Investigation of Copper and Zinc on the Content
in Haizhou Bay and in Platycephalus Indicus
Zhang Bingzhi1,2,3,4*, Li Zeyu2 and Chen Yanan3
1Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Marine Bioresources and Environment, Huaihai Institute of Technology, China
2Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Marine Biotechnology, Huaihai Institute of Technology, China
3Co-Innovation Center of Jiangsu Marine Bio-industry Technology, Huaihai Institute of Technology, China
4Jiangsu Marine Resources Development Research Institute, China
Submission: April 22, 2019; Published: May 20, 2019
*Correspondence author: Zhang Bingzhi, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Marine Bioresources and Environment, Huaihai Institute of Technology, 59 Cangwu Road, Haizhou, Lianyungang, 222005, China
How to cite this article:Zhang B, Li Z, Chen Y. Investigation of Copper and Zinc on the Content in Haizhou Bay and in Platycephalus Indicus. Oceanogr
Fish Open Access J. 2019; 10(1): 555776. DOI: 10.19080/OFOAJ.2019.10.555776
The contents of heavy metals copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in water, sediment, fish skin and flesh of fish in Haizhou Bay were investigated twice in 2017 and 2018. It was found that the contents of Cu and Zn increased year by year. In addition, the contents of Cu and Zn in water and sediment decreased with the increase of offshore distance, indicating that the source of importation was terrestrial, which was consistent with the literature reports. Although Cu and Zn in water belong to class one of seawater, according to Müller’s accumulation index, Cu in sediments of some sampling sites has been moderately polluted and Zn has also been slightly polluted. Although the content of Cu and Zn in skin and flesh of Platycephalus indicus does not exceed the food standard limit, its higher enrichment coefficient increased with the increase of Cu and Zn concentration in water. If the heavy copper and zinc sources imported into Haizhou Bay are not regulated, it may also cause food safety problems for fish.
Keywords: Haizhou Bay; Heavy mental Copper and Zinc; Platycephalus indicus
Haizhou Bay was in the north of Jiangsu Province, China. Beginning in the north of Rizhao Lanshan Town, Shandong Province, it was in Foshouzui (35°05’55 N, 119°21’53 E) and extending south to Gaogong Island, Lianyungang City (34°45’25 N, 119°29’45 E). It was a trumpet-shaped open bay bordering the Yellow Sea, with a bay mouth width of 42 km and an area of 876.39 km2. It was an important aquaculture and fishing base in Jiangsu Province and one of the eight major fishing grounds in China . In recent years, with the exploitation of marine resources, the development of coastal cities and industrialization, and the frequent trade between coastal ports, the pollution of the marine environment had become increasingly serious, among which heavy metals were important pollutants with potential dangers. Different from other pollutants, heavy metals were typical inorganic toxic substances. They couldn’t be degraded by microorganisms in water. They could only migrate and transform between water, sediment and organisms in different valence states, thus dispersing and enriching. Heavy metals in seawater could be
enriched in algae and sediment even if their concentration was very low.
They were harmful to human health through the transmission of food chain and had become persistent organic pollutants .
It would have a serious impact on the safety of coastal ecological environment. The available data showed that the content of heavy metals in water phase was small, and the content of heavy metals in sediments was much higher than that in corresponding water phase . Cu and Zn were the main factors in marine heavy metal pollution. Through the study of Cu and Zn, we could understand the pollution status of the whole heavy metal from the side. Therefore, the investigation of Cu and Zn in aquatic and sedimentary was helpful to understand the source and distribution of heavy metal pollution and had important environmental warning significance. Flathead fish (Platycephalus indicus) was a kind of offshore bottom fish, which inhabited shallow sea area. It was usually buried in the sediment of the seabed. It moved slowly and does not form large groups. It was an important fresh-eating fish for coastal residents. Its pollution status had a very direct impact on people’s health.
In this study, water samples were collected on June 28, 2017 and June 8, 2018, at the peak of the day (shallow silt on the shore, only boat sampling at high tide). Surface water was collected according to the standard of seawater sampling Sample collection points were shown in Figure 1 and distributed
in Huizhou Bay, totaling 8 points. After sampled, the content of
heavy metals was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry
in accordance with Ocean Monitoring Code . The instrument
model was Varian AA140/240 of the United States. The methods
of sediment collection, pretreatment, preparation, preservation
and determination were all in accordance with the requirements
of reference 4.
Surface sediment was collected by grab sampler. Surface
0-2cm mud samples were collected by plastic spoon without
disturbance in the center. The samples were described and
recorded on site. Number was put into clean polyethylene bag
and stored at 0-4℃. Samples thawed to room temperature are airdried
in a cool and ventilated place in the laboratory . Gravel,
shells and sawdust are removed. Agate mortar is used to grind
them and pass through 160 mesh sieves. Samples were taken after
full mixing for determination and analysis. Flathead fishes were
caught in the Haizhou Bay area while sampling. According to the
method of literature 5, the Cu and Zn in fish skin and meat were
Geo accumulation Index (Igeo) was a quantitative index for
studying heavy metals in sediments proposed by German scientist
Muller in 1969 . It could be used to evaluate the pollution
degree of heavy metals. The formula is as follows:
In the formula: Cn was the measured element n content, Bn
was the geochemical background value of the element, and the
element content that was not polluted is generally selected. The
industrialization of Haizhou Bay began gradually after 1990.
