*Correspondence author: Devashish Kar, Micro-Institute of Water and Human Studies, India Email: [email protected]
How to cite this article:Devashish K, Ankush K. Present Status of Freshwater Fish Diversity and Human impact with Particular Reference to North-East India Biodiversity Hotspot. Oceanogr Fish Open Access J. 2023; 16(4): 555943. DOI: 10.19080/OFOAJ.2022.16.555943
Biodiversity (BD) is the living component in nature. Biodiversity in the freshwater (FW), domain comprise the FW BD, where `Fish’ is the prime component. In fact, fish is said to constitute almost half of the total number of vertebrates in the world and is said to provide with answer to the diminishing protein supply in the globe; having been one of the staple food items in diet of people, particularly, in the developing countries. c 21,723 living species of fish have been recorded out of 39,900 species of vertebrates. Of these, 8411 are freshwater species and 11,650 are marine. However, of late, there has been a depleting trend in fish diversity and yield principally due to shrinkage in the water spread area being impacted mainly by humankind. The present status of Freshwater Fish diversity and the impact of Human interventions have been discussed.
The Indian sub-continent is one of the biggest Mega biodiversity regions in the World, occupying 9th position in terms of freshwater Mega biodiversity (Mittermeier and Mittermeier, 1997). In India, there are c 2500 species of fishes; of which, c 930 live in freshwater (FW) and c 1570 are marine [1-3]. This bewildering ichthyodiversity of this region has been attracting many ichthyologists both from India and abroad. Concomitantly, North-Eastern (NE) region of India has been identified as a `Hotspot’ of Biodiversity by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre . This rich diversity of this region could be assigned to certain reasons, notably, the geomorphology and the tectonics of this zone. The hills and the undulating valley of this region gives rise to large number of torrential hill streams, which lead to big rivers and, finally, become part of the Ganga-Brahmaputra-Barak-Chindwin-Kolodyne-Gomati-Meghna system .
Based on IUCN categories, the CAMP Workshop  for FW fishes has identified certain fish species which have attained threatened/endangered status. Concomitantly, there has not been much in-depth study with regard to details of endemism and species richness in North-East (NE) India; although, some amount of works in this regard have been done [7-9]. As such, a detailed study related to Germplasm inventory, evaluation and gene banking of freshwater fishes would not only help us to land at a concrete decision on the above-mentioned aspects but would also contribute to fulfilling India’s obligation to CBD with special emphasis on Articles 6 and 8 . Further, development of database on the biological parameters is a pre-requisite for preparation of detailed Fish Inventory. Genetic characterization and Gene Banking is a step forward towards further confirmation of the species at the molecular level.
The river is the basic storehouse of water to meet our country’s demand for water for various uses. Indian sub-continent is singularly blessed with unparalleled riverine resources, harboring one of the richest fish wealth in the world. Out of c 2500 species of fishes occurring in India, c 450 species of fishes occur in the Indo-Gangetic plains [11-13]. Menon  had listed 207 species of fish from the Gangetic plains which belong to 29 families and 82 genera. According to another estimate, the Gangetic system alone harbour not less than 265 species of fishes .
Besides lotic territories, the lentic water bodies having 0.72 × 106 ha lake coverage in India, constitute great potential of fishery resources. The NE region is blessed with a number of lentic systems, locally called `Beel, Haor, Anua, Hola, Doloni, Jalah,
etc., which alone constitute c 81 % of the total lentic area (0.12
× 106 ha) in Assam. These lentic systems are generally shallow
and open, ranging in size from 35 to 3458.12 ha and with depth
ranging from 0.25 to 6.0 m (Dey, 1981) [5,16].
In the Eastern India and in Bangladesh, the wetlands are
usually classified into 3 broad categories. These are as follows: a) Beel: These are the perennial wetland, which generally
retain water throughout the year, e.g., Sone Beel, Sat Beel, etc.
