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External parasite on differnt Species
A cross sectional study was conducted from September 2016to January 2017 at kutaberworda different veterinary clinics to determine the prevalence of major skin diseases caused by ectoparasites (ticks, lice, fleas and mange), bacterial (dermatophillosis) and viral skin diseases (Lumpy skin diseases, Pox, and Contagious ecthyma). A total of 1662 ruminants (909 cattle, 447 sheep, and 306 goats were examined through clinical examination and laboratory confirmation (if possible) were the method employed. The overall prevalence of skin diseases registered was 39.38%, 45.09% and 43.40% for cattle, goats and sheep respectively. The prevalence of skin diseases in cattle was ticks (25.41%), lice (5.28%), and mange (5.28%), dermatophillosis (0.88%) lumpy skin diseases (0.56%). Male animals and cross breeds were more susceptible. There was statistical significant difference between risk factors (age, sex and breed) in cattle (p<0.05). In sheep the prevalence of skin diseases was ticks (29.08%), lice (6.9%) flea (4.3%), mange (2.01%) and pox (1.12%). The prevalence of skin diseases in goats ticks (19.29%), lice (3.92%), flea (2.94%), mage (3.26%), pox (8.49%), Orf (6.86%) and there was only statistical significance difference in age category (p<0.05). The main identified tick genus were Ambylomma, Hayalomma, Boophilus and Rhipicephalus species and Demalina and linogathus species lice were identified. This study demonstrates skin diseases among the most important health constraints of ruminants in Kutabreworda leading to important economic losses and they urgently require control and prevention methods.
Ethiopia has the largest livestock inventories in Africa including about 40.7 million cattle, 25.5 millions sheep and 23.4 million goats . Its resource of cattle, sheep, and goats ranks 1st, 3rd and 2nd respectively in Africa . The development of leather industry requires great quality of raw materials of various origins, the principal source of which is livestock industry. Although the livestock production and tanning industry of the world are increasing in number, the source of the material for the tanning industry is limited both in quantity and quality.
Ethiopia produce about 2.7 million of hides, 8.1 millions of sheep skin and 7.5 millions of goats skin per annum and is the leading export time of the country next to coffee with its finished and semi finished leather products [3,4]. Although the number of tannery involved in production of this products increasing from time to time, the sectors and the country are losing revenue due to decline in leather quality and fall in export price . Of the total skin processed of tanneries, one fourth to one third of it is unsuitable to export due to various defects, 65%, which occur in pre-slaughter, stage .
The existence of various skin diseases (Dermotophillosis, Demodicosis, Sarcoptes and psoroptesmanges, ticks and lice infestations affecting cattle, sheep and goats are frequently reported from different parts of Ethiopia . These different diseases in Ethiopia are documentable for considerable
economic losses culling and occasional mortalities and related
with cost of treatment and prevention disease . The potential economic losses necessitate the nationwide investigation on the distribution of skin disease and organize efforts between farmers, trader, tanners and government to at least minimize these enormous loses. Hence in socio-economically important city like Kutaberworeda so far limited studies has been made to investigate the overall prevalence of the skin diseases in domestic ruminants. Therefore, the
The study was conducted from September 2016 to January 2017 at kutaber veterinary clinic in kutabre city which is the capital city of Kutaber worda, which is 20 kms far in West of Dessie. It is located at 11015’ (11 degree 15 minute) North latitude and 39032’(39 degree 32 minute) East longitude and situated on the elevation of 2768 meters above sea level. It receives the annual average rainfall of 1000 mm and average temperature of 230c (BOANR, 2001: CSA, 2005). It is estimated that in Kutaber , the farmers had total of 69,720 cattle (representing 0.01 7% of Ethiopia total cattle), 65,729 sheep (0.026%), 53,302 goat (0.023%), 2,142 horses, 3,049 Mules, 12,814 asse , 104,737 poultry of all species and 5,457 bee hives of the total of Ethiopian bee hives. In and around Kutaber estimated number of cattle (69,720), sheep (65,729), Mule (3,049), Donkey (12,814), goats(53,302), hens (104,737) and horse (2,142) reported by KLRDO (2016_2017).
