Warning: include_once(../article_type.php): failed to open stream: No such file or directory in /home/suxhorbncfos/public_html/pmcij/PMCIJ.MS.ID.555592.php on line 137
Warning: include_once(): Failed opening '../article_type.php' for inclusion (include_path='.:/opt/alt/php56/usr/share/pear:/opt/alt/php56/usr/share/php') in /home/suxhorbncfos/public_html/pmcij/PMCIJ.MS.ID.555592.php on line 137
Hypermnesia of Euphoria or any Other Desired,
from the Point of View of the Consumer,
Psychotropic Effect as the Initial and Leading Link in the Occurrence and Maintaining the Body’s Dependence on Psychoactive Factors
1Department of the Health East Kazakhstan region, Narcologist of the Public State Enterprise on the basis of the right of economic management “The Ridder Psychiatric Dispensary”, Kazakhstan
2Assistant-lecturer of the Semey State Medical University, Kazakhstan
3Narcologist of the Ridder Psychiatric Dispensary, Health Department of the East Kazakhstan region, Kazakhstan
4The Semey State Medical University, Kazakhstan
Submission: May 20, 2019; Published: June 17, 2019
*Corresponding author: Baitubaeva MD, The Semey State Medical University, Kazakhstan
How to cite this article: Baitubayev Ducengali G, Baitubayeva Madinah D, Baitubaev DG, Baitubaeva MD. Hypermnesia of Euphoria or any Other Desired,
from the Point of View of the Consumer, Psychotropic Effect as the Initial and Leading Link in the Occurrence and Maintaining the Body’s Dependence on
Psychoactive Factors. Palliat Med Care Int J. 2019; 2(4): 555592. 10.19080/PMCIJ.2019.02.555592
The work shows the role of the autonomic nervous system in functioning of long-term memory, the identity of functioning of the mechanisms of long-term memory in the evolutionary adaptation of a man and dependence on psychoactive substances. It is shown that the dependences of the body on psychoactive substances are the states of progredient adaptation, that the states of dependence of the organism on psychoactive substances and on psychogenic psychoactive factors are the states of the same type. Classification of psychoactive factors is given. It is proposed to create a new branch of medicine combining study of the body’s dependence both on chemical and psychogenic psychoactive factors. Onomastic definitions to be used in this new branch of medicine are presented.
Keywords: Hypermnesia; engrams of euphoria or any other psychotropic effect; desirable from the point of view of the consumer; Hypermnesia-increased memorability; engrams of euphoria or any other psychotropic effect; desirable from the point of view of the consumer; a psychotropic effect in the long-term memory
Identification and increase in the number of the organism’s dependencies on various external factors of psychogenic origin makes us wonder whether they have the same biological mechanism of occurrence as the body’s dependence on chemical psychoactive substances. And whether these states are states of the same type?! Purpose and objectives of the study. Hypermnesia as an integral part of the mechanism of human evolutionary adaptation. The role of the autonomic nervous system in long-term memory performance
It is a well-known fact that in long-term memory of a person, the effects of external factors remain longer, if they caused strong emotional reactions. Emotional memory is formed very quickly and often from the first time (unlike conditional
memory). This phenomenon played an important role in the survival and evolutionary development of human. Memorizing such a psychogenic factor as a predator’s attack, accompanied by pavor, allowed to avoid predators in the future. Memorizing situations accompanied by positive emotions-meeting the food needs, influence of heat-contributed to seeking the influences beneficial for the body in the future.
The leading role in the memory formation is played by the limbic system. But studying the mechanisms of long-term memory functioning reveals the instant dependence of the strength of fixation of some external influences in memory on the severity of the emotional responses accompanying those effects. This fact make us to pay attention to the role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Indeed, one of the main components
of emotional responses are the responses of the autonomic
nervous system showing as various bodily sensations: changes
in the heart rhythm, increase or decrease in muscle tone, etc.