Sone Beel, one of the biggest (Area-3458.12 ha at FSL) wetlands
in India and Asia. Sone Beel has been declared as a Wetland of
National Importance by the Government of India mainly based on
the research works of the Professor Devashish Kar, the present
author of this paper (vide Resolution No. 11 dt. 16.10.2008 of
the Meeting of the Expert Group of MOEF, Govt. of India, New
Delhi; and Letter No. FRM 41/2008/63-A, dt. 8.9.2008 from
Commissioner and Secretary to the Govt. of Assam, Department of
Environment and Forests) . b) Haor: These are the seasonal floodplain wetlands, which
retain water only for part of year and, are otherwise dry during
the rest of the year, e.g., Chatla Haor, Puneer Haor, etc. c) Anua: These are the river-formed oxbow wetlands
formed due to the change of course of a river. Barak being a highly
serpentine river, there are a number of such `Anua’ s in the Barak
valley region of NE India, e.g., Baskandi Anua, Algapur Anua,
Satkarakandi Anua, Dungripar Anua,Ramnagar Anua, Salchapra
Anua, Fulbari Anua, etc.
However, the above classification of water bodies is not
very rigid and may vary from place to place. Notwithstanding
the above, structural characteristics of the lotic environment
are closely associated with the occurrence of fish species. The
importance of habitats and the relationship between fish and
habitat are of major concern to fishery biologists. A common use
of fish habitats indicates the physical and chemical characteristics
of the environment excluding biological attributes. Habitat
features have been identified as the major determinants in the
distribution and abundance of fish since earlier times . Fish
species diversity is associated with habitat complexity with
regard to depth, water flow, microhabitat types and substrate
types. Recently, fish assemblages have been used as indicators
of environmental degradation , ecosystem health in streams
 and environmental stress .
review of literature pertaining to the studies on fish with
other parameters (diversity, habitat parameters, use of remote
sensing and GIS, fish food fauna, fishing gears and fish catching
devices, fish parasites and fish disease with particular reference
to Epizootic Ulcerative Fish Disease Syndrome or EUS and other
associated aspects) are given below:
The icthyofauna of North-East (NE) region of India has
elements of the Indo-gangetic region; and, to a some extent, of the
Myanmarese and South-Chinese regions . Ghosh & Lipton 
had reported 172 species of fishes with reference to their economic
importance, while Sen  reported 187 species of fishes from
Assam and its environs. Sinha  compiled a list of 230 species
of fishes from NE India. Nevertheless, Nath & Dey  recorded
131 species of fishes from the drainages in Arunachal Pradesh
alone. Sen  comprehensively compiled a list of 267 species
of fishes from NE India. Further, according to Sen , of the c
806 speices of fishes inhabiting the freshwaters of India , the
NE region of India is represented by 267 species belonging to 114
genera under 38 families and 10 orders. This is c 33.13 % of the
total Indian FW fishes. Of the 267 species, Cypriniformes dominates
with c 145 species followed by Siluriformes (72), Perciformes (31),
Clupeiformes (7), Anguilliformes (3), Cyprinodontiformes (3),
Osteoglossiformes (2), Synbranchiformes (2), Syngnathiformes
(1) and Tetraodontiformes (1). In addition, Kar [86,172] reported
the occurrence of 133 species of fishes through a pilot survey
conducted in 19 rivers spread in Barak drainage (Assam),
Mizoram and Tripura. Kar , further, reported the occurrence
of 103 species of fishes through an extensive survey conducted in
six principal rivers in Barak valley (Assam), Mizoram and Tripura.
Kar [172-174] and Kar and Sen (2007) have done detailed study
on the biodiversity of fishes in NE India with reference to Barak
drainage, Mizoram and Tripura.
Notwithstanding the above, studies on the fish assemblage
structure and their habitat requirements in the streams of
Northeast India are scanty. Few initiatives have started in
South India . A novel approach related to the study of
Fish assemblage structure and species inventory and habitat
requirement of individual ichthyospecies in the assemblage in a
number of rivers in Barak valley region of Assam, Mizoram and
Tripura have been undertaken and results reported by Kar [92-94,
172-174] (Sen, 2007).
General survey of the Fish diversity and habitat parameters
were studied using standard procedures [23,191]. Headwater to
downstream studies were based on River Continuum Concept
. Spatial heterogeneity of river channel across small to large
spatial scales , longitudinal (upstream vs downstream) and
lateral (stream margin/mid-channel) dimensions were studied.
