Evaluation and Demonstration of Different Post-Emergence Herbicides for Controlling Wild Oat
(Avena fatua L.) and Other Grass Weeds in
Wheat (Triticum Spp) at Bore
Obsa Chimdesa*, Yared Tesfaye, Kebna Asefa and Girma Teshome
Oromia Agricultural Research Institute, Bore Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia
Submission: April 11, 2018; Published: May 31, 2018
*Corresponding author: Obsa Chimdesa, Oromia Agricultural Research Institute, Bore Agricultural Research Center, P O Box 21, Bore, Ethiopia, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
How to cite this article: Obsa C, Yared T, Kebna A, Girma T . Evaluation and Demonstration of Different Post-Emergence Herbicides for Controlling Wild
Oat (Avena fatua L.) and Other Grass Weeds in Wheat (Triticum Spp) at Bore. Agri Res & Tech :Open Access J. 2018; 16(4): 555992.
In the high lands of Ethiopia, weed causes considerable yield losses on wheat production due to absence of better management options for the producers. This also true, in the highlands of Guji Zone, Southern Oromia. Field experiment was conducted to study the effect of different Post-Emergence herbicides to Control wild oat and other grass weeds in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) at Bore Agricultural Research Center on station and Ana Sora district on farm during 2015/16 cropping season to identify the most effective herbicide for the control of the targeted weeds thereby improving wheat production to the area. The Experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design using three replications. Pallas 45OD, Current 8EC, Ralon super 144, hand weeding at tillering and weedy (check) were used as treatments. Based on the combined analyzed data result, significant variation was observed among treatments used for all of the parameters tested. Among the utilized herbicides, Pallas 45OD showed better control of wild oat and other grass weeds. In other cases, hand weeding and hoeing at tillering resulted in lowest weed density. Highest grain yield (4210.7kg ha-1) was recorded in Pallas 45OD followed by Current 8 EC (4000.3kg ha-1). Partial budget analysis of the study revealed that, applying Pallas 45OD had the highest net field benefit (30591.9 ET birr) followed by Current 8EC (29512.3ET birr ha-1 compared to Ralon Super 144(26265.1ET birr ha-1), Three times hand weeding( 22911.6 ET birr ha-1) & weedy check (22919. 4ET birr ha-1). However, Current 8EC had showed maximum economic profitability than Pallas 45OD and other types with marginal rate of return (MRR) of 6494.4%.
Therefore, Current 8EC at rate of 1itre ha-1 is the best herbicide for the effective control of wild oat and other grass weeds in wheat under proper cultural practices and there by improve yield production of wheat up to 25.1% at high lands of Guji Zone, Southern Oromia.
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most important cereal crop cultivated worldwide and there by sustaining the livelihood of the world hungrier. Because, it serve as staple food for more than 40% of the world population . Of the total cereal crop, wheat ranked fourth next to sorghum both interms of area (1.66 million hectare) and production (42.19 million qt) . The national average yield of the crop is about 2.5t/ha. This is by far below the global average which is about 3.5t/ha. Multifaceted biotic & a biotic factor are responsible for this low yield. Cultivation of unimproved low yield varieties, insufficient and erratic rainfall, poor agronomic practices, disease and insect pests are among the most important constraints to wheat production in Ethiopia. Weeds are one of the major factors reducing crop
yield, deteriorate quality of crops and reduce farmers’ income.
Weed infestation is a very serious and less attended issue in the country. It has been estimated that delaying in weed causes up 35% yield loses in wheat annually . They compete with crop plants for light, nutrient, moisture and space which they could be either of broad leaf or grasses. The major weeds compete with wheat are: Wild oat (avena fatua), Phalaris minor, Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis, Ammi visnaga, Chenopodium album, Carthamus oxycantha and Euphorbia helioscopiais are grassy weeds which have now became a threat to the nutritional requirement of mankind. Wild oat (Avena fatua) has increased tremendously in rain fed areas in the country. It is an c and difficult to eradicate because the seeds shatter before crop maturation and many of the seeds are plowed into the soil where
they lie dormant for one to many years and germinated when
they are turned up near the surface.
Weed control is a major component in the production system
of wheat whether it may manually, mechanically or physically.
The use of herbicide is considered to be the most viable option
for controlling weeds in wheat production. However, the
existence of many grass weeds, specially, wild oat (avena fatua)
create obstacle to increase production and productivity of wheat.
