Grain Yield and Nutritional values of sweet corn (zea mays var. Saccharata) in Produced with Good Agricultural Implementation
Fikret Budak1 and Serap Kızıl Aydemir2*
1Department of Field Crops, Duzce University, Turkey
2Department of Field Crops, ŞeyhEdabali University, Turkey
Submission: May 22, 2018;Published: August 09, 2018
*Corresponding author: Serap Kızıl Aydemir, Faculty ofAgriculture and Natural Sciences, ŞeyhEdabali University, Turkey, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
How to cite this article: Fikret Budak, Serap Kızıl Aydemir. Grain Yield and Nutritional values of sweet corn (zea mays var. Saccharata) in Produced with Good Agricultural Implementation. Nutri Food Sci Int J. 2018; 7(2): 555710. DOI:10.19080/NFSIJ.2018.07.555710.
Sustainable organic agriculture development and yield maximization of crops can be achieved through restoration and scientific management of land productivity. The focus of this work is on grain yield, nutritional value, vitamins and micro elements content of different sweet corn cultivars. This work was carried out in Düzce cropland in the years 2016-2017 growing season. The field has not been planted at least 8years and without any chemicals and others. The maximum number of organic agricultures in the transition process only annual plants 2, perennial plant is 3years due to the duration of the transition period in terms of regulations for organic production with other appropriate conditions lack aspects of possessing good agricultural practices can be evaluated in this study according to designed as a randomized complete block design with 3 replications April 15, is founded in. As the material 4 hybrid sweet corn (Vega, Merit, and Lincoln) 1piece variations of composite has been used in sweet corn of Sakarya.
Result of the research, the highest yield of 9806.2kg ha-1with variation of the grain from Vega, is the lowest yield of 7924.7kg ha-1 with grain has been obtained from the Sakarya composite types. Among other varieties have been found in the differences. These differences are in terms of the efficiency of different genotypic structure of varieties sand is due to different environmental conditions of exposure.
Corn varieties, quality and nutritional values in terms of analyses have been conducted. Accordingly, Sakarya corn sweet in different parts of the grain (endosperm, embryo, and shell). Although the average 13% water, fat 4.6%, proteins11.2% and 72.3% starch higher than any others, but in terms of fiber Merit varieties of approximately 8.2% have the same values. In the grain analysis of vitamin sand micro elements was built in laboratories at the University of Florida. According to the results of the analysis, Corn is a vitamin store; the grain A, B and C vitamins plus zinc, iron and magnesium minerals such as molasses has been identified. In this study, good agricultural practices with Corn without the use of any chemicals production. Similarly, it was seen that organic farming can be done under contract.
Keywords: Good agricultural implementation; Sweet corn; Quality; Nutritional values; Yield
Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important cereal grains grown worldwide in a wider range of environments because of its greater adaptability.As the leading cereal crop in the world, corn (Zea mays L.) plays a significant role in human foods. Corn known as maize to many people, is the leading cereal crop in the world followed by rice and wheat . It is an important crop for human consumption, particularly in developing countries, and also the leading source of livestock feed and bio energy crop for ethanol production. Usually grown for fresh or canned food industry sweet corn (Zea mays saccharata Sturt.) development of agriculture as a source of human food consumption, corn in terms of gaining weight. Since fresh filled with sugar endosperm sweet corn while it is sweet. Kernel of the sweet corn has higher protein
and fat than other corn cultivar. Sweet corn the smaller plant habitus chemical composition with other standard of corn. A whole corn kernel is composed of 4 different parts: endosperm (82% to 84% of whole kernel mass, db), germ (10% to12%, db), bran (5% to 6%, db), and tip cap (1%,db)[2-3]. Starch, nonstarch polysaccharides, protein, and lipids are distributed heterogeneously in the corn kernel. Starch is the predominant component (61%to 78%, db) of normal corn kernel, and it is primarily located in the endosperm (98% to 99% of total starch, db) .
For the organic farming, organic enrichment of soil is most common through application of composted materials, microbial bio fertilizer (BF) or recycling of crop wastes. Vermi compost (VC), stable organic manure, produced as vermi cast by earth worm feeding on biological wastes materials is an
important source of BF material. The major constituents of VC
are essential macro and micronutrients, immobilized enzymes,
vitamins, antibiotics, humic acid, and growth hormone, which
is considered as a rich source of BF.
There is scientific evidence that organically grown
crops contain higher mineral and vitamin content higher
antioxidant content [5-9]and have better flavor [6,10]than that
of crops produced using conventional production systems.
In addition, some authors raise concern that the antioxidant
content of foods grown using conventional production systems
is lower than what is optimal for human health . Sweet corn
is favorable for fresh consumption because of its delicious
taste, together with its soft and sugary texture compared to
other corn varieties. Particularly sugar of corn contains a high
amount of nutrients within the body, and especially during the
period of high amounts of sugar in milk stage, the club holds
the endosperm. Sweet corn has been widespread in the World.
