Detection of Alfabaz10EC Residue (Alphacypermethrin) in Some Vegetables and
Fruits in Khartoum, Sudan
Ali Abdellahi Eltayeib* and Esraa Altaher Mokhtar
Department of Chemistry, University of Kordofan, Sudan
Submission: October 24, 2018,Published: February 06, 2019
*Corresponding author: Ali Abdellahi Eltayeib, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Kordofan, El-Obeid, Sudan
How to cite this article: Ali Abdellahi E, Esraa A M. Detection of Alfabaz10EC Residue (Alphacypermethrin) in Some Vegetables and Fruits in Khartoum,
Sudan. Agri Res& Tech: Open Access J. 2019; 20(5): 556143. DOI: 10.19080/ARTOAJ.2019.20.556143
The study was carried out during 2017 and aimed to detect alfabaz10EC residue (alphacypermethrin) in some vegetables and fruits. The pesticide was prepared according to the manufactured instructions. Eruca sativa was planted in Nuba village (Khartoum State). Twelve days later after planting Eruca sativa sprayed with alfabaz10EC. Cucumis sativus, Cucumis melo, Punica deranatum and Capsicum annum were collected randomly from Khartoum markets. Samples from Eruca sativa were taken for analysis after 1, 24, 72 and 96 hours later after spraying with the pesticide. The analysis of the pesticide and the samples were carried out by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) at criminal evidence laboratory (Khartoum). The mass spectra for the pesticide (alphacypermethrin) showed a base Peak at 163.00 and the chromatogram gave a peak with a retention time (20.80) for the active material in the pesticide. The analysis of the different samples of Eruca sativa by GC-MS showed peaks with retention time 20.80 and base peak at 163.00 for the samples collected after 1, 24, and 72 hours and no peak appeared for the samples collected after 96 hours. Analysis of the samples collected randomly by GC-MS showed a base peak at 163.00 and a peak with a retention time 20.80 only for Cucumis melo. The results obtained indicate that the Cucumis Sativus, Punica deranatum, Capsicum annum and Eruca sativa (after 96 hours) are safe for human consumption as far as alphacypermethrin pesticide residue is concerned. The study recommends that there be continuous survey and monitoring program for pesticides in vegetables and fruits in order to protect the consumer from exposure to pesticides.
Keywords: Eruca sativa; Cucumis melo; Alphacypermethrin; Human consumption
Abbreviations: WHO: World health organization; UNPE: United Nations Environment Program; FAO: Food and Agriculture Organization; GC/MS: Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry; NIST: National Institute of Standards and Technology
Pesticide is any substance or mixture of substances that is intended to prevent, eliminate or control any pest, including disease carriers for humans, animals and unwanted plant species that cause damage or interference in any form during the production of food or agricultural products and feeds, or during their manufacture- transportation and marketing and considered to be the most important and the most complex chemical pollutants to be exposed to humans and environment together. The world health organization estimated that about three million cases of poisoning occurred most of them are located during the period associated with pesticide use . This expression includes substances used to regulate the growth of plants or to prevent the fall of fruit prematurely, as well as materials used in crops either before harvest or after to prevent the crop from deterioration or transportation . It is one of the most important elements of agricultural production as it is an effective means can be used correctly to contribute to the protection of crops . They are used
to kill pests because of the similarity of vital processes in humans . With their counterparts in pests, pesticides may cause harm to humans and the environment, especially if it is not used properly. Citric acid was used as an insecticide during the 18th century in China and hence the world witnessed the beginnings of arsenic development and expansion of pesticide use . In the year 1821 copper sulfate was used as the first chemical to fight weeds.
In 1855 sulfuric acid was used in Germany to control weeds in grain crops and onions . Routine and pyrethrum have been used as common insecticides in year 1882. The protective and therapeutic effect of the bordeaux mixture known as Milardet (Copper and sulfur mixture with lime and water) against white diseases . In 1896, the copper sulphate solution was proven to be an option in killing mustard plants in grain crops. Heavy metal salts were used to combat broad leaf in grain crops in America in 1914. Oils were used to kill weeds in irrigation channels and roads, and this is still the method used in some areas . The actual expansion of pesticide use began from the years after
1930 when it was introduced the synthesis and manufacture of
organic pesticides . The first organic chemical pesticide made
in 1932 in France is optional to control large grasses in grain crops
2- methyl 4,6-dinitro phenol. It was also used to control weeds
in legume crops (large grains) and the detection and synthesis
of dithiocarbamate pesticides, which were used as fungicides in
1935, and DDT in 1939 .
