Microbiological Characteristics of Luvisols of a Midfield Shelterbelt and Cultivated Field
Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute for Agricultural and Forest Environment of Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland
Submission: January 17, 2019; Published: February 21, 2019
*Corresponding author: Renata Jaskulska, Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute for Agricultural and Forest Environment of Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan, Poland
How to cite this article: Renata Jaskulska. Microbiological Characteristics of Luvisols of a Midfield Shelterbelt and Cultivated Field. Adv Biotech & Micro. 2019; 13(1): 555851. DOI: 10.19080/AIBM.2019.13.555851
Multifunctionality of landscape structure is important for environmental protection. In 2018, preliminary research was carried out in a Landscape Park (Poland). The research was conducted in two ways and included areas of a midfield shelterbelt and a neighboring cultivated field. The aim of the study was to  compare the number of microorganisms inhabiting the Luvisols of the shelterbelt and neighboring cultivated field;  determine selected chemical properties and their impact on soil microbiological characteristics. The studies revealed significant differences in the number of microorganisms in the Luvisols of the midfield shelterbelt and cultivated field. A higher number of bacteria (65.42 x 105 cfu/g) and actinomycetes (48.11 x 105 cfu/g) was observed in the soil of the cultivated field compared to the midfield shelterbelt soil (34.07 x 105 cfu/g) and (4.78 x 105 cfu/g), respectively. In addition, the study indicated that the number of fungi found in the soil of the cultivated field (6.33 x 104 cfu/g) was lower than in the shelterbelt soil (7.17 x 104 cfu/g). The reaction and soil organic carbon content of the studied soils varied significantly. The soil of the cultivated field was slightly acidic (pH = 6.31) and the content of soil organic carbon was 0.94%. In contrast, the soil under the shelterbelt was characterized by a very acidic reaction (pH = 3.63) with higher content of soil organic carbon 4.57%.
Midfield shelterbelts are an important element of traditional agriculture. They play a key role in protecting soils which supply plants with water and nutrients. Soil is a natural environment for microorganisms, which together with vegetation, determine the direction and nature of biochemical changes. The activity of microorganisms contributes to maintaining the balance in the soil environment [3,4]. They are also responsible for transforming large amounts of organic and mineral substances. According to Nannipieri, et al.  & Paul et al.  microorganisms also have an effect on the enrichment of arable soils with biogenic elements, growth substances and other biologically active substances. Among the chemical properties, the pH and the content of soil organic carbon influence the microbiological characteristics to the greatest extent. The pH value is one of the most important soil properties; it is not only a measure of acidity, but also a feature that determines the course of many soil processes.
The research was carried out in a Landscape Park, during the growing season of 2018. Soil samples were taken from the 0 -15 cm layer in the old 200-year old tree stand (Poland 52°04’19”N and 16°82’19”E) and from the neighboring cultivated field (Poland 52°04’20”N and 16°82’67”E). The soils in the studied area are Luvisols. The arable field was used for cultivation
of winter triticale. In fresh soil samples, the total number of bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi was determined using Koch plates . In air-dry soil samples sifted through a 2-mm sieve, the pH was determined in 1M KCl (1:2.5) by the potentiometric method. The soil organic carbon was measured using the 5000A TOC analyser (Shimadzu, Japan). All tests were repeated three times.
The performed analyses demonstrated a large diversity of chemical properties of soils of the midfield shelterbelt and cultivated field. Soils of the old shelterbelt indicated a very acidic reaction (pHKCL = 3.63), unfavorable for the development of most microorganisms. The content of soil organic carbon was 4.57%. In contrast, the soil of the cultivated field showed a slightly acidic reaction (pHKCL = 6.31, with low content of organic carbon (0.94%). Bacteria (65.42 x 105 cfu/g) and actinomycetes (48.11 x 105 cfu/g) were most abundant in the soil of the cultivated field. Relatively low number of bacteria (34.07 x 105 cfu/g) and actinomycetes (4.78 x 105 cfu/g) with the lowest pH values were recorded for the soil under the shelterbelt compared to the soil of the cultivated field.
The highest overall number of fungi was found in the soil under the shelterbelt (7.17 x 104 cfu/g), which was characterized by a strongly acidic reaction (pHKCL=3.63). The results of the
tests are presented in Table 1. The results indicate that soil
reaction is the factor that impacts the number of bacteria,
actinomycetes and fungi the most.
This work was supported by the Polish Ministry of
Science and Higher Education as project No DEC-2017/01/X/
ST10/01644. The author would like to acknowledge the positive
contributions of Wenesa Jesionek.
The author is grateful for the fruitful remarks and inspiring
criticism provided by the anonymous referees and the Associate