According to a hypothesis of the Canadian scientist Hebb
(1949) , the transition of information from short-term to
long-term memory occurs due to the formation and fixation
of very complicated, stable structural chemical changes
at the systemic, synoptic, and cellular levels. This leads to
consolidation of neurons with high synaptic conductivity and
formation of memory engrams fixing the external situation and
the subject’s attitude to it. When speaking about the regulation
of synaptic efficiency, attention is paid primarily to the systems
of biologically active substances serving as intermediate agents
in synaptic transmission, to factors providing modulation
of the efficiency of synaptic transmission and the long-term
preservation of these shifts in the neural networks.
So, Kendel (1986), Kruglikov (1986), E.G. Gromova (1980)
in their studies have established that acetylcholine affects the
synthesis of new receptor molecules or the unmasking and
activation of already existing receptor proteins, the sensitivity
of cortical neurons increasing up to recording the trace in the
memory. Noradrenergic mechanisms of the brain provide
the creation and temporary preservation of multineuronal
constellations- engrams, the serotonergic system accelerates the
learning process, facilitates fixation of engrams, and elongates
the skill retention. Long-term memory processes are affected
by GABA and glutamic acid. According to G. Ungar (1977), I.P.
Ashmarin (1987), neuropeptides together with mediators, create
specific receptor mosaic sets on the postsynaptic membrane that
facilitates the rapid conduction of a certain type of excitation.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosteroids,
endogenous opioids - endorphins and enkephalins - have a
pronounced effect on learning and memory .
Thus, the “keeper” for all forms of neurological memory is
the system of interneuronal interactions, and the participation
of neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, information biopolymers
consists in their influence on the quality of these interactions,
their fixation. That is, the neurotransmitters released by the ANS
in response to an external stimulus are a sort of modulators of
transition and fixation of information in long-term memory.
Identity of the mechanisms of hypermnesia of
psychoemotional effects under the influence of psychoactive
substances to the evolutionary adaptive mechanism of
hypermnesia. Memory is a constantly functioning neurodynamic
system. The effects of any external factor regardless its naturepsychogenic
or chemical, causing positive, favorable shifts in
the person’s psychophysical well-being are recalled more often,
and a person subconsciously seeks to re-experience the effect
of this factor. Therefore, the engrams of positive emotions serve
as stigma-attitudes resulting in the person’s adjusting behavior.
They serve as a starting point for the beginning of the psychic
dependence of the body on the external factor that caused a
positive psychophysical shift in a person. The repeated influence
of an external psychoactive factor contributes to a greater psychic
stigmatization of a person. It is noticed that during the influence
of the psychoactive factor, the sensations caused by the influence
of the accompanying stimuli without psychoactive properties
are also fixed at the same time. This indicates that the overall
hypermnesticity of the brain increases under the influence of
the psychoactive factor. Therefore, engrams of the emotional
memory of euphoria, are able in the future to be stimulated by
the influence of concomitant stimuli too-the environment in
which the psychoactive factor was active, etc.
As humanity reveals that positive (from the point of view
of the consumer) emotions can be caused by the use of alcohol,
opium, marijuana, tobacco, this has led not only to the increase
in the habitual, regular use of these substances, but also to the
awareness of the fact that it can cause dependence and affect not
only the consumer of these substances, but also the society at
large. These substances were classified under the general name
- psychoactive substances (abbreviated as PAS).
The development of industrial production of alcohol and
the chemical industry, the increase in the number of people
suffering from dependence on various psychoactive substances,
considering the dependence on psychoactive substances as a
disease, the need for studying and treating such dependences,
all this resulted in the creation of a medical branch-narcology.
Object and methods of investigation: Vegetotropic properties of
psychoactive substances. Physiology of progredient adaptation.
Mechanisms of fixation of the effects of psychogenic psychoactive
factors in long-term memory.
Almost all dependence-producing psychoactive substances
turned out to have vegetotropic properties-primarily, they
affect VNC receptors, causing the release of neurotransmitters.