Fish samples were collected through experimental fishing
using cast nets (dia.3.7m and 1.0m), gill nets (vertical height 1.0m
- 1.5m; length 100m -150m), drag nets (vertical height 2.0m),
triangular scoop nets (vertical height 1.0 m) and a variety of traps.
Camouflaging technique was also used to catch the fishes. Fish
have been preserved at first in concentrated formaldehyde in the
field itself and then in 40 % formalin. Fishes have been identified
after standard literature [1, 14, 41, 75-77, 183, 184, 196, 203].
Yield statistics were extrapolated (Dey and Kar, 1990) [5,79,172]
from daily catch statistics recorded at the landing stations 
while the trend and cyclic variations were constructed by applying
12 months moving average method [5, 30, 126, 172-174, 17].
As indicated, pilot survey conducted in 22 rivers in Barak
drainage, Mizoram and Tripura, during the period 1999 to 2016,
revealed the occurrence of 133 species of fishes [5, 7-9, 17, 34,
102-105, 209, 210].
According to our field observations, there is a difference in
habitat preference within the species in many families. Young
fishes are generally found to prefer benthic zone of the rivers
while the adults tend to live in all the different niches (Smith,
1994). The Garra spp. and the balitorids have been generally found
in the fast-flowing hill streams. Sections of the rivers not having
many aquatic macrophytes revealed an abundance of fishes. The
food of the adults generally consists of herbivorous items with
occasional carnivorous components. The gut contents revealed
the occurrence of mainly phytoplankton food with zooplankton
encountered only occasionally.
Of the fish species recorded, the cyprinids were the most
abundant group. Altogether, 754 number of cyprinid fishes
have been collected from six prominent rivers in NE India, viz.,
rivers Barak, Jatinga, Sonai, Dhaleswari in Barak valley region of
Assam, river Tuirial in Mizoram and river Gomati in Tripura. The
contribution of cyprinids to the total fish collection depicts its
highest contribution in river Tuirial and lowest in river Dhaleswari.
Among the cyprinids, Salmophasia bacaila, Aspidoparia morar,
Barilius vagra vagra, Amblypharyngodon mola, Neolissochilus
hexagonolepis & Pethia conchonius were recorded in almost all the
study sites. Further, of the total fish species recorded, five species,
viz., Puntius sarana sarana, Ompok bimaculatus, Ailia coila,
Eutropiichthys vacha & Bagarius bagarius could be categorized as
`vulnerable’ . Still further, species like Gudusia chapra, Tor
mosal, Labeo gonius, Crossocheilus latius latius, Balitora brucei,
Mystus tengara, Xenentodon cancila, Mastacembelus armatus &
Nandus nandus could be typified as `Indeterminate’ (Ibid, 1998).
Notwithstanding the above, freshwater (FW) fishes of this
region have been infected by a hitherto unknown fish disease
called the Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome or EUS. A summary of
our studies on EUS fish disease is given below:
Summary of EUS fish disease
The EUS fish disease, having profound impact on fish
sustenance vis-a vis human health and nutrition and economy
of the fishermen and the nation, is being dealt with here briefly
based mainly on the present author’s study. The dreadful and
virulent EUS has been sweeping the FW in the globe in an epidemic
dimension, unhindered, unimpeded and unabated, almost semiglobally.
This disease has caused large-scale mortality among fish
since 1988, rendering many of them endangered. It also leads
to fear psychosis among the fish-eating people, causing untold
misery to the fishermen and fish farmers, as well as devastation
to the economy of the nation. EUS had initially affected four
species of fishes very widely, viz., Pethia conchonius, Mystus
vittatus, Macrognathus aculeatus & Channa punctata. Our study
revealed fluctuation in the intensity of the disease in relation to
species affected. Large hemorrhagic cutaneous ulcers, epidermal
degeneration and necrosis followed by sloughing of scales
are the principal symptoms of EUS. Low total alkalinity (TA)
could be a pre-disposing `Stress factor’. Sick fishes show low
haemoglobin and polymorphs, but high ESR and lymphocytes.