Turkey production of corn exceeded 6.400.000 tons in 2016 .
This study was carried out in Düzce cropland in Mid-
April 2016. Four hybrids (Vega, Merit and Lincoln) and one
Sakarya composite type of sweet corn has been used. Trials
were set up as four replications by trial pattern of randomized
complete block design. Considering the State of the soil and the
plant, after the trial has been established, a total of 4 times,
irrigation. Trial in the soil physical and chemical properties
are given in Table 1. As shown in Table 1, soil texture, salty
alkaline and chalky, medium clayey-Sandy has a structure that
is not rich in organic matter. According to the values taken
from the Düzce Weather Station, the average temperature
values for the months of April, May, June, July, and August in
2016 were 14.6, 16.3, 22.1, 23.3 and 24.3O respectively. The
total monthly precipitation values for the months of April, May,
June, July, and August in 2016 were found respectively as 47.8,
139.9, 65.6, 19.2 and 60.5mm. The relative humidity values for
the months of April, May, June, July, and August in 2016 were
found respectively as 67.4, 77.1, 70, 71 and 74% .
The plantation at a depth of 18-20cm in April has been
processed with sonar crowbar of the nastiest. Prior Harrow
towed soil Prep has been made ready. Treatments were
arranged in a completely randomized block design with 4
replicates. The varieties were sown in 70cm row spacing
distances. The plot sizes were 42m2(4.2 x 10m) and 6 lines.
There were insignificant differences among cultivars for
grain yields (kg ha-1). Result the research, the highest yield
of 780.46kg ha-1 w ith v ariation o f t he g rain f rom Vega, i s t he
lowest yield of 686.26kg ha-1 w ith g rain h as b een o btained
from the Sakarya composite types. Types of merit is second
with 741.36kg ha-1 Jubilee 733.25kg ha-1 and t he t hird Lincoln
variety is 706.82kg ha-1is in fourth place. Other varieties
with the Statistical variation of the Vega, while important
difference between Merit and difference between varieties of
statistical assessments of the Jubilee in the same group and
was not important.
The data reported that a study carried out where types of
chemical fertilizer unused areas in Samsun was obtained the
highest grain yield with 1255.8kg ha-1 value, the lowest grain
yield with 790.2kg ha-1 from Merit cultivar .
The study carried out Diyarbakır has been reported,
obtained grain yield with 913.3 kg ha-1 v alue f rom M erit
cultivar, obtained grain yield with 733.2kg ha-1 value from
Vega cultivar, obtained grain yield with 743.0kgha-1 value from
Jubile c ultivar a nd o btained g rain y ield w ith 7 33.2kg h a-1
value from Vega cultivar, obtained grain yield with 650.1kg
ha-1 value from composite cultivar . These dates have about
values which promotes our findings.(Table 2)
Although there are differences between the ecological
conditions, we did research according to other kinds of higher
Merit varieties yield values. These differences are in terms of
varieties of seamless one yield of different genotypic structure
are not affected by the different environmental conditions and
that they have from. Grain yield variety genetic characteristics
with many under the influence of the area searching are
described by the [14,15].
Sweet Corn varieties, quality and nutritional values in
terms of analyses have been conducted. Accordingly, Sakarya
corn sweet in different parts of the grain (endosperm, embryo,
and shell). Although the average 13% water, 4,6%fat, proteins
11,2%, starch 72,3%, 2.3% sugar higher than any other kinds
of sugar but in terms of fibre Merit varieties of approximately
8.2% have the same values.(Table 4)
Table 4 examined the vitamin A in terms of the highest
value in the 3.6mg with Vega, with the lowest value of 5.0mg
Jubile cultivar. Merit cultivar has had highest B vitamins with
1.7mg value. Jubile cultivar has had lowest B vitamins with
1.3mg value. Other cultivars have appeared between these
values. In terms of Vitamin C Saha cultivar forefront with
4.2mg value, while Vega cultivar was obtained minimum value
with 5.1mg. According to micro-elements high magnesium
and iron contents was found Sakarya cultivar. Conversely the
highest zinc the element was found Vega cultivar with 0.62mg
In a study, 100grams of fresh Corn contained 9g protein,
1g sugar, 7g fiber, 5g fat, 15% calcium 1% vitamin A, and iron
has been reported . In another study, 100grams of Corn
contained 3g protein, 3g sugar, 3g fiber, 1g fat, 4% vitamin A
and to be 3% iron is reported.