As it was mentioned above, neurotransmitters modulate the
preservation of psychoemotional responses in long-term
memory after the influence of these substances. “Catalyzing”
role of neurotransmitters in long-term memory functioning
can be confirmed by the fact that people with different types
of dependence remember their feelings of the first episode of
smoking, drinking alcohol, drugs even in decades. And it turned
out that the more pleasant the subjective effect under the influence
of a substance is and the more pronounced vegetative responses
brightening the emotions are, the stronger the fixation of these
sensations in long-term memory is and the higher the rate of
occurrence of dependence is. This phenomenon is designated as
narcogenicity of the substance. So, psychoactive substances with
high narcogenicity-opiates-cause the accelerated development
of dependence. But under the influence of substances with low
narcogenicity, the occurrence of dependence requires the abuse
One of the urgent issues of medicine is the explanation of
the biological mechanism of increasing resistance in a PASdependent
person. No matter how accurately scientific research
explain qualitative changes at the cellular, molecular level,
leading to an increase in resistance in a PAS-dependent person
- these changes are obviously to have non-damaging, adaptive
nature, otherwise they wouldn’t lead to the increased resistance.
And according to the dialectical principle of the mutual transition
of qualitative changes to quantitative ones, the accumulation
of these changes should lead to qualitative and quantitative
changes in the system responsible for the adaptation of the body
as a whole - in the neuroendocrine system. A new field in the
physiology of adaptation – progredient adaptation, discovered
by Baytubaev DG and Baytubaeva MD , based on the ability
of the neuroendocrine system to hypertrophy under regular PAS
exposure, allowed validating PAS-dependences not as diseases,
but as states of progredient adaptation
After all, in the 30s of the last century, P.K. Anokhin
described the phenomenon of “advanced excitation”, when the
neuroendocrine system, in response to an external stimulus,
makes an excessive release of neurotransmitters, hormones and
take a pause for self-restoration, during which the assimilationrestoration
processes in the endocrine system dominate
over processes of dissimilation. The regular predominance of
assimilation processes over the processes of dissimilation under
the PAS exposure leads to the hypertrophy of endocrine system.
Histological evidence is the Selje’s stress study: “the adrenals
bloom” - the adrenal medulla- the modified sympathetic ganglion
- which during a pause, recovers and avoids exhaustion.
The adrenal cortical zone, producing hormones adaptationcorticosteroids,
is hypertrophied. Also, another urgent issue of
medicine is the validation of the physiological process resulting
under the influence of increasing doses of a psychoactive
substance and the response increase in body resistance.
Hypertrophy of the endocrine system leads to the direct
growth of the adaptive capabilities of the organism relative to
the exposure dose growth, and every subsequent, potentially
pathogenic, extreme dose “is met” by the hypertrophied,
hyperproductive endocrine system and the dose has already
subextreme - not a pathogenic - effect. That is, on each floor
of adaptation, under the influence of a new increased dose of
PAS, the body primarily experiences stress with orientation
and resistance phases. But later the stage of depletion does not
occur, since earlier due to extra output of neurotransmitters,
the endocrine system “took pauses” during which assimilation
processes dominated over dissimilation processes and
hypertrophy of the endocrine system occured. So, the endocrine
system is ready again to protect the body against the larger dose
of PAS. The states of regular stress and chronic stress differs in
pauses. It is conceivable that stress, whatever regular it may be,
without depletion phase is not a disease. Also, while under the
influence of normal pathogenic factors without vegetotropic
properties first some tissue is damaged, and only after that the
ANS produce a protective response, PASs, in contrast, affects
primarily the receptors of the ANS, due to their vegetotrophy.
This results in the timely high-level protective response of the
body, preventing damage. Endocrine system hypertrophy, and
therefore its high adaptive sufficiency, not only prevents damage,
but also eliminates the need to compensate for the adaptive
capabilities of the body at the expense of some tissues, systems of
the body, so the disease does not develop. ANC productivity due
to compensatory, excessive release of neurotransmitters explains
adrenergic tension in deprivation syndrome, too. Productivity of
the sympathetic part of the ANS against the background of the
gradual exhausion of the parasympaticus (the adrenergic system
is more stable in ontogenesis, too) explains - according to “the
age” of narcotism - the transformation of initial sedative effect
of hypnotics, alcohol and opiates into their stimulating effect.