The communicative nature of EUS revealed variation in time gap
between fish and infection in different species. Inoculation of
microbes in the test animals did not reveal any sign of ulcerations
for two years. Bacterial culture revealed occurrence of haemolytic
E. coli, Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella
sp., Staphylococcus epidermitis in the surface lesions as well as in
the gut, liver, gills, heart, kidney and gonads of sick fishes. All these
have been found to be sensitive to Chloramphenicol, Septran,
Gentamycin, etc. Fungal isolation revealed the occurrence of
Aphanomyces sp. with concomitant occurrence of the same
fungal genus in histological sections of EUS-affected fishes.
Histopathological (HP) studies showed focal areas of increased
fibrosis and chronic inflammatory cell infiltration in muscles; focal
areas of fatty degeneration of hepatocytes surrounding the portal
triads in the liver. Inoculation of 10 % tissue homogenate of EUSaffected
Clarias batrachus into 80% confluent monolayer form
RTG fish cell line in Leiboitz L-15 medium, revealed progressinve
CPE which was passable in subsequent cultures: thus, indicating
the `isolation’ of virus.
Electron Microscopic studies with the ultra-thin sections
of EUS-affected fish tissues, revealed the presence of virus-like
particles (inclusion bodies); and, preliminarily, the picobirna
virus has been electron microscopically identified as the primary
aetiological agent of EUS. Further studies in this regard are being
There are a number of standing (Lentic) and running (Lotic)
water bodies in the Indian sub-continent. North-East (NE) India
contain a bewildering diversity of fishes in innumerable water
bodies. But both the precious water bodies and the coveted fishes
are not much being taken care of with regard to their proper
management and conservation; thus, leading to their depletion
Nevertheless, it is, probably, essential to emphatically portray
some of the potential, problems and difficulties in these water
bodies and the fishes therein; and the present communication is a
humble contribution to that.
Potentials and problems in the lentic systems
The potentials of Beels, Haors and Anuas are reflected in the
many aspects as stated below:
a) Vast water spread area, presence of continuous inlets
and outlets (in many wetlands), maximum depth sometimes up
b) The occurrence of rich fish diversity to the extent of 70
species in a single Beel (Sone Beel), presence of migratory Hilsa in
some of the Beels, Haors, etc.
c) Likewise, some of the Haors have rich diversity of
Phyto- and zooplankton and occurrence of juveniles of IMCs and
Hilsa; thus, indicating such wetlands serving as possible natural
breeding grounds of IMCs and Hilsa.
d) The Anuas, being detached from original course
of the rivers, could serve as ideal sites for culture fishery
Notwithstanding the above, significant problems faced by
these wetlands are mostly human induced, e.g.,
a) Diversification of the course of the inlets and blocking of
the outlets, which results in siltation of the Beels and the channels
due to less expulsion of silt from the Beel and leads to diminution
of depth and water-spread area rendering loss of breeding ground
for the large growing fish (LGF); exposure of the land, their
subsequent encroachments and paddy cultivation often using
chemical fertilizers and pesticides.
b) Day-in and day-out fishing operations by thousands
of unrehabilitated fishermen using 26 different types of fishing
gears (some of which are fine-meshed) and methods [17,172] is a
problem of concern.
c) Acute weed problems in some of the “Anuas” are another
problem of serious concern.
d) Also, the EUS fish disease, sometimes kill innumerable
fishes, which is also to be tackled [2,100].
Some of the important suggestions include the following:
a) Removal/modification of man-made blockades in
order to revive large-scale migration of fish, to help boost fish
trade through navigation and to enable some amount of natural
b) Furthermore, proposed measures could include: some
amount of human-involved desiltation, which could revive the
breeding ground of the Large Growing Fishes) (LGF), discourage
paddy cultivation due to re-submergence of the exposed
wetland beds; rehabilitation of the innumerable immigrated and
c) Further, to impart minimum education and monitoring
of the riparian wetland users by the NGOs for less input towards
eutrophication, etc. All these measures could help in the
improvement of the Beel environment in an affirmative way.
d) In addition, culture of IMCs in the deep fishing centres
at the DSL to boost local earnings; and, initiation/re-vamping of
the Fishermen Co-operative Societies, could go a long way in the
emancipation of the fisherfolk.
e) These measures could contribute to maintaining the
health of the Wetlands, Wetland-users and fishes therein and,
could go a long way in the socio-economic upliftment of the poor
A list of some of the wetlands in the NE Region of India
indicating their potentials and problems have been tabulated
below. Further, the potentials and problems of Sone Beel alone
which is the biggest wetland in Assam (Area at FSL= 345812 ha)
and one of the biggest wetlands in the Indian sub-continent and in
the Asian Continent, has been tabulated separately.
