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Cocoa Pod in the Ivorian Plantations: Green Gold Neglected and Bulky ?
Egnon KV KOUAKOU1*, Coulibaly Amed2, Firmin K KOUAKOU3, Carène MS KONAN4, Abo KJ MOUROUFIE1, Eudes
S KPAN5, Kouamé GM Bouafou6 and Séraphin Kati-Coulibaly1
1Laboratory of Nutrition and Pharmacology, University Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Ivory Coast
2Department of Biostatistics and Public Health, Training and Research Unit of Medical School University Félix Houphouët-Boigny (UFHB), Ivory Coast
3Institute of Anthropological Sciences of Development (ISAD), University Félix Houphouët-Boigny (UFHB), Ivory Coast
4Littoraux Seas Food Security (LIMERSAT), UFR Humanities and Society, Institute of Tropical Geography, Ivory Coast
5Laboratory of Pharmacodynamics and Biochemistry, Félix Houphouet Boigny University, Ivory Coast
6Superior Normal School, Ivory Coast
Submission: June 03, 2018;Published: July 23, 2018
*Corresponding author: Egnon KV Kouakou, Laboratory of Nutrition and Pharmacology, Faculty of Biosciences, University Félix Houphouët-Boigny,
Abidjan, 2 B.P. 582 Abidjan 22, Ivory Coast, Tel: (225) 08 49 93 34; Email : email@example.com
How to cite this article: Egnon KV K, Coulibaly A, Firmin K K, Carène MS K, Abo KJ M, et al. Cocoa Pod in the Ivorian Plantations: Green Gold Neglected and Bulky?. Nutri Food Sci Int J. 2018; 7(2): 555709. DOI:10.19080/NFSIJ.2018.07.555709.
The aim of this study is to emphasize the capacity of cocoa pods in sustainable development, agri-food, agro-pastoral and agronomy.
Agricultural by-products, cash crops such as cocoa are abundant in production areas. With a national production of cocoa valued to 2.01
million tons, more than 50.25 billion pods are destroyed each year in Côte d'Ivoire instead of being valued. In addition, these pods attract flies
and other pests against cocoa.
In order to find effective means for their valorization, this work was initiated for the development of simple and inexpensive techniques
of these agricultural by-products. To do this, the cocoa pods were cremated, and their mineral content determined. The results put before the
exceptional nutritional properties of the pods (the gangues containing the cocoa beans). The ashes obtained from cocoa pods are significant
sources of mineral elements (91.9%).
The ashes analyzed are rich in potassium (43.7%), calcium (0.91%), sodium (0.4%), phosphorus (0.23%), iron (54.8mg/kg), copper
(36.04mg/kg), zinc (16.2mg/kg), magnesium (4.9mg/kg) and manganese (4.6mg/kg). It could help fighting hunger in cocoa-producing countries
and can be considered as an outstanding nutritional supplement, useful in the fight against malnutrition in rural areas. As a result, cocoa pods
could be valued for their nutritional potential.
The important place occupied by cocoa in the economy of
Côte d'Ivoire compels farmers to practice intensive farming. As
a result, population growth is creating a lot of pressure on the
land, involving shortage of arable land . The consequence
of this pressure is the decline of fallows leading to soil
degradation and low crop yields .
Furthermore, one of the target of the food self-sufficiency
policy, started over many years, is to increase food production
by limiting the use of new land. Thus, the farmer must resort to
modern agricultural methods like the rational use of pesticides
and chemical fertilizers for a good yield .
Yet some products such as cocoa pods are dumped in the
fields and become harmful for a good agricultural yield. Their
use for organic farming therefore becomes necessary. This
study aims to evaluate the nutritional quality of the cocoa pod
for plants but also for humans.
Chemicals analysis: All the analysis have been made in
triple Carbohydrates and ash The carbohydrates are obtained
by the differencing the measured out elements and the first
sample. The content in ash is obtained by weighing 5g of the
sample incinerated at 550 ℃ during six hours in an oven (select
horn, pselecta) .
Tenor in minerals Iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), Potassium (K),
calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), copper (Cu) magnesium (Mg)
and manganese (Mn) are dosed by the atomic absorption
spectrometry of flame photometer (PFP 7) from the sample of
ash filtered .
The use of chemical fertilizers, because of their immediate
beneficial effect on crop productivity, is one of the solutions.
However, their high cost and unavailability make them almost
inaccessible to a large number of farmers. In addition, they
have a negative impact on the environment and the health of
populations. One of the inexpensive solutions would be the
use and valorization of biological fertilizers obtained from
the pods left abandoned in the fields. This organic fertilizer
could restore nutrients from the crop to the soil. In fact, large
tonnages of agricultural commodities such as cocoa beans
(2.01 million tons), lead to large quantities of agricultural byproducts
(50.25 billion pods)  (Figures 1-5).
Whether pod debris, dry cocoa leaves, agro-pastoral
exploitation, fertilizer, food, energy and industrial interests
are proven. The average ash percentages of the pods analyzed
were 91.9%. The studies undertaken mainly concern cocoa
pods, and the data found are close to those obtained with
 . Cocoa pods contain significant sources of mineral
elements (91.9%). The ashes analyzed are rich in potassium
(43.7%), calcium (0.91%), sodium (0.4%), phosphorus (0.23%),
iron (54.8 mg/kg), copper (36.04mg/kg), zinc (16.2 mg/kg),
magnesium (4.9 mg / kg) and manganese (4.6 mg / kg). The
study shows that the pod contains a high potash rate (43.7%)
and iron (54.8 mg / kg). Minerals play an important role in soil
acidity. They promote the stability of the soil structure which
is essential to optimize its fertility. Indeed, the stability is
improved by the presence of divalent cations such as calcium,
able to make bridges between the micro-aggregates of the soil
 . Soils with low calcium content and a texture dominated
by fine silts have a structure that is not resistant to disturbances
such as the passage of machinery and precipitation. Thus, the
leaching of calcium can lead to acidification of the medium and
saturation of the cation exchange capacity in H+ ions [4,6].
Ca-rich ash can compensate calcium loss and improve
soil pH. The by-products of culture analyzed contain
macrominerals (potassium, phosphorus) essential for the
growth of plants. Thus, some plants such as market gardeners (carrots, potatoes, beetroot, onions) can be very sensitive
to a deficiency in K and P while others (corn, soybeans, oats,
sorghum) are less sensitive [6,7]. In 2011  used cocoa husks
as an organic amendment to fertilize the degraded clay and
sandy ferralitic soils of the Oumé cocoa zone in Ivory Coast.
Ashes can also be used in the biological control of some pestravaging
slugs because of their hygroscopic nature [6-11].
The results of the study undertaken have shown that
agricultural by-products, often unused, are good sources
of mineral salts. Among the by-products, pods are rich in
several minerals analyzed. This set, often present among
planters, is a source of useful mineral salts that could be
exploited on agronomic, food and industrial plants. Thus, the
cocoa pod can be recommended to farmers for inexpensive
use. The production of potash food may be recommended for