The production of pesticides has been expanded globally
after the end of the Second World War in particular in the late
1940s and early 1950s, with the emergence of many commercial
preparations such as organic phosphorus compounds, which were
used as insecticides and phenoxy acetate, which act as herbicides.
The development and manufacture of new types of pesticides
continued during the 1960s and 1970s such as chlorpyrifos
(phosphoric insecticide), glyphosate (herbicide) and pyrimethrin
(insecticide from the pyrethroid group). The pesticide contains
active ingredient that responsible for killing the pests, while the rest
of the materials that are included in the composition are inactive
materials . Additive substances are known as substances that
have no effect to add to the pesticide to increase the efficiency
of the pesticide but can improve the properties of spray solution
[8,9]. Farmers are aware of the seriousness of the pesticide they
use, but still continue to use them above the required quantity
. The World health organization (WHO) defined the pesticide
residue as any substance or mixture of substances in food for
human or animal resulting from the use of a pesticide and includes
any specified derivatives, such as degradation and conversion
products, metabolites, reaction products, and impurities that
are considered to be of toxicological significance . In general,
guidelines for the study of the amount to be addressed with
chemical pollutants are prepared through the joint efforts of the
United Nations Environment Program (UNPE), the World Health
Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization
(FAO) . The damage of pesticides is a subject of great
importance to most of the World Health Organization to protect
people from the indirect danger to health including pesticides
damage to human health are directly by touching or inhaling the
pesticide or through the mouth or eye .
Vegetables and fruits samples: Watercress (Eruca sativa)
was planted in Nuba village (Khartoum State). Twelve days
later after planting, the watercress was sprayed by alfabaz10EC.
Different samples collected for analysis from watercress after one,
twenty-four, seventy-two and ninety-six hours later after spraying
the plant with the pesticide. Cantaloupe, pomegranate, cucumber
and pepper collected randomly from Khartoum and Omdurman
Preparation of the pesticide solution: 5ml of the pesticide
(Alfabaz10EC) was added to one liter of water according to the
manufactured company description.
Preparation of fruits and vegetables samples for analysis:
20mg of each sample were added to 10ml of distilled water,
stirred well until smooth. 3ml of a combination of isopropanal
and dichloromethane (95.5%) were added to the sample solution.
The mixture was centrifuged for 5 minutes. The organic phase
was separated from the aqueous phase by extraction method.
The organic layer was dried with nitrogen and 100 microliters of
methanol was added to the dried layer. The analysis was carried
out by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS).
GC/MS analysis conditions: The qualitative analyses of
the samples were carried out by GC/MS technique model (GC/
MS-QP2010-Ultra) from Japan, Simadzu Company, with serial
number 205251015650SA and capillary column (Rtx-5ms-
30mx0.25mmx0.25μm). The sample was injected by using split
mode, helium as the carrier gas passed with flow rate 1.69ml/min,
the temperature program was started from 80 °C with rate 15 °C/
min to 200 °C then the rate was changed to 10 °C/min reaching
260 °C and the rate was changed to 10 °C/min reaching 290 °C as
final temperature degree with 2 minutes as hold time, the injection
port temperature was 290 °C, the ion source temperature was 200
°C and the interface temperature was 250 °C. The sample was
analyzed by using scan mode in the range of m/z 35-400 charge
to mass ratio and the total run time was 22 minutes. Identification
of components of the samples were achieved by comparing their
retention times and mass fragmentation patents with those
available in the library, the National Institute of Standards and
The results depend on the retention time (20.80) and the
base peak that appeared at 163.0 for the active material in the
pesticide (alphacypermethrin). The appearance of a peak at 20.80
in any sample tested of fruits or vegetables means the presence of
alphacypermethrin. The results obtained indicated that watercress
collected after 1, 24, 72 hours and Cucumis melo were affected
by the pesticide residue and not safe for human consummation.
100% of watercress is safe for human consumption after 96
hours of the spray of the vegetable. 75% of fruits and vegetables
collected randomly are safe for human consumption.
From the results obtained fruits and vegetables are safe for
human consumption after 96 hours later from spraying with the
pesticide as far as the investigated residue is concerned. However,
they should be cleaned and washed properly before use.