Deposition of the Mn in the Tissues of Crucian Carp in the Coal Gangue Polluted Water and Natural Water
Yan Yongfeng1*, Zhang Liao1, Yan Ming2
1Department of Life Science, Shangqiu Normal University, China
2Faculty of Forestry and Horticulture, Henan Agricultural University, China
Submission: February 17, 2016; Published: April 15, 2016
*Corresponding author: Yan Yongfeng, Department of Life Science, Shangqiu Normal University, Shangqiu, 476000, China, Tel: 0086+139270710987; E-mail: yanyfO1@sina.com
How to cite this article: Yan Y, Zhang L, Yan M. Deposition of the Mn in the Tissues of Crucian Carp in the Coal Gangue Polluted Water and Natural Water. Ocean & fish Open Access J. 2016; 1(1): 555553. DOI: 10.19080/OFOAJ.2016.01.555553
Coal gangue is the solid waste material in the process of coal mining and coal washing, which contains a lot of heavy metal: Manganese (Mn), which poses a serious threat to food security and human health. In order to study the present pollution situation of Mn and the deposition of Mn in the tissues of fish from gangue polluted water of Yongcheng, Shangqiu, Mn was determined by using the flame atomic absorption method. The results show that the concentration of Mn in the heart, hepatopancreas, gills, muscles of crucian carp from pollution-free waters in Tianmu Lake were 138.96.±35.85 (μg/g ), 10.20±4.92 (μg/g), 30.02±7.62 (μg/g), 14.64±4.06(μg/g); whereas they were 316.48±23.41 (μg/g ), 25.84±6.03 (μg/g), 70.18±14.67 (μg/g), 30.09±10.44(μg/g) in the crucian carp from the coal mining subsidence area. The Mn deposits were all significantly higher than natural pollution-free waters. The sedimentary rule of Mn in the crucian carp is: heart > gill > hepatopancreas and muscles. The concentration of Mn in heart is significantly higher than in the other tissue. So, we draw a conclusion that coal gangue pollution aggravates the deposition of Mn in the tissues of crucian carp and it is more likely to deposit in the heart of the crucian carp. Meat from fishes of coal gangue cannot be eaten exceeding 333g per day.
Coal gangue is the solid waste, which is produced in the process of exploiting coal. Every year, the emission of coal gangue is about 10%-20% of coal yield [1,2]. Coal gangue contains about 20 kinds of elements, such as Ca, Mg, Fe, S, Si, As, Cr, Pb, Hg, Mn, Se, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sb, Co, Mo, Be, V, Ba, Ti, Th, U, Ag . Among these, Hg, Mn, Cr, Pb, Cu, As, Zn are harmful to human health [4,5].These heavy metal elements affect the growth and immune function of aquatic animals and also get deposited in their muscles [6-12]. When people consume the meat from these aquatic animals, the heavy metals get absorbed, and affect the human health . Even though Mn is required by the human body as a trace element [14-16], Law reported that intake of too much Mn would affect the Central Nervous System , damaging the mechanism of switch off enzyme, thus acting as a great threat to human health .
In China, mine subsidence area often comprises of lakes, and some people feed on the fish from these mine subsidence area. This becomes a threat to food safety. But, there have been no reports about effects of heavy metal elements deposited in fish tissues by coal gangue pollution. Hence, this study on the heavy metal elements deposition in the tissue of fish is aimed to help us know the pattern of heavy metal deposition, and evaluate the water pollution. In this experiment, the deposition of Mn in crucian carp in coal gangue polluted lake and pollution-free lake is determined, by detecting the content of Mn in fish tissues. The results will help us to know the pattern of Mn deposition and evaluate the safety of the fish meat from the coal gangue polluted lake.
40 Fish were sampled from 2 Lakes. The control group fish (20 fish) were collected from a native lake named Tianmu Lake, which is situated on Yellow River old path in Shangqiu (34° 35´N, 115° 41´E). It is far from factory and coal, and hence not polluted. The tested fish (20 fish) were collected from a lake which is a mine subsidence area near the coal, situated on XiaoXu village in Yongcheng Shangqiu (33°57´N, 116°22´E). The body weight of the fish was 86.8±5.8g.
Formulated 1% HNO3 as a standard solution. Used 1% HNO3
for standard blank solutions, and weighed Mn standards, then
dissolved by 1% HNO3, diluted to 0.10, 0.20, 0.30, 0.40, 0.50 μg/
mL standard solutions.
Sample was determined by flame atomic absorption
spectrometry. The parameters were wavelength 228.8nm, slit
0.7nm, lamp current 3.0 mA, the air flow 13500 mL / min, and the burner height 13.5 nm. Every sample was determined 5 times.
A standard curve was drawn according to the standard
solutions measured data, then the content of each sample was
calculated according to the standard curve.
All data were analyzed by SPSS. Mn contents in every kind
of tissue were compared by Duncan multiple comparisons. The
differences between the fish from polluted water and natural
clean water were compared by T-test.
In our results, the least content was 1.65μg/g, and the
highest was 74.31μg/g. The contents of Mn in the tissues of fish
from unpolluted lake(Tianmu Lake) was 1.65-19.77 μg/g. The
contents of Mn in the tissues of fish from polluted water(Xiaoxu
village) was 4.58-74.31 μg/g.