From September 2016 to January 2017, a total of 909 cattle,
447 sheep and 306 goats brought to Kutaber veterinary clinic
were subjected to detailed clinical examination for the presence
of skin diseases ticks, lice fleas, mange, dermatophillosis, pox,
contagious ecthymia and the history, breed, sex and ages were
The age of the animals is determined primarily based
on history we get from the owner and estimating using the
destination formulate described by . The animals were
divided in to three groups according to their age (less than 1
year), (1 year to 5 year), (more than 5 years).
A cross sectional study was conducted to determine
the prevalence of major skin diseases of ruminants. The
examination of each animal was conducted by detailed clinical
examination for the presence of skin diseases and when skin
lesion are evidenced the case history was taken from owner and
subsequently skin samples were taken from at least two sites
covering the adequate depth peripheral edges. Each species
was examined singly for one type of skin diseases infection
encountered in the study system.
In addition samples such as skin scraping hair specimens,
pustules and externally visible parasites are collected and
subjected to appear laboratory imposition for confirmation.
Viral infection like lumpy skin diseases, pox and contagious
ecthyma diseases were diagnosed based on their occurrence in
stock and then observable clinical picture such as wide spread
skin lesions on and around the muzzle, ears, scrotum and udder.
Skin scraping from suspected cases of manage are collected
and preserved in 10% formalin after addition of 10% KOH to
the specimen; mites may be released from scabs and crusts
before examination following procedures indicated . The
identification of the mange mite’s species are based on the
morphological characteristics described. The diagnosis of
parafillariasis was based on the clinical signs and direct
microscopic examination of the oozing blood or exudates from
the bleeding points described . Lice and fleas are collected by
coat brushing of the affected animals and identification of lice by
their characteristics lice described by . Ticks were collected
from infestation sites by ethyl alcohol (70%) then preserved in
10% formalin and dispatched to laboratory identified in genus
level using their characteristics and stereomicroscope or light
microscope described . For suspected case of dermatopillosis
scabs, pus and exudates was collected giemsa and gram’s stained
smears are directly microscopically examined according to the
procedure described . The diagnosis of pox diseases was
based on observation of pox lesions around the oral cavity and
tail region .
The data was entered in Microsoft excel sheet and the data
was analyzed using Epi. Info version 3.5.1. The Pearson’s chisquare
(x2) test was used to assess difference in the prevalence
of skin diseases among breed, sex, and age groups. In all cases
95% confidence intervals and P<0.05 as consider as statistical
The overall prevalence of skin diseases in cattle was 39.38%
(358 cases). The major identified skin diseases were ticks
(25.41%), pediculosis (5.28%), mange (5.28%) flea (1.76%),
dermatophillosis (0.88%) and lumpy skin diseases (0.56%). The
susceptibility of different age group of cattle to skin diseases is
presented in (Table 1).
Young animal were more susceptible to skin diseases than
the older once. Statistically significant different was observed
between the different age group (P<0.05). Animal less than
1-year age were more susceptible to skin diseases than greater
than 5 year (Table 2) The major identified tick species were,
Boophilus (17.75%), Ambylomma (7.48%), Rhipcephalus
(7.92), Hayalomma (7.26%) and lice identified was Demalina
and linogathus species was 2.2% and 3.08% respectively and
demodex 3.85%, Sarcoptes 0.88%, Psoroptes 0.55% in cattle.
The prevalence of skin diseases was high in cross breed than
local breed and male animals were more susceptible.
Prevalence of Skin Diseases in Sheep: Out of 447 sheep
which brought to Kutaber veterinary clinic, 194 sheep were
suffered to one and more type of skin diseases. The overall
prevalence of sheep skin diseases was 43.40%. The major skin
diseases examined were tick (29.08%), lice (6.94%), Fleas
(4.25%), Demodex (1.12%), mange (2.01) sarcoptes (0.88%)
and pox (1.12%) in (Table 3).