Despite of development of high yielder, insect pest resistance
varieties and other agronomic packages production of wheat in
Southern Southern Oromia is challenged with several grass weed
infestation. They are more problematic in wheat production than
broadleaf species because of the selective nature of available
herbicides and the difficulties of distinguishing between species
while hand weeding. Hence many weed management practices
such as, two times hand weeding, Mecoprop, 2,4-D, Brittox and
the ready tank mixture of Mecoprop and 2,4-D, all at respective
manufacturer recommendation rates can be a best management
option in wheat production, control only broad leaves species
while grass weeds, especially, wild oat (Avena fatua) compete
with crop and causes significant yield losses in southern Oromia
Therefore, the present study was conducted to address the
a. To evaluate the efficacy of different herbicides on wild
oat and other grass weeds
b. To identify and recommend economically visible
herbicides for wheat production to the study area
The experiment was conducted at Bore Agricultural Research
center on station and Ana Sora district on farm during 2015 and
2016 the main cropping season. Bore is located at about 387Km
from A.A to South and that of Ana Sora is about 25Km from Bore
which is 402Km from A.A to similar direction. Both locations
represented high land agro-ecologies of Guji Zone having an
altitude range of 2200-2780M.a.s.l. Both locations receive an
annual rain fall of 1200-1750mm per annum. Maize, Barley and
wheat are majorly produced cereal crops in the area.
For this experiment, two types of weed management
practices (cultural and chemical) involving five treatments were
used. Pallas 45OD, Current 8EC, Ralon super144, hand weeding
at tillering and weedy check were the utilized treatments.
Improved bread wheat variety (Senate) was used as seed source.
Knapsack sprayer was used for applying the herbicide. Quadrant
having a size of 2.5M2 was used to score weed population.
The trial was arranged in randomized complete Block Design
(RCBD) with three replications on 5mx5m plot size. 1m and
1.5m were used between the plots and the blocks respectively.
All inputs and agronomic practices were applied as per of its
recommendation for wheat production. All herbicides were
emulsified in water at recommended rate and applied once time
at 35 days or (between 2-4 crop leaves stage) after sowing using
manual knapsack sprayer and weed infestation was assessed
and scored by number and species by throwing quadrate with
50cmx50cm area three times per plot.
Data was collected on various parameters including Tillers
per plan (fertile tillers were recorded), plant height (cm),
number of grains per spike, thousand kernel weights ,grain yield
(kg) and straw yield (kg). Four harvestable rows were used for
data collection. The collected data was subjected to analysis of
variance (ANOVA) as suggested by Gomez & Gomez  using
SAS soft ware (version 2009). Least significant difference at 5%
probability level was used to test the mean separation.
Harvest index (%) was calculated by the following
H1=Grain yield/Total above ground dry biomass*100
Harvest index (%) was calculated by the following formula;
Economic data were collected to compare the economic advantage
of each herbicide in different treatments. These included variable
input costs and costs for the herbicides and labour during the
execution of the experiment. Costs of herbicides were obtained
from pesticide companies and local distributing agencies. Based
on the data obtained from both locations, economic analysis was
computed using partial budget analyses, Marginal Rate of Return
(MRR) . The following formulas were used to compute partial
budget and marginal rate of return (MRR) analysis, respectively
Net field benefits (NBs) = Gross field benefits (GB)-Total
Variable costs (TVC) and
MRR = DNI/DIC
Where: MRR = the marginal rate of return;
DNI = difference in net income compared with control; and
DIC = difference in input cost compared with control.
Combined analyzed data of two locations revealed that, all
the utilized treatments showed significant variations (P<0.05) for all the parameters tested except spike length that showed
highly significant variation (P<0.01). Similarly, highly significant
effect of the herbicides on wheat parameters was observed
across the locations (Table 1).
*, **, Significant at p<0.05, P<0.01, LSD= Least significance difference (P<0.05), NT= Number of tillers, NFT= Number of fertile tiller, PH=
Plant height (cm), PL=Peduncle length (cm), SL= Spike length (cm), GPS= Grain /spike, TKW=Thousand kernel weight, GY/ha=Grain yield per
Highly significant variation was observed across location
among herbicides treatments for plant height. Similar result was
also reported by Zahara Mohammed & Shugute Addisu  who
also found highly significant variation among different herbicides
for plant height over the locations tested. However, nonsignificant
variation among the tested herbicides was reported
by Sareta et al. . Analysis of the data indicated that maximum
plant height of 97.22cm followed by 92.99cm and 92.78cm was
obtained from plots treated by Pallas 45OD, Current 8EC and
Ralon Super 144.Where as, minimum plant height was depicted
by hand weedy (89.51cm) followed by Weedy check (88.36cm).