Therefore, the background values of elements in coastal soils of
Jiangsu Province were obtained from 1980 to 1981 in literature 7,
in which CCu = 15.02 ppm and CZn = 47.15 ppm. Igeo < 0, no pollution;
0 < Igeo < 1, light pollution; 1 < Igeo < 2, moderate pollution; 2 < Igeo
< 3, moderate pollution; 3 < Igeo < 4, heavy pollution; 4 < Igeo < 5,
heavy pollution; Igeo > 5, serious pollution.
Bioconcentration coefficient referred to the ratio of the
concentration of an element or compound in an organism
to that of the substance in the environment in which it lived
. It can express the quantitative relationship between the
bioaccumulation, concentration, accumulation, amplification and
absorption capacity and the degree. The calculation formula was
Among them, Cb was the content of heavy metals in organisms,
Cw was the content of heavy metals in water (Figure 1).
(Figures 2 & 3) showed that the contents of Cu and Zn in sea
water in 2018 were higher than those in 2017, which indicated
that the contents of heavy metals in sea water in Haizhou Bay
were increasing. The closer offshore, the higher the content of
heavy metals, which was the same as that reported in literature
8. The reason was that Cu and Zn in seawater comed from land
input. The relatively high concentration of Cu and Zn in sampling
points 3 and 4 was related to the topography of Haizhou Bay .
Although sampling point 4 was in Linhong estuary, there are tidal
gates built on Linhong River, which seldom open, so the area
formed a concave shape. It was possible to accumulate higher
concentrations of Cu and Zn due to the concentration of seawater
(Table 1) According to literature 8, it was known that Cu
and Zn in Haizhou Bay were the result of land runoff input and
coastal deposition. The geo accumulative index of sediment
plots at each sampling point in Table 1 showed that the Cu and
Zn in the sediments of other sampling points were basically from
mild to moderate pollution except sampling point 1. The results
of moderate or even heavy pollution at Sampling Point 1 might
be related to the ongoing port construction nearby. Referring
to the Water Quality Standard of the People’s Republic of China
(GB 3097-1997) and the Quality Standard of Marine Sediments
of the People’s Republic of China (GB 18668-2002), Cu and Zn
in seawater belonged to the first class of water and belonged to
cleaner water, while the content of copper in most sampling points
of sediments was in the second class of standards, and the content
of zinc was in the lower position of the first class of standards. The
content of Cu and Zn in sediments was obviously higher than that
in water. The results showed that Cu and Zn have high enrichment
ability in sediments. Although the slow increase of heavy metals
in seawater would not immediately cause a significant decline in
seawater quality, it might cause serious pollution of sediments
(Table 2) The results showed that the contents of Cu and Zn
in the flesh and skin of Platycephalus indicus did not exceed the
stipulated values of the National Food Safety Standard (GB2762-
2012), but Table 2 could infer that with the increase of Cu and
Zn in seawater, the contents of heavy metals in fish meat and
skin also increased correspondingly, so we should be vigilant
about the contents of heavy metals in seawater. In addition, the
content of Cu and Zn in fish skin was higher than that in fish flesh,
which indicateed that adsorption had a great influence on the
enrichment of organisms. This study was helpful to guide people
to pay attention to the hygienic condition of fish skin in their daily
(Table 3) According to the calculation of bioaccumulation
coefficient of Cu and Zn in the meat and skin of Platycephalus
indicus, the bioaccumulation ability of copper in Platycephalus
indicus was much higher than that of zinc. Enrichment coefficient
increased with the increase of concentration in water. Biological
enlargement effect on environmental pollutants should be noticed
Like the report in literature 8, the source of Cu and Zn in
Haizhou Bay might be caused by land importation, and the
monitoring of land-based pollution sources should be controlled.
Compared with the data of 2017 and 2018, except for the sample
points, the content of Cu and Zn was increasing, which indicated
that if no further measures are taken, the pollution of heavy
metals would be aggravated. The content of Cu and Zn in the body
of Platycephalus indicus was higher than that in the water sample
and sediment, which indicated that the bioaccumulation effect of
Cu and Zn in Platycephalus indicus was obvious, and the content
of Cu and Zn in the skin was higher than that in the flesh, which
indicated that the skin adsorption effect was greater than the
bioaccumulation effect, and had guiding significance for human dietary habits. Although the content of Cu and Zn in the water
did not reach the level of pollution warning, the heavy metals
in the sediments of some areas on the surface of the ground
accumulated number had reached the level of moderate pollution,
and their future harm could not be neglected due to the biological
This research was supported by A Project Funded by the
Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher
Education Institutions, Study on Environmental and Ecological
Restoration of Guanhe Estuary (CXKT20180313) and Ecological
Effects of Characteristic Pollutants in Typical Seafood in Haizhou
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