In the final stages of PAS dependence, depletion of the adaptive
capabilities of the organism (the receptors of the protective
systems alarm about it) leads to a concurrent decrease in the
PAS doses tolerated by the dependent person, the body being
not damaged repeatedly. Any pathology in PAS dependence is an
associated event .
Over time it has been observed, that the dependence can
occur in a person under the influence of psychogenic factors
too: people who committed bad sexual crimes can develop
overanxiety to repeat them, the state of falling in love results in
affection and attraction to the object of love. These situations, as
well as in PAS dependence, are accompanied by strong emotions
and vegetative responses: fear and excitement in case of crime,
a feeling on top of the world in case of love, etc. They provide
fixation of the effects of these psychogenic psychoactive factors
(PAFs) in long-term memory. Also, like in PAS dependence,
vegetative responses under the influence of psychogenic PAFs
increase the overall hypermnesticity of the brain - those who
commit serial sexual crimes remember in detail every crime
they commit, the lovers remember their first meeting, etc. With
the development of civilization, a lot of psychogenic factors
capable of causing dependence emerged. These are ideological
psychogenic influences - totalitarian and authoritarian regimes,
cult of personality, radical religious schools and sects, modern
information technologies, and so on .
It turned out that the dependence can be caused by
exposure to any psychogenic external factor, if it resulted in the
subject’s strong, positive (from his/her point of view) emotions
accompanied by bodily sensations. Indeed, in parties and
sects with totalitarian ideology, personality cult, authoritarian
regimes, under Nazism and racism - psychogenic psychoactive
influences are carried out. These effects are intended to deceiving into belief about the “selectness” of the adepts, the achievement
of “perfection” or the utopian “bright future,” the “outstanding”
abilities of the head of the state, the “selectness” of the nation,
the race. These beliefs lead to positive psychosomatic shifts
in the individual, group or community of people: inspiration,
placidity, winged sentiment, thuggish behavior, elation, etc.,
inducing long-term memory to form and remember the engrams
of euphoria corresponding to the influencing psychoactive factor.
Psychogenic psychoactive factors also can have a narcogenic
effect. Some factors can cause a psychoemotional “splash”
captured by long-term memory even after a single exposure, for
instance, “love at the first sight” in love mania. Meanwhile, for
the dependence on psychogenic factors with low narcogenicitytotalitarian
political regimes, the personality cult-a prolonged
ideological psychoactive influence is required. The rate of
dependence development varies according to the reactivity
of the autonomic nervous system: emotional people are more
susceptible to various kinds of mania. People with reduced
psychoemotional functionality (“emotionally greedy”) and with
the torpid psychoemotional sphere (“emotionally phlegmatic”)
are less susceptible to various dependences. All this undoubtedly
indicates that the dependences on psychogenic factors are the
states of the same type as the dependences on PASs. To denote
the whole variety of factors of chemical and psychogenic origin
capable to cause dependence, the term “psychoactive factors” is
acceptable. The psychoactive factor (PAF) is a psychogenic or
chemical factor that can cause euphoria or other psychotropic
effects desirable from the point of view of the consumer even
after single exposure, and in a regular exposure they can
cause psychological-psychic or psychological-psychophysical
The principal difference between the state of progredient
adaptation dependence and addiction consists in psychic
stigmatization - the formation of stable neuronal engrams in the
biological structures responsible for long-term memory, that
affects further human behavior and creates a permanent psychic
dependence on PAFs. But in addictions, processes occur at the
psychological level, relatively stable conditional connections
arise, and a relatively stable psychological dependence on
the behavioral pattern arises - dependence on stereotypes
of behavior, habits, ways of responding to some external
psychogenic stimulus, etc. Although it is clear that in progredient
adaptive dependences both on chemical and psychogenic PAFs,
addictive behavior also takes place. Sometimes it is formed after
the development of psychic dependence: when using heroin,
at first a psychic dependence is formed, then the stereotype
of the addict’s behavior is formed. And in dependencies on
chemical PASs with low narcogenicity - tobacco and alcohol -
psychological addiction, such as imitative smoking, alcoholic
traditions - is formed at first, and then, in abuse, psychic and
further psychophysical dependences are formed .
