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Common Pandora (Pagellus Erthrinus)
Collected from the Coast off Benghazi, Libya
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Some Aspects of Reproductive Biology of
Common Pandora (Pagellus Erthrinus)
Collected from the Coast off Benghazi, Libya
Amina Elmajedeb, Houssein Elbaraasi*, Fatma Altomi and Hussein Jenjan
Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, University of Benghazi, Libya
Submission:May 14, 2019; Published: May 30, 2019
*Correspondence author: Houssein Elbaraasi, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, University of Benghazi, Libya
How to cite this article:Amina Elmajedeb, Houssein Elbaraasi, Fatma Altomi, Hussein Jenjan. Some Aspects of Reproductive Biology of Common Pandora
(Pagellus Erthrinus) Collected from the Coast off Benghazi, Libya. Oceanogr Fish Open Access J. 2019; 10(1): 555778. DOI: 10.19080/OFOAJ.2019.10.555778
The reproductive biology of Common Pandora (Pagellus erthrinus) collected from the coast off Benghazi, Libya were investigated. A total of 225 specimens were collected throughout a year of 2011-2012. The sex ratio was 0.22: 0.13: 0.65 for males to hermaphrodites to females. First maturation size for males were (24.5 cm), for hermaphrodite were (25.0 cm), and for females were (22.0 cm). In general, GSI in females group were higher than that found in males group. For the fecundity, the highest means values were recorded in April (244344 ± 104158) and in October (222794 ± 73720). Nevertheless, the lowest fecundity values were recorded in February (4699 ± 6356) and in September (15504 ± 20055).
Keywords: Common Pandora (Pagellus erthrinus), Reproductive, Benghazi, Libya.
Understanding the reproductive biology of fish is the most important feature to provide a scientific suggestion for fisheries management and fish culture. Common Pandora Pagellus erythrinus is one of the most important commercial fish species in Libyan fishery production. It is an omnivorous species, but feed mostly as carnivorous. It is usually distributed in the Mediterranean Sea and along the European and African coasts of the Atlantic Ocean [1,2]. Moreover, P. erythrinus is a protogynous hermaphrodite, that is matures at first as a female and changes to a male after two years of age or wherever attaining a body length of 17–18 cm [3,4]. Furthermore, it spawns from late spring to late summer on northern part of Mediterranean, at depths of 60 – 800 m, wherever the temperature of water is approximately 16–21 °C [5-7]. Consequently, the current study aimed to understanding some of the aspects of the reproductive biology of Pagellus erythrinus collected from coast off Benghazi, Libya
A total of 225 samples of Pagellus erythrinus (Mean total length 21.73 ± 2.57 cm and mean body weight 138.75 ± 54.30
g) were monthly collected from December 2011 until November 2012 off the coast of Benghazi, Libya using gill nets with 40mm stretched mesh size. The total body length and body weight were measured. Twenty scales were removed from different place of
fish body to determine fish age. Fish was dissected and gonads were removed and weighted. The sex was determined by gonads morphology. The sex ratio (SR) was expressed as a percentage and determined according to Hossucu & Cakir,  by the formula:
The Gonado-Somatic Index (GSI) were determined according to Micale & Perdichizzi,  by the fallowing equation:
Fecundity was estimated for each maturing ovary by counting all ripening eggs. Eggs were separated and put in normal saline solution (0.9 % Na Cl) for 24 hours and counted under light microscope at magnification of 40X. Fecundity was calculated according to Gaikwad et al.  by the fallowing equation:
Oocytes were collected randomly from each ovary (left and right) and eggs diameter were measured using ocular micrometer using light microscope at 100X.
The overall sex ratio was 0.22: 0.13: 0.65 for males to hermaphrodites to females (Table 1). Furthermore, the sex ratio of male to female was (1: 2.92) and male to hermaphrodites was (1: 0.58). The sex ratio was not regular during the different months and the number of males was smaller than the sex ratio of males in all months except in April. the sex ratio of males was
larger than females. However, the sex ratio of hermaphrodite
group was smaller than the sex ratio that in females’ group, but
larger than males’ group in January, February, March and August.
In general, the maximum percentage of males was recorded
in April (56 %), but in females found in May (100 %) and in
hermaphrodites the maximum percentage was in August (50 %).
