easily obtainable to absorption by the plant’s roots .
Studies by Edwards and Arancon  reported a statistically
significant decrease in arthropods (such as mealy bugs and
spider mite) infesting the soil and a noticeable reduction in plant
damage in tomato, pepper, and cabbage trials with 20% and
40% vermicompost additions. In a study by Capowiez et al. 
the water retention of the soil had increased in an experiment
involving earthworms from a mean value of 20% to 25% which
proofs that vermi-worms increased the availability of water in the
soil. A proof that vermicompost is beneficial and saves time and
energy is an American study that indicated that 10,000 worms in a farm plot provide the same benefit as three farmers working 8
hours in a shift all year round with 10 tons of manure applied in
the plot .
One of the benefits of Vermicompost that was studied is that
humic acid is a stimulant to plant growth (even with minor percents)
. The humus contains the humid acid which plays a
significant role in the plants in more than one way. It helps the
plant extract the nutrients from the soil as well as dissolve the
undissolved minerals to make the organic matter ready for the
plants’ consumption. It stimulates the plant’s growth and enables
the plant to overcome stress. It has also been proven by Li and Li,
2010 that the humus in the soil helps chemical fertilizers work
better. Moreover, Ayres  reported that root diseases in the
plant were reduced from 82 to 18% in tomato when Vermicompost
was applied and similarly in capsicum where the percentage
dropped from 98 to 26%.
The cast contains a higher bacterial population than the soil
or the worm’s gut where a study concluded that the microbial activity
of beneficial microorganisms in worm castings is high than
that of soil or other organic matter by 10-20% . The bacterial
content in Vermicompost ranged from 102-106 per gram of Vermicompost
in a study by Suhane . These bacteria included Actinomycetes,
Azotobacter, Rhizobium, Nitrobacter, and Phosphate
solubilizing Bacteria. Other soil microbes that are stimulated by
earthworms include nitrogen-fixing and phosphate solubilizing
bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi.
Among other benefits of vermicompost is that the castings can
hold more than its weight by 2-3 times in soil and do not burn
the root’s systems. In addition, it is odorless and 100% recyclable
which is why it is considered a stable alternative. Vermicompost
can insulate roots from extreme temperature as well as control
weeds and reduce erosion. It is filled with many capabilities
such as “high porosity”, “aeration”, “drainage” and “water holding
capacity” than the traditional compost which is due to its humus
Various studies stated that Plant Growth Regulating Activity
is among the advantages of Vermicompost. It’s proven that the
growth responses of plants from vermicompost appeared more
like “hormone-induced activity” [56,57]. Various studies on
different plants have concluded that Vermicompost stimulated
seed germination such as of green gram , tomato plants, ,
petunia  and pine trees . Vermicompost also stimulates
vegetative growth, shoot and root development . Application
of vermicompost increases fruit yield [63,64] and number of
flowers produced [60,65] and changes the seeding morphology of
a plant (such as increasing leaf area and root branching) .
Vermicompost limited the soil born fungal diseases and
surprised the parasitic nematodes in plants when applied
by Edwards et al.  in field trials with pepper, tomatoes,
strawberries, and grapes. This phenomenon explained that the
agronomic microbial population in the Vermicompost protects
the plants by outcompeting plant pathogens for available food
resources and blocking their excess to plant roots by occupying all
the available sites.
Vermicompost can be used in sludge transformation into a
better product as the results by Jian Yang et al.  showed that
it lowered the pH level and water-extractable organic carbon
when vermicompost was applied for 3 weeks, along with higher
electrical conductivity and nearly two times higher content
of water-extractable nitrate (WEN-NO3(-)) than the control.
In addition, a Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) was
performed by Jian Yang and revealed that vermicompost promoted
the transformation of macromolecular organic matters and
accelerated the degradation of polysaccharide-like and proteinlike
Various forms of wastes end up in the environment when it is
not disposed of safely. Therefore, vermicompost isn’t just an agricultural
phenomenal addition, it is a sustainable method for waste
control and management such as Solid waste  or agricultural
waste . Vermicompost can be used in controlling water sludge
waste as well. Studies even proved that vermicompost can be used
to manage paper waste  and even agro-industrial waste management
The rapid increase in population numbers and changes in lifestyle
resulted in huge amounts of waste in dumpsters and landfills,
causing damage to the environment. Therefore, this review’s
aim is to act as a comprehensive guide to Vermicomposting as Vermicompost
is the best choice among the safe technologies of waste
management. It focuses on recycling of different types of wastes
and converting them to new products that are environmentally
friendly, economic and useful for agriculture.
The earthworms and microorganisms convert organic waste
to Vermicompost through a complex environmental and biological
practice that stabilizes the organic matter and maintains the
complex food webs and the improvement of food elements
that are rich in plant nutrients, thus, the Vermi-worm is a small
environmental engineer that can solve a lot of disasters that
confront our environment and limits the various contaminants to
maintain the ecosystems. Vermicompost can be used in all types
of farming fields in small and large scales as well as domestic
gardens to transform home wastes.
The proper management, minimization and recycling of
these wastes in agriculture should be our style of living in order
to preserve our resources for future generations, stabilizing and
sustaining the health of the environment and society and promote
the revolution of discoveries regarding the golden fertilizer in
farming via worms and is the best option available in healthy