Potentials and problems of Sone Beel (wetland)
Potentials of Sone Beel
a) Very Big size
b) Continuous inlet, outlet
c) High Fish yield, IMC Naturally growing, also could be
d) Occurrence of Hilsa (Tenualosa) ilisha
e) Ideal site for rehabilitation of Fishermen
Problems of Sone Beel
a) Inlet and outlet diversifications
b) Outlet blockade, siltation inlet (max. 350.0 mg lit-1) in
contrast to low expulsion through the outlet (max. 216.0 mg lit-1)
c) Mahajal operation
d) Paddy cultivation, Siltation, weeds
e) Big size carnivorous fish
f) Presence of exotic carps
g) Day-in, day-out fishing operations
h) EUS fish disease problem
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Kar D (2005b) Fish Fauna of River Barak, of Mizoram and of Tripura with a note on Conservation. J Freshwater Biol p. 16.
Kar D (2005c) Fish Diversity in the Major Rivers in Southern Assam, Mizoram and Tripura: Proc 2nd International Symposium on GIS and Spatial Analyses in Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton (UK), (Eds.), Nishida T, Kailola PJ, Hollingworth CE. Fisheries and Aquatic GIS Research Group, Kawagoe, Saitama, Japan 2: 679-691.
Kar D (2010) Biodiversity Conservation Prioritisation. Swastik Publishers, Delhi, India, pp. 170.
Kar D (2012a) Essentials of Fish Biology. Dominant Publishers, New Delhi, India, pp. 251.
Kar D (2012b) Wetlands, rivers, fish diversity, fish diseases and aquaculture in North-East India. Fishing Chimes 31(12): 35-37.
Kar D (2014a) Wetlands of Assam with Special Reference to Sone Beel. The Biggest Wetland in Assam and MoEF-Listed Wetland of Wetland of National Importance. Research Frontiers in Wetlands. Fishery & Aquaculture 19-42. In: Kar D, Research Frontiers in Wetlands, Fishery and Aquaculture, (Eds.) Dominant Publishers and Distributors Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, India, pp. 331.
Kar D (2014b) Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome Disease in Wetland Fishes. Research Frontiers in Wetlands, Fishery & Aquaculture. 43-58. In: Kar D, Research Frontiers in Wetlands, Fishery and Aquaculture (Eds.) Dominant Publishers and Distributors Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, India, pp. 331.
Kar D (2015) Epizootic Ulcerative Fish Disease Syndrome. Elsevier, Academic Press, USA, pp. 312.
Kar D (2016) Wetlands, Rivers, Fish, Plankton resources and Fish disease and Aquaculture in North-East India. An Overview Proc International Symposium, Lake, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, and Alva’s Education Foundation, Mengaluru, India, pp. 37.
Kar D (2021a) Community Based Fisheries Management: A Global Perspective, Elsevier, Academic Press, USA, pp. 623.
Kar D (2021c) Unique Oxbow Wetlands in Assam, India. Review Article: Oceanography and Fisheries 14(3): 1-9.
Kar D (2021d) Wetlands, Fishes and Pandemics with Special Reference to India. Sustainability in Environment 6(3): 136-142.
Kar D, Barbhuiya MH (2000a) Length-weight Relationship and Condition Factor in Gudusia chapra (Ham-Buch) and Botia dario (Ham-Buch) from Chatla Haor (flood plain wetland) in Cachar district of Assam. Environment and Ecology 18(1): 227-229.
Kar D, Barbhuiya MH (2000b) Ichthyodiversity of Chatla Haor: A Floodplain wetland in Barak valley Region of Assam. In: Pandey BN, Singh BK, Advances in Zoology and Environmental Degradation and Biodiversity, (Ed.) Daya Publishing House, New Delhi, India, pp. 3-6.