This result was lower than the previous study in kombolcha
veterinary clinic the prevalence of lice (25.8%), flea (7.9%), Pox
(1.6%), Orf (3.2%), Boophilus (3.2%) and Ambylomma (11.6%)
by . The difference was arising from the distribution of
disease in relation to agro climate: season of study conducted
and the clients develops awareness about skin diseases and
treated their animals by brought to near veterinary clinic
and the recent drugs which available also effective for most
ectoparasites. There was no significance association between
ages, sex in sheep. Male animals (47.27%), and animals under
less than one year (47.5%), were more susceptible to animals
when compare to the rest groups of animals. These reports were
similar to the previous study by . In this study the prevalence
of skin diseases was higher in sheep under 1 year and male
animals with the prevalence of 47.5% and 47.27% respectively
and there were no statistical significance difference among sex
and age in sheep (Table 4).
Prevalence of skin diseases in goats: A total of 306 goats
were examined, the overall prevalence of skin diseases was
45.09% in goats individually the prevalence of skin diseases
was tick infestation 19.28%, mange 3.26%, lice 3.91%, Pox virus
8.49%, and contagious echthymia 7.18% in the study area (Table
5). In this study the prevalence of overall skin diseases in age
categories of goats were 62,28%, 45.78% and 26, 26% in 1-5
year and less than 1 year and greater than 5 year respectively.
Animals which are greater than 5 year were not affected by lice
and flea. In goats generally, the skin diseases not significance
between sex. Male animals and animals between the group of
1-5 year were showed high prevalence48.96% and (62.28%)
respectively (Table 6).
This study revealed that the diseases caused by parasites,
bacteria, viruses and others were common in and around
Kutaber Town in Kutaber veterinary clinic. The overall
prevalence was 39.38%, 43.40% and 45.09% in cattle, sheep
and goats respectively. The high prevalence of skin diseases
in animals may be associated with nutritional and climatic
stress following repeated drought. Different origin species and
health status animals were come to in close contact at available
communal watering and grazing sites (contact at point) because
of feed scarcity, the establishment and spread of ectoparasites
and bacterial or viral infections were favored. Furthermore,
young animals were significantly more affected than adults
P<0.05 has strong association between age, sex and breed and
there was significant association P<0.05 between age in goats
and no significant association the skin diseases and risk factors
Among skin diseases, the prevalence of ectoparasites
was 37.73%, 42.28% and 26.47% for cattle, sheep and goats
respectively. This obtained overall prevalence was relatively
higher than the previously study in Adam veterinary clinic .
This difference may be due to agro climatic condition and health
care of the animals or the drug which used to treatment of skin
diseases efficacy decrease due to drug resistance development
of ectoparistes or skin diseases or used withdrawal drugs.
The major identified tick species were Boophilus (17.16%),
Ambylomma (7.48%), Rhipicephalus (7.92%) and Hayalomma
(7.26%) in cattle. When compare to the previous study this
prevalence was higher than reported , 6.34% but there was
variation in previous prevalence of rick species reported in North
Eastern Ethiopia, Ambylomma (27.9%) and Boophilus (11.3%)
may be due agro climate variation and season of the study.
The prevalence of demodicosis was 3.85%, 1.96%, 1.12%,
in cattle, in goats and in sheep. The manage mite infestation (Demodicosis)prevalence registered in the previous study
in different parts of the country in ruminants’ cattle, sheep
and goats were 1.88% in cattle, 1.33% in sheep and 1.02% in
goats and the prevalence of demodicosis was reported in cattle
range from 0.42% in Nekemte region . to 1.63% in Wolaita
Soddoregion . The frequencies of Demodex in sheep and
goats were 0.80% and 1.37% respectively in central Ethiopia
, 0.84% and 0.99% in eastern Ethiopia . Few number of
sarcoptes cases are observed in all ruminants in the study period
in the study area with a prevalence of 0.88% (8 cases) in cattle,
0.88 (4 cases) in sheep and 1.30% (4 cases) in goats. In the
previous report in kombolcha veterinary clinic the prevalence of
sarcoptes scabies was 22.9%, 13.2% and 26.5% in cattle, sheep
and goat respectively.
Such difference probably agro climate condition, health
care awareness of develops in the livestock producers brought
to the clinic when health problems occurs and treated early.
The prevalence of dermatophillosis in cattle was 0.88% in
Kutaber veterinary clinic. The dermatophillosis in three species
studied , 1.20%, 0.53% and 0.68% in cattle, sheep and
goats respectively and 5.2% in cattle in Northern Ethiopia .
The low prevalence dermatophillosis may be attributed due to
agro-climate changes, season of the study conducted and the
management system of animal, but in small ruminants’null
prevalence registered in the study period.