Under the influence of psychogenic PAFs capable of
exerting a mass influence, such as the cult of personality,
totalitarian regimes, one part of the society may develop a
psychic dependence, while the other one only develops the
psychological dependence - addictive behavior. It is necessary to
differentiate the states of progredient adaptive dependence from
the person’s appetencies conditioned by endocrine diseases (i.e.
bulimia - gluttony, polydipsia - unquenchable thirst) and psychic
illnesses when emotions caused by delusional ideas dominate
in the psychoemotional sphere of a mentally ill person. Clinical
identification of mental dependence on a PAS in a dependent
person is possible .
Feelings of positive psychophysical shifts under the influence
of the PAF are fixed in memory. Such fixation is enhanced due to
the regularity of PAF influence and the quantitative increase in
the force of influence. That explains the stability of dependence
on drug addiction, totalitarian political and religious ideologies,
etc. The expansion of the memory engrams about positive
psychophysical shifts is due to the memorization of concomitant
stimuli accompanying the PAF influence. That explains the
existence of rituals of joint smoking, alcohol consumption. All
the mentioned above indicates the formation of adaptive, superstrong,
expanded memory hyperengrams.
In PAF dependence changes in the biological mechanisms
responsible for the euphoria hypermnesia are of a physiological,
adaptive nature, and the available types of treatment consist only
in blockade of the adaptation mechanisms against the repeated
PAF influence. In this regard, euphoria hyperengrams remain
saved in long-term memory and generally are the only cause of
relapse. That is why a person dependent on illegal sexual activity
can commit a sexual crime after having served long prison terms.
Alcohol or drug dependent people after successful treatment
and prolonged remission can resume alcohol and drug use. For
love mania there is the expression “to fell in love for a lifetime”.
Dependences on psychogenic PAFs (the cult of personality,
totalitarian ideologies) persist up to the alternation of generation.
The following studies are considered to be promising: studies
of neurophysiological mechanisms of formation and fixation of
euphoria engrams or other psychotropic effects desirable from
the point of view of the consumer in the memory, development
of methods of selective neutralization-”erasure from memory” of
euphoria engrams (by patient’s consent).
a) Psychogenic PAFs capable of causing a mass adaptive
psychological and psichic dependence: totalitarian and
authoritarian political ideologies, the ideology of racism,
Nazism, the cult of personality
b) Psychogenic PAF capable of causing a group adaptation
psychological and mental dependence - of religious and
other totalitarian sects.
c) Psychogenic PAF - illegal actions capable of causing
individual adaptation psychological and psychic dependence
- dependence on sexual acts, prohibited by law, kleptomania,
pyromania, etc. (all the above-mentioned PAFs are prohibited
or should be prohibited by law).
d) Other psychogenic PAFs (influences) capable
of inducing an individual progredient adaptational
psychological and psychic dependence - a state of falling in
love, game addiction, etc.
a) Chemical PAFs with high narcogenicity capable
of inducing the accelerated development of individual
progredient psychological and psychophysical adaptation
dependence - drugs. (non-medical use and illegal trafficking
are prohibited by law).
b) Chemical PAFs capable of inducing an individual
progredient psychological and psychophysical adaptation
dependence in case of abuse - alcohol, tobacco, etc.
c) Should other psychogenic and chemical PAFs dangerous
to the individual and society are identified, they must be
listed as prohibited by law.
Narcology can only be a section of a new, broader branch
of medicine that studies dependences both on chemical and
psychogenic psychoactive factors. To denote a new branch, the
term “maniology” is acceptable. (mania-propensity, appetency,
Logos doctrine, i.e, the doctrine of propensities, appetencies).
