Machine Learning Methods in Early Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease
Luxmi Verma1*, Sangeet Srivastava2 and Varun Sapra3
1 Uttaranchal University, India
2 The NorthCap University, India
3 University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, India
Submission:April 24, 2018; Published: May 30, 2018
*Corresponding author: Luxmi Verma, Uttaranchal University, Dehradun, India, Email: email@example.com
How to cite this article: Luxmi V, Sangeet S, Varun S. Machine Learning Methods in Early Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease. J Cardiol & Cardiovasc Ther. 2018; 11(1): 555801. DOI: 10.19080/JOCCT.2018.11.555801
With the advancement in information technology in health care sector, the medical hospitals are generating a huge volume of data including patient’s details, medications, ECG etc. It was required to understand this large collection of data and deduce the meaningful patterns out of it. In the recent past, Data mining methods proved best for finding the hidden patterns out of the large data. These methods have been applied by researchers to transmute data into knowledge. One of the most life threatening disease worldwide is Coronary artery disease. It is one of the lifestyle diseases where cost of detection and treatment is high. One of the gold standards for diagnosis of disease is coronary angiography, which is invasive method and requires high end tests with a lot of technical expertise. So many researchers are seeking intelligent computation methods for disease detection. This review gives the insight of how computational methods are used in detection of Coronary Artery Disease.
Keywords:Coronary artery disease; Coronary angiography; Data mining
Abbrevations:CVD: Cardiovascular Diseases; CAD: Coronary Artery Disease; DM: Data Mining
Health care sector is one of the most concerned sector for any country. One of the major chunk of the government budget is allocated for the research and advancement in this sector. At the same time information technology is the other booming sector and playing a support system to all major sectors specially the healthcare. With this advent, the health sector is producing complex medical data about patients including inter alia, clinical parameters, hospital resources, medical devices, disease diagnosis and patients’ records. If this voluminous data is processed and understood properly, then it can assist medical practitioners to take better and early decisions regarding the disease. CAD needs to be detected early to avoid the risk of being exaggerated further. Many machine learning methods have been applied successfully by researchers to discover new and interesting patterns and detection of CAD. One of the prime features of machine learning is its capacity to construct models that are capable of generating knowledge, predicting the new unseen cases and produce patterns based on the learning from historical data. Some of the major application areas where machine learning algorithms made a mark are insurance frauds detection [1,2], infection control surveillance [3-6], disease diagnostic [7,8], treatment effectiveness and healthcare management [9-11].
CVD are becoming common with changing life styles across the world. They majorly happen due to various disorders of blood and heart vessels, and are foremost causes of disability and death [12,13]. With the availability of the clinical data of probable and potential patients, it becomes imperative to find suitable models to detect these diseases both economically and accurately. One of the most common CVD, that leads to cardiac arrest or myocardial infraction is due to accumulation of plaques in coronary arteries . CAD patients can be diagnosed accurately using angiography which is an invasive, highly technical, painful and costly procedure.
Angiography can be risky and may lead to further aggravation of the disease and is not suitable for screening of larger population. Due to limitations of Coronary Artery Disease diagnostic methods, researchers are seeking other non-invasive methods that are less expensive, less risky, less complex, fast and easily reproducible. Various computation methods such as signal processing and image processing [15-18], Fuzzy logic [19-28], DM techniques  namely Decision Tree, Support Vector Machine, Neural Network, Logistic Regression techniques are used by researcher for diagnosis of CAD by using non invasive clinical parameters of subjects (Table 1). Various computational methods used by researchers for early identification of Coronary Artery Disease.
These intelligent methods proved really effective in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases like diabetes, Parkinson’s, cancer, thyroid, hepatitis, kidney disease and heart disease. The effectiveness of medical treatment is evaluated by comparing causes, symptoms and course of treatments and suggests the best practice procedure based on the produced knowledge and helps the medical practitioners to provide better and affordable healthcare services.
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