Analysis of variance showed highly significant differences
among weed management treatments for peduncle length.
Means for peduncle length of the treatments was ranged from
6.70 to 7.59cm with the mean value of 7.12cm (Table 2). Among
the treatments, the maximum peduncle length (7.59cm) was
recorded by Pallas 45OD followed by Current 8EC (7.31cm) and
Ralon Super 144(7.02cm); while the minimum peduncle length
(6.70cm) was recorded by weedy check (6.15cm) followed by
hand weeding (6.99cm).
LSD= least significant difference, CV=coefficient of variation, NT= Number of tillers, NFT= Number of fertile tiller, PH= Plant height (cm),
PL=Peduncle length (cm), SL= Spike length (cm), GPS= Grain /spike, TKW=Thousand kernel weight, GY/ha=Grain yield per hectare (Kg)
Height of spike is an important part of plant growth
parameter for cereal crops that could determines the grain
holding capacity of a particular variety. Thus, in current study
significant effect of different weed management treatments were
observed on spike length of bread wheat variety at both testing
site. According to analysis of the data, maximum spike length
was obtained from plots treated by Pallas 45OD (52cm) followed
by Current 8EC (51.83cm). But, short spike length was scored
from untreated plots or weedy check (39cm) followed by hand
According to the result of the analysed data, all the treatments
had showed significant<0.05) effect on number of tillers at both
locations. Number of tillers per plant was scored in a range of
3.99 to 5.75 with the mean value of 5.04. Maximum number of
tillers per plant was scored from plots treated by Pallas 45OD
(5.75) followed by current 8EC (5.54) and Ralon super 144(5).
However, minimum number of tillers per plant was scored from
plots treated by weedy check (3.99). Non-significant effect of
different herbicides on number of tillers was reported by Sareta
et al. .
Number of fertile tillers
Significant effect was observed among the applied weed
management treatments for number of fertile tillers per plant,
which ranged from 3.72 to 5.42 with the mean value of 4.75
(Table 3). Maximum number of fertile tillers was scored from
plots treated by Pallas 45OD (5.42) followed by current 8EC
(5.33). While minimum number of fertile tillers was scored from
untreated plots or weedy check (3.72).
Grain per spike
Significant difference was observed among herbicides
treatments (P<0.05) for grain per spike. The highest grain per
spike was recorded from Pallas 45OD (31.57) treated plot. The
lowest grain per spike was recorded from untreated plot (24.5)
followed by plot treated by hand weeding (26.19) and Ralon
super (26.74) (Table 1). As it is revealed by the study result,
applying recommended rate of Pallas 45OD at effective stage of
weed emergence would significantly affect weed population and
improve number of wheat grain development through proper
utilization of available nutrients without any competion.
Thousand kernel weight
The combined analysis over locations was significant for
thousand kernel weight. However, non-significant effect of
different herbicides on this parameter was reported by Sareta et
al. . The mean value of TKW due to herbicide application was
ranged from 33.33 to 53.33 (Table 4). The maximum TKW was
obtained from the plot treated by Pallas 45OD (53.33) followed
by Current 8EC (46.67). The lowest number of TKW was obtained
from untreated plot (33.33).
Biological yield showed significant difference (P<0.05) due
to Pallas 45OD, Current 8EC, Ralon Super 144, hand weeding
and weedy check. Means for biological yield of the treatments
was ranged from 24.5 to 31.57 gm with the mean value of
27.64gm (Table 5). The highest biological yield was recorded
from plot treated by Pallas 45OD (31.57gm) where as the lowest
was recorded from weedy check (24.5gm). Similar result was
reported by Zahara M and Shugute A 2016 and Sareta et al. 
who found maximum amount of crop biomass from plots treated
by different herbicides across the testing sites whereas lowest
amount was reported from weedy check.
Combined analysis of the study revealed that, non stastical
difference was observed on harvest index of bread wheat due to
the application of different herbicides and hand weeding except
weedy check. 25.38 to 33.35 mean range of harvest index with
mean value of 30 was obtained from the study. High harvest index was obtained from plot treated by Pallas 45OD followed by
the rest of herbicides and hand weeding. Lowest value of harvest
index was obtained from untreated plot.