Maniology is a branch of medical science that studies
adaptogenesis and adaptive manifestations of the progredient
adaptation psychic-psychological and psychologicalpsychophysical
dependence of an individual, a group of people
and a society on various chemical and psychogenic psychoactive
factors of the environment, medical, psychological, social
and legal aspects of these problems, and develops methods
of their prevention, treatment of deprivation syndrome and
neutralization of appetency for the psychoactive factor
In this regard, some definitions of various maniology
sections, for example, narcology, should be changed.
Narcology is a section of maniology as a medical branch,
which studies the adaptogenesis and adaptive manifestations of
a person’s progredient adaptation psychological-psychophysical
dependence on various chemical psychoactive factors, the
medical, psychological, social and legal aspects of these
problems, and develops methods for their prevention, treatment
of deprivation syndrome and neutralization of appetency
for chemical psychoactive factor. To develop a new branch of
medicine, there is a need in formation of Maniology scientific
departments in higher medical schools.
1) Hypermnesia of external influences accompanied
by strong emotional responses is an integral part of the
evolutionary adaptive mechanism of the body.
2) The neurotransmitters released by the ANS in response
to an external stimulus causing strong emotional responses
are modulators of transmitting information from short-term
to long-term memory.
3) The mechanism of preservation of psychoemotional
sensations in long-term memory under the influence of
psychoactive substances is identical to the evolutionary
adaptive mechanism of hypermnesia.
4) Dependences of the body on psychoactive substances
are the states of progredient adaptation.
5) Identity of the mechanisms of fixation of
psychoemotional sensations in long-term memory under the
influence of chemical and psychogenic psychoactive factors
allows us to suggest that these states are states of the same
6) The presence of a psychic component in the appetency
for any PAF is a distinctive feature of the state of adaptive
progredient dependence on PAF, on the state of behavioral
addiction and other appetencies.
It is necessary to create a new branch of medicine
combining the study of human dependence both on chemical
and psychogenic psychoactive factors. Hypermnesia of euphoria
or any other desired, from the point of view of the consumer,
psychotropic effect as the initial and leading link in the occurrence
and maintaining the body’s dependence on psychoactive factors
D.G.Baitubayev, M.D.Baitubayeva. Ridder Psychiatric
Dispensary, Semey State Medical University, Semey. The work
shows the role of the autonomic nervous system in functioning of
long-term memory, the identity of functioning of the mechanisms
of long-term memory in the evolutionary adaptation of a man
and dependence on psychoactive substances. It is shown that
the dependences of the body on psychoactive substances are the
states of progredient adaptation, that the states of dependence
of the body on psychoactive substances and on psychogenic
psychoactive factors are the states of the same type. It is proposed
to create a new branch of medicine combining study of the body’s
dependence both on chemical and psychogenic psychoactive
factors. Classification of psychoactive factors is given. Onomastic
definitions of terminology changes and additions to be used in
this new branch of medicine are presented. Proposed allocation
of the International Classification of Diseases is a separate chapter for the classification of states of progredient adaptation
of the body depending on psychoactive factors.
Batuyev S (1991) Higher nervous system. High School, Moscow, p. 165-171.
Baitubayev DG, Baitubayeva MD (2015) Physiology of progredient adaptation. In: Voronezh NN, Burdenko VSMA (Eds.), Materials of 17th scientific and practical conference. Actual issues of psychiatry, narcology and medical psychology. Voronezh, Russia.
Zaichik Ash, Churilov LP (2005) General pathophysiology. Publisher LLC , Russia 525: 23-26.
Korobkov AV, Bashkirov AA, Vetchinkina KT (1980) Normal physiology. (Chapter 2), Physiology of adaptation, Moscow, p. 494-503.
Pyatnitskaya IN (1990) Alcohol abuse and initial stage of alcoholism. Medicine Publisher, Moscow, pp. 56-80.
Pyatnitskaya IN (1975) Clinical Drug Addiction. Medicine Publisher, Moscow, p. 268-274.
Smirnov VM, Yakovlev VN (2004) Physiology of the central nervous system. Academy Publishing center, p.184-251.
Kirilov OI (1994) Stress hypertrophy of the adrenal glands. M Nauka, p. 176.