The results, comparing the contents in different tissues has
been shown in Table 1. In the unpolluted native waters, the content
of Mn in heart was significant higher than hepatopancreas, gills
and muscles. In coal gangue polluted water, the content of Mn in
heart was extremely higher than the hepatopancreas, gills and
The contents of Mn in fish tissues compared between
unpolluted native water and coal gangue polluted water has been
shown in Figure 1. The content of Mn in hepatopancreas, gills,
hearts and muscles of fish in polluted water were all extremely
higher than native water.
The contents of Mn in the tissues of fish from unpolluted
lake (Tianmu Lake) were 1.65-19.77 μg/g. The contents of Mn
in the tissues of fish from polluted water (Xiaoxu village) was
4.58-74.31 μg/g. Ozgur Dogan Uluozlu analyzed Mn in 9 kinds of
fish from Black Sea and the Aegean Sea, the results showed that:
the content of Mn in these fishes was 1.28-7.40 mg/kg . Li
also detected Mn in muscles of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), the
result being 1.6 mg/kg . It was lower than our result. This
could have come from the difference of fish types and waters.
Yllmaz analyzed metal elements of grey mullet (Leuciseus
eephalus) and Lepomis cyanellus (Lepomis gibbosus) in the
same sea area and found that, the content of Mn was: 0.112-
24.230 mg/kg and -12.434 mg/kg . The result from Wang
detected that the metal elements in fishes of Huma River showed
that the content of Mn in Crucian carp was 0.095 mg/kg, whereas
in Burbot (Lirmatus) in the same water was 0.606 mg/kg .
Wang compared the content of Mn in Northern pike (Esox lucius)
in different section of the Ussuri river. The results show that in
different sections of the river, the content of Mn is different, such
as: 2.192 mg/kg in Stellar Section of the river, 1.386 mg/kg in
Haiqing Section of the river, 1.069 mg/kg in Fuyuan Section of
the river . In our research, the fishes come from different
water, especially one of them from coal gangue. Mn deposits
are found higher in the tissues of fish from polluted water than
native unpolluted water. Coal gangue has heavy metal elements,
including Mn. So the high Mn content in the fish from coal gangue
polluted water is quite possible, in line with our speculation.
We thus draw a conclusion that Mn deposition is more in coal
As seen from the results above, in both polluted water
and native unpolluted water, the contents of Mn in heart were
highest in these 4 kinds of tissues. The deposit pattern was:
hearts > gills > hepatopancreas > muscles. Wang analyzed 8
kinds of fishes in Jialing river, and reported that the contents
of Mn in hepatopancreas were higher than in the muscles ,
which is same as our result. Liu also reported that Mn in gills
of Procambarus clarkii was higher than in the muscles. She also
reported that Mn in visceral was higher than gills, but she did not
separate heart and hepatopancreas . There was no report
about comparison of Mn in heart and gills of fishes or shrimps.
Even of these, we can have a conclusion that the deposit pattern
of Mn is: hearts > gills > hepatopancreas >muscles.
Mn is a trace element required by the body. Mn2+ is the
cofactor of Arginase, Ribonucleotide reductase . In animal
body, there was Mn-SOD, which contains Mn . Mn is also
as an activator of Polysaccharide polymerase, and Galactosyl
transferase, which are 2 kinds of enzyme required for forming
the organic matrix of bone. So Mn is very important element for
formation of bone. Mn is also an essential element for catalyzing
cholesterol synthesis by Dicarboxylic acid kinase. Cholesterol acts as a precursor of sex hormone. Lack of Mn would affect
reproductive function . So, intake of Mn at a suitable level
is helpful for maintaining normal physiological functions. While
Law thought that too much Mn can introduce damaging startup
mechanism of enzyme and identify obstacles , Zhang also
reported that intake of too much Mn can introduce poisoning
and affect Central Nervous System . So, we can see that
intake of Mn at a suitable dose is helpful, but too much is harmful
to human health. According to China Intakes Dietary scale, an
adult can intake 10 mg of Mn per day . In this research, We
detected that Mn in fish muscle was 14.64 μg/g; 30.09 μg/g (Dry
mater). So, an adult can eat these two kinds of fish meat about
714.29 g, 332.34 g (Dry mater) one day in a safe scale. For wet
mater, we detected 1.79-3.31μg/g in native unpolluted water,
and 4.34-7.60 μg/g in coal gangue polluted water. For safety
measures, consumption of fish from polluted water should not
exceed 1316 g (Wet weight) per one day. Not only for Mn, Yan
also reported that coal gangue polluted water have high dose Cd
in fish meat . Eating fish from coal gangue polluted water
would increase cancer risk by Cd intake [26,27]. As a conclusion,
we cannot eat fish from coal gangue polluted water.
In summary, we can draw conclusions as follows: Mn was
deposited more in Coal gangue polluted water. The deposit law
is: hearts > gills > hepatopancreas > muscles. Seen from food
safety, fish in coal gangue polluted water should not be consumed
exceeding 333 g (Dry mater) per day.
This study was supported by Henan provincial science and
technology development plan key scientific research project (No.
082102350040), Natural science research projects in Henan
province department of education (No. 2009B180020)