The percentage of sexes at different total body length for
males, hermaphrodites and females showed in Table 2. First
maturation size for males were (24.5 cm), for hermaphrodite
were (25.0 cm), and for females were (22.0 cm) (Table 2).
The percentages for males, hermaphrodites and females
at different ages are showed in Table 3. For all groups the
percentages at different ages were 11.4% at 1st year, 44.8% at 2nd
year, 30.0% at 3rd year, 7.4% at 4th year, 3.4% at 5th year, 1.6% at
6th year and 0.4% at 7th year. Furthermore, females’ group were
youngest in mean age (Table 3).
The monthly variation of the GSI are shown in Figures 1 & 2.
For all groups (males and females) of P. erytherinus, the highest
mean values of GSI observed in April, however, the lowest mean
values have been found in August. In general, GSI in females’
group were higher than that found in males’ group. In males,
GSI increased in April (1.39 ± 0.30) and June (1.16 ± 0.45) afterward started to decrease in July (0.56 ± 0.12) to September
(0.48 ± 0.30) but returned to increase in October (1.38 ± 0.70).
Although, in females’ group, GSI start increasing from February
(1.12 ± 0.51) to July (2.45 ± 0.15) but decline in August (0.43
± 0.20) and returned to increase in October (2.41 ± 1.32), then
decreased in November (1.04 ± 0.43).
Monthly variation of means (± SD) for fecundity and
eggs diameter of Pagellus erythrinus showed in Table 4. For
the fecundity, the highest means values were recorded in
April (244344 ± 104158) and in October (222794 ± 73720).
Nevertheless, the lowest fecundity values were recorded in
February (4699 ± 6356) and in September (15504 ± 20055).
Furthermore, significantly differences (p < 0.05) were found
between months, except between April and October and between
May and July were no significantly differences (p > 0.05). For the
egg’s diameters, the highest mean values were found in July (610
μm ± 102). However, the lowest mean value was found in August
(90 μm ± 14) (Table 4).
The common pandora is a demersal fish belonging to the
Actinopterygii, sparidae family. This fish is extensively distributed
in continental shelf of the Mediterranean Sea. Therefore, the
aims of this present study were to investigate some features of
the reproductive biology of common pandora Pagellus erythrinus
collected from Benghazi, Libya coast. The common pandora is
a protogynous hermaphrodite, that is matures first as female
and changes to male after two years of age or when attaining
a body length of 17-18 cm . The sex ratio is an important
parameter for understanding reproductive pattern and fish
culture . In the current study the sex ratio of males to females
of common pandora was 1:2.92, and these results are like results
of common pandora in Al-Khoma, Libyan coast. Hossucu & Cakir,
 resulted that, the sex ratio of common pandaora females to
males was 1:3.16. The sex ratio is not regular thought the diverse
months, mainly through the reproduction season of each fish
species . The sex ratio of males to females was low, this could
connect to protogynous hermaphroditism. Furthermore, the
females are heavy and obtain caught in the gear in great number,
consequential in an unhinged sex ratio. In the current study, the
size of maturation for males were 22.34 cm and for females were
21.36 cm. These results are like results have recorded by Pajuelo
& Lorenzo,  and Sweelem, . This result indicated that,
males of common pandora longer than females. These could be
related to sex changes from male to female and temperature of
In the current study, the GSI values of females were higher
than those of males, and this like study by Hossucu and Cakir
(8) and Mtin et al.,  in the same species from different body
water and geographical location. The highest values of GSI were
during spring for whole samples, but reproductive season of
common pandora happening mostly in the late spring and early
summer with a peak in spawning activity in April and May in
Coast of Benghazi. This result confirmed with results of Valdes
 and results of Sweelem  on common pandora. The
spawning period of common pandora is differ in deferent study
area. For examples, the reproductive season of common pandora
in Canary Island extended from April to September, with a peak
in spawning activity in June and July, and in Portugal extends from March to July, with a peak during May to June. The present
study showed that the highest fecundity was through spawning
season (from April to July and October). Also, eggs diameters
were gradually increased toward spawning season. This result
confirmed with results of Yueh & Chang  on black porgy
(Acanthopagrus schlegeli). The raise in diameters of egg could
be related to the deposition of large quantity of proteins and
lipids that arrives from food and water temperature through the
developing eggs [1,12].
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