Kar D, Barbhuiya MH (2001) Ecology of Aquatic Macrophytes of Chatla Haor, a floodplain wetland in Cachar district of Assam. Environment and Ecology 19(1): 231-233.
Kar D, Barbhuiya MH (2002) Macrophytic diversity in certain Wetlands of Barak valley region of Assam. In: Ramachandra TV, Rajasekara MN, Ahalya N, Restoration of Lakes and Wetlands (Eds.), Allied Publishers (P) Ltd. Bangalore, India, pp. 86-89.
Kar D, Barbhuiya MH (2004) Abundance and Diversity of Zooplankton in Chatla Haor, a floodplain wetland in Cachar district of Assam. Environment and Ecology 22(1): 247-248.
Kar D, Barbhuiya MH (2005) Length-weight relationship and relative condition factoring Hilsa (Tenualosa) ilisha (Hamiilton) of Barak drainage of Assam. Indian J Environment and Ecoplanning 10(1): 265-267.
Kar D, Dey SC (1982a) Hilsa ilisha (Hamilton) from Lake Sone in Cachar. Assam Proc Indian Sci Congr 69: 77.
Kar D, Dey SC (1982b) An account of Hilsa ilisha (Hamilton)of Sone Beel (Cachar district, Assam, India). Proc All-India Sem Ichthyol 2: 3.
Kar D, Dey SC (1986) An account of ichthyospecies of Lake Sone in Barak valley of Assam. Proc All-India Sem Ichthyology 6: 3.
Kar D, Dey SC (1987) An account of the Fish and Fisheries of Lake Sone in the Barak valley of Assam (India). Proc Workshop Development of Beel Fisheries in Assam 1: 13.
Kar D, Dey SC (1988) An account of Fish yield from Lake Sone in the Barak valley of Assam. Proc Indian Sci Congr 75: 49.
Kar D, Dey S (1988) Preliminary Electron Microscopic studies on Diseased fish tissues from Barak valley of Assam. Proc Annual Conference of Electron Microscopic Society of India 18: 88.
Kar D, Dey SC (1988a) A critical account of the Recent Fish Disease in the Barak valley of Assam. Proc Regional Symp. On Recent outbreak of Fish Diseases in North-East India 1: 8.
Kar D, Dey SC (1988b) Impact of Recent Fish Epidemics on the Fishing Communities of Cachar district of Assam. Proc Regional Symp. On Recent outbreak of Fish Diseases in North-East India 1: 8.
Kar D, Dey SC (1990a) Fish Disease Syndrome: A Preliminary Study from Assam. Bangladesh J Zoology 18: 115-118.
Kar D, Dey SC (1990b) A Preliminary study of Diseased Fishes from Cachar district of Assam. Matsya 15-16: 155-161.
Kar D, Dey SC (1990c) Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome in Fishes of Assam. J Assam Sci Soc 32(2): 29-31.
Kar D, Dey SC (1993a) Variegated Encircling gears in Lake Sone of Assam. J Appl Zool Res 4(2): 171-175.
Kar D, Dey SC (1993b) Interrelationship and Dynamics of Fish Population of Lake Sone in Assam. Environment and Ecology 11(3): 718-719.
Kar D, Dey SC (1996) Scooping Gears of Lake Sone in Assam. J Applied Zool Res 7(1): 65-68.
Kar D, Dey SC (2000) Yield and Conservation of Indian major carps of Lake Sone in Assam. Environment and Ecology 18(4): 1036-1038.
Kar D, Dey SC (2002) On the occurrence of Advanced fry of Hilsa (Tenualosa) ilisha (Hamilton-Buchanan) in Chatla Haor Seasonal wetland of Assam. Proc Zool Soc Calcutta 5 (2): 15-19.
Kar D, Upadhyaya T (1998) Histopathological Studies of Fish tissues affected by Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome in Assam. Technical Bulletin, XIII Convention and National Symposium of Indian Association of Veterinary Anatomists (IAAM). College of Veterinary Sciences, Assam Agricultural University (Guwahati).
