A Review of Recent Status on Mudskippers (Oxudercine Gobies) in Indonesian Waters
Pormansyah1, Muhammad Iqbal1*, Arum Setiawan2, Indra Yustian2 and Hilda Zulkifli2
1Conservation Biology Programe, Faculty of Science, Sriwijaya University
2Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Sriwijaya University
Submission: January 17, 2019; Published: March 27, 2019
*Correspondence author: Muhammad Iqbal, Conservation Biology Programe, Faculty of Science, Sriwijaya University, Jalan Padang Selasa 524, Palembang 30139, Indonesia
How to cite this article:Pormansyah, Muhammad Iqbal, Arum S, Indra Y, Hilda Z. A Review of Recent Status on Mudskippers (Oxudercine Gobies) in
Indonesian Waters. Oceanogr Fish Open Access J. 2019; 9(4): 555769. DOI: 10.19080/OFOAJ.2019.09.555769
The status of valid species and distributional range of mudskippers (oxudercine gobies) in Indonesian waters are reviewed here. There are 24 species of mudskippers recently recorded. Refered to seven largest islands region in Indonesia, Sumatra has largest number of mudskippers (14 species), following Java (12 species, Lesser Sundas (11 species), Kalimantan (9 species), West Papua (9 species), Sulawesi (8 species) and Moluccas (8 species). Further research is required to clarify distributional range and to adress conservation challenge of mudskippers in Indonesian waters.
Keywords: Review; Mudskipper; Oxudercine gobies; Oxudercidae; Indonesian waters; Diversity
Mudskippers or oxudercine gobies are amphibious fishes native to the Indo-West Pacific and tropical western Africa . Ten mudskipper genera are recognized ; and of these, four genera, Boleophthalmus, Periophthalmodon, Periophthalmus and Scartelaos, conspicuously emerge out of water to display, forage and defend territories during ebb tides . The mudskippers provide a rich source for comparative studies in adaptation to the littoral habitat. Within the Indo-Pacific, mudskippers are distributed longitudinally from the Red Sea (East Africa, 40° E) to Samoa (Tonga, 165° W) and latitudinally from Japan (35° N) to Australia (20° S) [2,4]. Indonesia archipelagos are the main regions of the Indo-West Pacific which have the richest marine life. The Indonesian
coastal zone is rich in tropical marine ecosystems such as estuarial beaches, mangroves, coral reefs, seagrass and algal beds and small island ecosystems which are homes of different varieties of living communities with various types of mode association as well as richness in species diversity . Most of Indonesian mangrove-asociated fish species are widely distributed throughout the central Indo-west Pacific region, including mudskippers . Recent phylogenetic studies, supported by morphological data, have provided evidence that the oxudercine gobies treat as family Oxudercidae , but further discussions still running to facilitate their taxonomical status. In this paper, we review and summarize update current knowledge of the mudskippers in Indonesian waters.
Distribution abbreviations, S = Sumatara, K = Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo), J = Java, S = Sulawesi, M = Moluccas, L = Lesser Sunda, P =
Papua (West Papua, Indonesian Papua), + = recorded, ?= presumed, but need confirmation
There are 24 species of mudskippers recently recorded in
Indonesian waters (Table 1). This checklist was compiled and
shortlisted from recent major references of oxudercine gobies
[2,4,8-20]. The fishes were divided within seven largest islands
region of Indonesia, where faunal regions match administrative
boundaries and has no political significance . Refered to seven
largest islands region in Indonesia, Sumatra has largest number of
mudskippers (14 species), following Java (12 species, Lesser Sundas
(11 species), Kalimantan (9 species), West Papua (9 species),
Sulawesi (8 species) and Moluccas (8 species). We presumed the
low number of mudskippers species in Sulawesi and Moluccas are
correlated with lacking of local researchers and ichthyologists on
the both islands. For the example, recent field work in Sumatra
revealed that Periophthalmodon septemradiatus recorded further
to the southern Sumatra (Figure 1) . If number of local researchers
and ichthyologists increasing interest in mudskippers, more
number of species could be also add to regional islands list.
The conservation of the mangrove ecosystem is important especially
for an archipelagic area such as Indonesia. In recent decades,
mangrove habitats have been rapidly reduced and degraded,
to current global estimates of less than 138,000 km2 of mangrove
forests remaining . In Indonesia, 2,548,209.42 hectares (27%)
are in good conditions, 4,510,456.61 hectares (48%) are in poor
conditions and 2,146,174.29 ha (23%) are in damaged conditions
. Like mudskippers, mangrove plants are adapted to different
environments in the coastal zone, and display distinct community
zonation from low to high water or topography (Figure 2), based
on changes in inundation and salinity . The status of all mudskipers
species are not listed as threatened under the International` Union for the Conservation of Nature’s (IUCN) Red List of Threatened
Species . Nor species also listed as one of protected fish by
Government of Indonesia . However, yet mangrove areas continue
to be deforested at unprecedented rates, we propose mudskipper
as bioindicator of conservation challenge for focal faunistic
species that associated with mangrove forests.
The valid species and distributional range of mudskippers in
Indonesian waters are presented here. This reveiew reflect that
further research is required to justify distributional range and to
adress conservation challenge of muskippers in Indonesian waters,
especially in the area where mangrove forests are concentrated
and rarely visited by ichthyologists.
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