Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) - also called prostate gland enlargementbegins with the fact that a small knot forms in the gland. Over time, its size increases, with the prostate putting pressure on the urinary tract. The prevalence of BPH rises markedly with increased age. BPH affects 70% of US men 60-69 years of age and 80% of those 70 years of age or older. Against the backdrop of such changes, there are problems with the outflow of urine, which is very dangerous for health, since they threaten to impair the functions of the entire urinary system. It is worth noting that with the right and timely approach, prostate adenoma is successfully cured.
Depending on the appearance of the tumor, prostate adenoma can be of the following types:
Depending on the structure and location of the following types of BPHare distinguished:
Uniform compaction of the prostate gland, which occurs under the pressure of adenoma, in such a course of the disease there is no retention of urine in the bladder, and also with urination,
A tumor that grows inside the bladder through the urinary tract, as a result of which the internal sphincter is deformed, disrupting the functions of the organ,
A tumor that grows in the direction of the rectum, with this type of tumor, urination is not significantly affected, but the bladder is not completely relieved due to loss of contractility of the prostatic part of the urethra.
In different patients, BPH manifests itself in different ways. For someone, it grows slowly and does not manifest itself for several decades. Other patients learn about adenoma a year after the onset of its development. In this regard, men should monitor their health and respond in time to any deviations from the norm.
The main sign of the development of BPH is problems with urination and sexual function.
As the disease develops, the following symptoms are observed:
The stream of urine decreases, there are false desires,
Frequent nighttime urge to empty the bladder (per night up to four times),
Difficulty with urination (it is necessary to exert effort to empty the bladder),
If the clinical picture of the disease is poorly expressed,
then drug therapy is used. It includes taking medications to
relieve the symptoms of BPH: inhibitors of 5-alpha-relutase and
phosphodiesterase, as well as alpha-blockers. Depending on the
symptomatology and effectiveness of the drugs for a particular
patient, various combinations of drugs can be prescribed[5,6].
If the drug therapy is ineffective, an operation is performed.
The choice of the type of surgical intervention depends on
the severity of the symptoms, the degree of enlargement
of the prostate, the age and wishes of the patient. Open
prostatectomy is an operation in which access is made through
a cut in the abdominal wall. Assign such an operation for large
tumor sizes, as well as complicating factors, such as stones or
bladder damage. Transurethral incision of the prostate is an
operation with access through the urethra, in which the prostate
tissue is cut, but not removed, to open the exit from the bladder.
Transurethral resection of the prostate gland, in which tissues
that have sprouted urethra are removed.
Removal of adenoma with a laser involves the use of highenergy
lasers, the radiation of which destroys the adenoma
of the prostate. Laser surgery usually provides rapid relief of
symptoms and suggests a minimal risk of complications. Laser
surgery can be performed by visual laser ablation, holmium
laser enucleation, holmium laser ablation, and photo-selective
Minimally invasive surgery has several advantages: a short
rehabilitation period, a small risk of infection of the operating
wound and bleeding. Among sparing methods it is worth
Prostatic stents. Their setting is reduced to the
introduction into the urethra of a metal device that maintains
the lumen of the urethra open, which restores normal
Transurethral needle ablation. The adenoma is
removed by radio wave radiation, which passes through
special needles. The impact of radio waves leads to scarring
of the prostate tissue, reducing their size.
Transurethral microwave thermotherapy. It
presupposes the removal of the affected prostate tissues by
the introduction through the urethra of an electrode that
emits microwave energy. As a result, the tissues are heated
and destroyed, opening the urethra.
If you’re having urinary problems, discuss them with your
doctor. Even if you don’t find urinary symptoms bothersome,
it’s important to identify or rule out any underlying causes.
Untreated, urinary problems might lead to obstruction of the
If you’re unable to pass any urine, seek immediate medical