Kar D, Dey SC, Roy A (2000a) Fish Genetic Resources in the Principal rivers and wetlands in North-East India with special emphasis on Barak valley (Assam), in Mizoram and in Tripura, with a note on Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome fish disease. Proc National Project Initiation Workshop of the NATP-ICAR World Bank- aided Project on Germplasm Inventory, Evaluation and Gene Banking of Freshwater Fishes, National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources (NBFGR), Lucknow, India 1: 12.
Kar D, Mandal M, Laskar BA, Dhar N, Barbhuiya MH (2000b) Ichthyofauna of some of the oxbow lakes in Barak valley region of Assam. Proceedings of the National Symposium on Wetlands and Fisheries Research in the New Millennium 1: 16.
Kar D, Dey SC, Kar S, Bhattacharjee N, Roy A (1993) Virus-like particles in Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome of Fish. Proc. International Symp. On Virus-Cell Interaction: Cellular and Molecular Responses 1: 34.
Kar D, Dey SC, Kar S, Roy A, Michael RG, et al. (1994) A Candidate virus in Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome of Fish. Proc National Symp of the Indian Virological Society 1: 27.
Kar D, Roy A, Dey SC, Menon AGK, Kar S (1995a) Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome in Fishes of India. World Congress of In Vitro Biology, in vitro 31(3): 7.
Kar D, Kar S, Roy A, Dey SC (1995b) Viral Disease Syndrome in Fishes of North-East India. Proc. International Symp. Of International Centre for Genetic Engg. And Biotechnology (ICGEB) and the Univ of California at Irvine 1: 14.
Kar D, Dey SC, Kar S (1995c) A Viral Disease among the Fishes of North-East India. Annual Congress on Man and Environment, National Environment Sci. Acad and National Institute of Oceanography 10: 62.
Kar D, Dey SC, Purkayastha M, Kar S (1996a) An overview of the Impediments in Conservation of Biodiversity of Lake Sone in Assam. Proc Seminar on Conservation of Biodiversity in Indian Aquatic Ecosystems, Jawahar Lal Nehru University, New Delhi, India, 1.
Kar D, Dey SC, Roy A, Kar S (1996b) Viral Disease Syndrome in Fishes of India. Proc International Congress of Virology, 10.
Kar D, Purkayastha M, Kar S (1996c) Biodiversity Conservation Prioritisation Project: A case study from Sone Beel in Assam. Proc National Workshop on Biodiversity Conservation Prioritisation Project (BCPP), World Wide Fund (WWF) for Nature-India and Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science (Bangalore).
Kar D, Saha D, Laskar R, Barbhuiya MH (1997) Biodiversity Conservation Prioritisation Project (BCPP) in Barak valley region of Assam. Proc National Project Evaluation Workshop on BCPP, Betla Tiger Reserve and National Park, Jharkand, India 1.
Kar D, Saha D, Dey SC (1998a) Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome in Barak valley of Assam. In: Project Report submitted and presented at the National Symposium of Biodiversity Conservation Prioritisation Project (BCPP) held at WWF-New Delhi, India.
Kar D, Dey SC, Roy A (1998b) Present status of Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome (EUS) in Southern Assam. Proc Regional Project Initiation Workshop for NATP-ICAR-NBFGR Project 1: 9.
Kar D, Dey SC, Kar S, Roy A (1998c) An account of Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome in Assam. In: Final Project Report of Biodiversity Conservation Prioritisation Project (BCPP). Submitted and presented at the International Project Finalisation Workshop of BCPP, 1, New Delhi, India, pp. 1-3.
Kar D, Dey SC, Roy A (1998d) Fish Disease Diagnosis and Fish Quarantine problems in India and South-East Asia with particular emphasis on Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome (EUS) fish disease problems. Proc. International Workshop on Fish Disease Diagnosis and Quarantine, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)-Ministry of Agriculture (MoA), Govt. of India (GoI)-Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia (NACA)-Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (UN)-OIE, France: Held at the Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture (CIFA), 1.
Kar D, Dey SC, Kar S, Ramachandra TV (1999) Trawls of Lake Sone in Assam. J Applied Zool Res 10(2): 170-172.
Kar D, Rahaman H, Barnman NN, Kar S, Dey SC, et al. (1999a) Bacterial Pathogens associated with Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome in Freshwater Fishes of India. Environment and Ecology 17(4): 1025-1027.