According to the combined analysis of this study, significant
variation was observed among the herbicides on grain yield/
hectare having a range of 2996kg/ha to 4210kg/ha with mean
value of 3664.07kg/ha. The highest grain yield was recorded
in Pallas 45OD (4210kg/ha) followed by current 8EC (4000kg/
ha). The lowest grain yield was recorded from weedy check
treatment (2996kg/ha).This result is concord with the result
of Sareta et al.  who found high grain yield per hectare from
herbicide treatment and low yield from weedy check treatment.
Weed control efficiency
efficiency: Effect of different herbicides on
weed control was observed (Table 3). The highest weed control
efficacy (82.955%) was recorded in hand weeding followed by
Pallas 45 OD (74.01%). Similarly the head emergence stage,
effect of weed management practices on weed control efficiency
was significant. The highest was recorded in hand weeding
(67.898%) followed by Pallas 45 OD (66.823%) however, no
significant difference was observed between them. Further at
dough stage also effect of weed management practices on weed
control efficiency was significant. The highest was recorded in
Pallas 45 OD (47.545%) followed by hand weeding (46.262%).
However no significant difference was observed between them.
Interestingly as stage of crop development increase there
was decrement in weed control efficiency and Pallas 45 OD
application was better than all applied herbicides at both sites
against both grassy and broadleaved weeds. These finding are
in accordance with Ashiq, Noor Muhammad and Noor Ahmad,
2007. who reported that herbicides with broad spectrum
provided better weed control efficiency than control treatment.
The effects weed management practices
on weeds density were also significant. Among the weed
management practices the minimum weeds density (2.61m)
was recorded in hand weeding followed by Pallas 45 OD (3.05m-
2) , Current8 EC (4.03m) and Ralon® Super EW 144 while the
maximum total weed density (6.53m-2) was in weedy check
(Table 3). These finding are in accordance with result of Ashiq,
Noor Muhammad and Noor Ahmad, 2007. who stated that weed
population is lower in herbicides treated plot than control plot.
As part of the study, identification of weed
species which were observed in quadrant was also conducted.
Because, it’s imperative to know the nature of the existed weed
species to the area towards seeking effective management
practice. Accordingly, about 11 weed species which have different
families, life cycle and life category were identified from both
trial sites. Out of these species 63.63% were categorized under
grass weeds and 36.36 were broad leaved species. However, all
of the identified weed species from both sites have annual life
cycle (Table 2).
Partial budget analysis
For this study, yield and economic
data were collected to compare the economic advantage of each
herbicide with control treatment. Accordingly, cost of each
herbicides were estimated based on the current price which was
1100 ET birr for 0.5 litre Pallas 45OD, 570 birr for 1 litre Current
8EC,and 520 birr for 0.5litre Ralon super 144. Labour cost for
three times hand weeding was calculated as 35birr/person/
day*40*3 which was =4200. The average grain price of wheat was
850 birr per 100kg in 2016/17 season. Average daily labourer
cost and rent for knapsack sprayer for herbicide application was
520 birr ha-1. To minimise unnecessary exaggerations of grain
yield, productivity of the location mean grain yield obtained was
adjusted by 10%. Labour costs for three times hand weedings
were determined by man-days and it was 4200 ha-1 indicated
that application of Pallas 45OD had the highest net field benefits
(Table 5). But, the marginal rate of return (MRR) analysis
revealed that Current 8EC was more profitable for farmers, and
resulted in a MRR of 6494.4% (Table 6) .
In the present study different herbicides had showed
significant effect on different characters of Bread wheat variety.
Highest grain yield was obtained from plot treated by Pallas
45 OD (4201kg/ha) followed by current 8EC (4000kg/ha). The
lowest grain yield was recorded from weedy check treatment
(2996kg/ha). However, economic analysis of the study indicated
that applying Pallas 45OD had the highest net field benefit
(30591.9 ET birr) followed by Current 8EC(29512.3ET birr ha-1
compared to Ralon Super 144 (26265.1ET birr ha-1), Three times
hand weeding (22911.6 ET birr ha-1) & weedy check (22919.4ET
birr ha-1). However, Current 8EC had showed maximum economic profitability than Pallas 45OD and other types with marginal rate
of return (MRR) of 6494.4%.
Therefore, Current 8EC at rate of 1itre ha-1 is the best
herbicide for the effective control of wild oat and other grass
weeds in wheat and there by improve yield production of wheat
up to 25.1% under proper land management during production
season at high lands of Guji Zone, Southern Oromia.