Lice infestation was an important skin diseases recorded
in both ruminants (cattle, sheep and goats) with a prevalence
of 6.94%, 5.28%, 3.92%, in cattle, sheep and goats respectively.
The overall prevalence of lice infestation obtained in the study
area was relatively higher than in the previous study in central
Ethiopia 2% in sheep and 1.5% in goats . in southern
rangeland 0.5% in goats , and on the other hand the present
study prevalence of lice infestation was relatively lower than
(39.8%) in sheep and 29.2% in goats in Amhara regional state
 and around kombolcha 14.2% in goats . Such difference
in prevalence may arise from different in agro-climate, in season
during the study was conducted. Management and health care
of sheep and goats in the study area. Flea infestation was one
of skin diseases in countered in the study area in all ruminants
with a prevalence of 1.76%, 4.4% and 2.94% in cattle, sheep and
In the previous study the prevalence of fleas’ infestation
were registered 7.9% in sheep and 1.5% in goats in . This
obtained prevalence was low in sheep and high in goats. Such
difference of prevalence may be the health care of animals or
agro climate. In the present study the prevalence of lumpy skin
diseases in Kutaber veterinary clinic was 0.55%, this prevalence
was low compared to the previous report. Whereas lumpy
skin diseases was rarely observed in cattle (0.68% 4 cases), no
documented report of lumpy skins is except the only report of
(27.91%) in and around wolliso South west Oromia. This may be
agro climate changes, season of study or etiological agent access
to enter to the host.
The prevalence of contagious ecthyma in small ruminants
was 2.79% incomparison with the previous study conducted
by , 27.91% and , 7.02%, low, probably because of the
vaccination program against to this disease give first before the
beginning of this study. On the other band, the prevalence of
pox viruses disease observed in this study was 8.49% in goats
and 1.12% in sheep, relatively more elevated compared to other
studies , who reported 1.53% in sheep and 1.62% in goats,
but far lower than that reported by , (22% in sheep and
18.5% in goats and 1.6% in sheep and 4.5% in goats reported.
The variation of prevalence may be epidemiological factors or
agro climate changes, season of study conducted and the animal
health management [24-28].
Other skin diseases which cause skin damaged or reduction
or skin and hide quality (such as wart, ironing or branding)
were observed and branding of animals for different purpose
traditional treatment, identification cause high damage of skin
and hide or reduction of skin or hide quality. Even though the
study was limited to group of animals brought to the mentioned
veterinary clinic, the prevalence of different skin diseases in these
domestic ruminants suggest the importance of these diseases in
reducing the production and productively of domestic animals.
Kutaber is one of the biggest animal marketing site and route
of export of animal meat supply and skin and hide processing
industry established in Kombolcha city. The potent risk of this
particular study site in dissemination of skin diseases should
be underlined. Considering the importance of skin and hide as
main source of foreign currency to the country, the prevailing
skin diseases and ectoparasites mainly in different age groups
of these domestic ruminants reared in and around Kutaber town
requires attention in order to minimize the spread of infestation
and increase income earnings of farmers and small-scale holders
whose livelihood is dependent on their animals [29-31].
Tick infestation, mange, lice, flea dermatophillosis and viral
diseases like lumpy skin diseases, pox virus and contagious
ecthyma has been found the major skin diseases in the study
area, suggesting that importance of these diseases in Kutaber
worda, but most of ectoparasite and others skin diseases can
be easily controlled by proper management. In Ethiopia skin
and hide production is one of the main sources of foreign
currency, yet the amount of hide and skin rejected is increase
and their quality also reduce due to these skin diseases control
failures or poor management and health care of these animals
or ruminants. Based on the above point in consideration the
following points are forwarded. Detailed epidemiological study
of the skin diseases should be conducted to identify the major
skin diseases and their predisposing factors at woreda level to
implement efficient control program.
To combat the skin diseases problem and reduce skin
damage appropriate control program should be implemented
in near future. This control program should be based on foodepidemiological knowledge of the disease in the area. The
control program should involve farmers, Tanneries, Government,
veterinarian and other control bodies. The government should
have extended extension education program for livestock
producers’ in the region to improve animal management
program and control of skin diseases.