Kar D, Mandal M, Bhattacharjee S (1999b) Fungal Pathogens associated with Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome in Fishes of Barak valley region of Assam. Proc 1st National Conference on Fisheries Biotechnology CIFE, 1: 34.
Kar D, Dey SC, Roy A, Mandal M (2000c) Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome Fish Disease in Barak valley region of Assam, India. Proc Nat Symp. Current Trends in Wetlands and Fisheries Research in the New Millennium 1: 2.
Kar D, Dey SC, Mandal M, Lalsiamliana (2000d) Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome among the fishes of Assam. In: Proc. National Workshop of NATP-ICAR-NEC North-East Programme. Shillong, India 1: 24.
Kar D, Mandal M, Lalsiamliana (2001a) Species composition and distribution of Fishes in the rivers in Barak valley region of Assam and in the principal rivers of Mizoram and Tripura in relation to their habitat parameters. Proc National Workshop, NATP-ICAR Project, Mid-term Review,1: Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Cochin, 25.
Kar D, Laskar BA, Lalsiamliana (2001b) Further studies on the Ichthyospecies composition and distribution of Freshwater Fishes in Barak drainage and in the principal rivers in Mizoram and in Tripura with a note on their Feeding and Breeding biology. Proc National Project Monitoring Workshop of NATP-ICAR Project, National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources, Lucknow, India, 1: 22.
Kar D, Dey SC, Roy A (2002d) Prevalence of Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome among fishes of Assam. In: Proc Regional Symp. On Biodiversity, SS College, Assam (Central) University, Hailakandi, Assam, India.
Kar D, Dey SC, Roy A (2002e) On the diseased fishes suffering from hitherto unknown Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome in Fishes in India. Proc All-India Congress of Zoology, Bangalore, India.
Kar D, Dey SC, Roy A (2002f) Prevalence of Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome (EUS) among fishes of Mizoram. In: Proc Regional Symp. On Aquaculture 1.
Kar D, Laskar BA, Lalsiamliana (2002g) Germplasm Inventory, Evaluation and Gene Banking of Freshwater Fishes. 3rd Annual Technical Report. National Project Evaluation Workshop, 3: NATP-ICAR World Bank-aided Project: National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources, Lucknow, India p. 57.
Kar D, Dey SC, Mandal M, Laskar BA, Lalsiamliana (2002h) Preliminary Survey of the Fish Genetic Resources of the Rivers in Barak Drainage, Mizoram and Tripura. In: Restoration of Lakes and Wetlands (Eds.) Ramachandra TR, Rajasekahra MC, Ahalya N, Allied Publishers (P) Ltd. Bangalore, India pp. 73-81.
Kar D, Dey SC, Roy A, Mandal M (2002i) Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome in Fishes of Barak valley of Assam, India. In: Ramachandra TV, Murthy RS, Ahalya N, Restoration of Lakes and Wetlands (Eds.), Allied Publishers (P) Ltd. Bangalore, India pp. 303-307.
Kar D, Dey SC, Datta NC (2003a) Welfare Biology in the New Millennium, Allied Publishers Pvt Ltd Bangalore, India, pp. 297.
Kar D, Dey SC, Roy A (2003b) Capture Fishery in Lnetic Systems with some light on Sone Beel in Assam with special reference to prevalence of EUS in the Barak valley region of Assam. Proc Lecture Series in UGC-sponsored Vocational Course in Industrial Fish and Fisheries, Cachar College, Assam University, Silchar, Abstracts, 1.
Kar D, Roy A, Dey SC (2003c) Epizootic Ulcerative Disease Syndrome in Freshwater Fishes with a note on its Management for Sustainable Fisheries. Proc International Conference on Disease Management for Sustainable Fisheries. Department of Aquatic Biology and Fisheries, University of Kerala, Trivandrum.
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Kar D, Dey SC, Roy A (2003h) Review of Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome disease among the freshwater fishes of India. In: Proc UGC-sponsored lecture series delivered at the Department of Environmental Engineering and Biotechnology, Guru Jambeswar University, Hisar, Haryana, India.
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