Another analysis made in Corn of 150grams had
55.5g of magnesium, phosphorus, iron, 150gr 6% 1.2mg
vitaminA,vitamin B2, B1 and0.23mg, 0.15mg have been
reported. In a study to determine in some of the physical
and chemical properties has been reported that is vary
between protein ratios of 4.9%-7.1% between the starch ratio
of 68.6-75.5% and between humidity of 11.1%-18.2% a widelyused
in Turkey corn flour .
Corn also found some of the benefits of vitamins and
mineral are known to be many. Vitamin A (retinol), immune
system, bone development, including many on the function
involved is an important vitamin. Vitamin A, healthy skin
and body tissues and strengthens the immune system, it is
necessary for a healthy bone structure, as an antioxidant
activity by making the cells to protect against cancer and
other diseases, to slow down the aging process, moreover, is
useful, especially for his sight, for the development of healthy
recors pregnant should receive sufficient amounts of vitamin
A. Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin that is also a power full
antioxidant. Vitamin A plays a critical role in maintaining
healthy vision, neurological function, healthy skin, and
more. Vitamin A- like all antioxidants is involved in reducing
inflammation through fighting free radical damage. It has
been reported that consuming a diet high in antioxidants is a
way to naturally slow aging .
Because of B vitamins easier digested fats, prevents the
formation of diarrhea. In addition, relaxes the nerves, skin,
and nails in bright, vibrant and alive. B vitamins B1, B2, B6
and B12 vitamins have called them. This group of vitamins,
appetite, digestive and nervous system to a much needed and
is vital. Grains, lean meat, kidney, heart, brain, liver, peanuts,
chicken, walnuts, eggs, whole wheat and oilseeds have B group
vitamins. B vitamin also especially be necessary for the power
of learning and memory and concentration.
Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) involved in many functions
strengthening of the immune system, such as the development
of bones and teeth is an important vitamin. In the body of the
bones, teeth, skin and joint development and empowerment.
Heals wounds and textures. It is protective against cancer
and heart disease. Strengthens the immune system. Increases
resistance to diseases. In energy production and in the
production of hormones to stress. Especially for children
helps to grow and evolve. Clears the blood poison. Reduces
blood pressure. Reduces the amount of sugar in the blood.
The adrenal glands work by increasing the man's virility
power resume. Vitamin C, sodium, potassium, calcium and
phosphorus as well as the use of vitamins and minerals is also
required for more effective. It also provides for the protection
of the cells and remain healthy and an adult daily requirement
of 40mg have been reported .
Zinc is found in the many enzyme and insulin hormone in
our body structure is an important mineral. Zinc is found in the
bones and muscles in our bodies mostly skeleton. The intestine
to secrete the pancreas enzymes are needed for absorption.
Zinc is found in the structure of many enzyme in the body
and also the cell in the cell membrane protects from oxidizing
radicals. Zinc also makes the RNA and DNA of the hard and good
work of DNA. Of the prostate gland, and reproductive organs
must be enough zinc to work well. The role in the increase
in the movement of the sperm, which is a strong antioxidant
and our body copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD),
an antioxidant enzyme by entering immune system on the
structure of the document has been reported.
Grain, molasses, eggs, beans, cabbage, potatoes, beets,
almonds, hazelnuts, dates and also in foods such as pumpkin
are content iron. In terms of the importance and benefits to
the human body, an essential mineral. The use of B vitamins is
required for copper and calcium absorption, the manufacture
of in the blood's oxygen-carrying red blood cells and a variety
of enzymes. Iron mineral, by strengthening the immune system
and helps protect from diseases. Increases the resistance of the
body iron is effective against fatigue. Iron mineral that helps
the body grows, too. Therefore, especially growing children's
body and brain development is crucial .
Magnesium, reducing the excessive sensitivity of the
nervous system to calm down is also known as "Anti-Stress
Mineral". Enzymes of sugar in the blood and energy mobilization
takes the role in the conversion. Can separate smoothens,
beautifies hair, strengthens the nails. Nervous system health,
body temperature keeping in balance the many functions, such
as magnesium, bone and tooth development and also in terms
of health is required. Asthma and allergic in the sense of colds
are among the benefits of Magnesium. Reduces menstrual pain
of magnesium supplementation before the menstrual period.
Seen in pregnancy is protective against cramps [23-34].
This study with good agricultural practices and even
organic farming will be produced with corn is not limited to,
a region can be applied across our country and conventional
agriculture is relatively low efficiency in terms of quality and
health, although at higher levels and quality diet both present
and future generations to a healthier environment and a better
future, there will be many great contributions on behalf of
the leave. Sweet corn vegetation period shorter than other
types of Corn in terms of vitamins and minerals to be store
maintenance; different ecological conditions along with yield
in terms of Igdır Province vary according to Vega, is in terms
of nutrients and minerals of all types have the same values are
approximate due to the fact that preferable.