Sustainability of ecological and social system in the marine needs the structure reform of stakeholders. We employ a classification of stakeholders; inside, outside and external stakeholders to explore the sustainable society in the marine. From the beginning of the 21th century innovation of ICT improves industrial revolution of digital technologies in the proceeding of globalization. In the early stage of the globalization, global corporations do not only increase inside and outside stakeholders within their market network but also accompany rising external stakeholders. It has raised many environmental and social problems into the marine society. The digital revolution can develop the efficient connection between consumers and producers by lowering the transaction cost of markets and improve conservation of marine resources economically and ecologically. Consequently, some external stakeholders are transferring to the outside stakeholders. In addition, displacement of decentralized scheme into markets could decline the social cost of external stakeholders to prevent sustainability of marine societies sufficiently
Keywords: Digital revolution Marine ecology and society Sustainability Transaction cost Inside stakeholders Outside stakeholders External stakeholders Decentralized scheme
Sustainable systems of marine ecology and society should be constructed by basing on a bottom-line approach1. The sustainable systems should enhance communication and cooperation with various stakeholders and perform risk management of marine ecology effectively. The systems aim to conserve diversity of species and prevent destructive changes in ocean environment provocatively. In this essay we explore that the digital revolution partially contributes the construction of sustainable social scheme in marine environments.
Neo liberalists of economics argue that market mechanism could achieve efficient allocation of resources. By pursuing scale merit of market economic transactions have been pervading globally. When we focus on the issues regarding the sustainability of marine ecology, predominant impacts of enlarging globalized economies on marine ecology and fishery should be explored firstly. Corporations in the market mechanism are organized efficiently in the centralized scheme.
Globalization has transformed the structure of stakeholders.
Enlargement of economies increases the stakeholders to be related with market transaction and develops range of external effects
involving the stakeholders. Globalizing economies make problems of climate change more serious. Raising production and distribution of goods and services in global scales become to emit more pollutants and exploit more marine resources economically and ecologically. From the beginning of the 21th century innovation of ICT accompanys industrial revolution of digital technologies
in the proceeding of globalization2. The digital revolution can develop the efficient connection between consumers and producers. Tanaka  provides the classification of inside, outside and external stakeholders to explore the sustainable scheme for the digitalizing social system3.
Marine businesses bring social cost to the related stakeholders4into the inside and outside stakeholders. The inside stakeholders
such as alliance members, shareholders and creditors obtain
stronger or more intimate connections with the corporation than
the other outside stakeholders. Development or preservation of
marine resources are probable to require a large amount of fund
and a long-term investment. The inside stakeholders should construct
trusty and united relation with the corporation. The outside
stakeholders have relations with the corporation through the
market transactions. Digital revolution could enlarge the market
transaction by internet communication and lower the transaction
costs. Improvement of digital technologies displaces market relations
into many intercourses to promote development, preservation
and utilization of marine resources. The innovation of digital
technologies enhances accuracy to evaluate marine resources and
creates new kind of markets. Various types of tourists enjoy marine
views by using LCC (low Cost Carriers) and vacation rentals.
As the outside stakeholders increase, the evaluation with marine
resources and services is available more openly. The corporation
makes a supply system to correspond potential demand promptly.
The reconstruction of outside stakeholders is possible to reduce
the overconsumption or over development of resources.. The classification makes clear the transformation of marine societies in the digital revolution. The corporations are probable to manage the integrated network of stakeholders. They attempt to construct cooperation with the stakeholders in their networks. The stakeholders in the network of the corporation are divided
By using Figure 1 we can illustrate the changing feature of marine
ecology and society in the period of globalization. This figure
expresses the social cost that each type of stakeholder to the corporation
brings. Imaginary scores are measured in the range between
0 and 200. The social costs of inside and outside stakeholders
are compensated by market payments or contracts with the
corporation. External stakeholders are needed to owe their social
cost in the globalization. Global corporation must confront indirectly
with problems from the raising social cost. However, digitalization
can enhance corporate performances to be indicated
explicitly by summing social costs of the inside and outside stakeholders
and induce to decrease the social cost by reforming the
structure of market transactions. The fourth right in bar graphs
implies that the decentralized system is designed to achieve sustainability
and that it should accompany declining production of
Although the digital revolution of societies moves a part of external
stakeholders into outside stakeholders, the centralized system
of corporation has relatively small opportunities to communicate
the stakeholders to obtain correct information in the bottom
line of ocean environment. Reviews in SNS sometimes present significant
knowledge on the local environments. Transaction costs
in the digital economies selectively utilize the knowledge and the
information on society and environment. While digitalization affects
to lower the barriers of markets by decreasing costs for a
unit of transaction, the corporations are confronted with increasing
pressure of enlarging stakeholders to enter the market.
Figure 2 exhibits that sustainable societies and economies
should be based on the decentralized system and that an innovation
of digital technologies can decrease the social welfare loss
generated by enlarging global economies. Innovation of digitaltechnologies increases evaluation of marginal social cost by enlarging
scope of market transaction moves the curve 0J to 0I upwardly.
The innovation shifts the optimal point K into D and decreases
production from xc to c
i x . The sustainable point in the
decentralized system is indicated by the point C. The digitalization
depicts welfare loss presented by area of the triangle CDF but decreases
the loss by area of the trapezoid FDKG.
Coase(1), Williamson(7,8) and other researchers of institutionalism
explore how organizations can substitute market systems.
The digital revolution has been changing the relation between
markets and institutions. To perform integrate governance
of economy and ecology in marine societies we should explore
sustainable structure of stakeholders. Sustainable system to integrate
ecology and society needs significant reforms of stakeholder
construction. The digital revolution to facilitate decentralized
scheme can decrease the social cost of external stakeholders to
cause significant problems on sustainability.