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1Livestock Science and Sustainable Environment Programme, Federal University of Agriculture, Nigeria
2 Institute of Food Security, Federal University of Agriculture, Nigeria
3Department of Animal Production and Health, Federal University of Agriculture, Nigeria
Submission: March 07, 2019; Published: March 26, 2019
*Corresponding author: Oderinwale OA, Livestock Science and Sustainable Environment Programme, World Bank Africa Centre of Excellence in Agricultural Development and Sustainable Environment (CEADESE), Federal University of Agriculture , Abeokuta, PMB 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria
How to cite this article: Oderinwale O, Oluwatosin B, Amosu S, Sanusi G, Adeyemo A. Evaluation of Concentrate Supplementations of Grazing Kalahari
Red Does on Udder and Teat Morphometry from Pregnancy till Kidding. Dairy and Vet Sci J. 2019; 11(1): 555804. DOI:10.19080/JDVS.2019.11.555804
A study was conducted to investigate effects of concentrate diets supplementation at three different protein levels of Kalahari Red does grazed on Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) on their udder and teat morphometry from 9th week of pregnancy till kidding in South-Western Nigeria. Thirty-three matured primiparous Kalahari Red does with age range of 2 to 21/2 years whose average body weight was 38.10±1.13kg were randomly allotted to 3 treatment groups of 11 does per treatment. Dietary concentrate diets with crude protein levels of 12.42% (LPD i.e. 124.93gday-1), 14.18% (MPD i.e. 145.87gday-1) and 16.35% (HPD i.e. 168.19gday-1) were fed to the does at 3% of their body weight after mating till kidding. Data on udder measurements such as Udder Length, Udder Circumference, Udder Width, Udder Volume, Distance between Teats, Teat Height from Ground, Teat Length, Teat Width and Teat Circumference were taken on the does starting from 9th to 22nd weeks of pregnancy using graduated flexible canvas tape. It was observed at the end of the study that Kalahari Red does fed MPD had better increment in size (from weeks 9 to 22) for all udder measurements such as udder length (10.21cm), udder width (8.79cm), udder circumference (28.76cm), and udder volume (2440.46 cm3) compared to other dietary treatments. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of grazing pregnant Kalahari Red does with concentrate diet containing 14.18% CP improved best the udder parameters.
Keywords: Kalahari Red goat; Udder; Grazing; Pregnancy; Concentrate supplementation
Udder growth is a complex process, which is characterized by mammary cell hyperplasia during gestation and early lactation; cell hypertrophy during late lactation and cell death during declining lactation . Udder growth, which results from increase in udder dimensions in goats, has been described by several indices . Most researchers adjudged deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) to be the best parameter for assessing udder growth, though other measurements including untrimmed and trimmed wet weights of udder, dried fat-free tissue weights, ribonucleic acid contents by Anderson  and udder dimensions by James & Osinowo  have been determined. Early studies on the pattern of udder growth in goats relied greatly on empirical approach involving multiple
comparisons of means rather than using regression models that contain linear, quadratic, cubic, exponential and logarithm terms .
Some Kalahari Red goats were imported to Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria from South Africa. Since there is little or no record on udder and teat growth and measurement of the goats, there is need to embark on this study to know response of the goats to various concentrate diets supplementation and to recommend which protein level is the optimum for udder and teat growth and development in Nigeria.
The study was conducted at Kalahari Red goat Unit of Livestock Production Research Programme under Institute of Food Security, Environmental Resources and Agricultural Research (IFSERAR), Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. The region is 76m above sea level and falls within
latitudes 7o18’2” N and 7o18’30” N; and longitude 3o22’10” E and
3o22’41” E. The climate is humid and located in the forest zone
of South-Western Nigeria. The mean annual precipitation and the
temperature are 1,330mm and 29.3°C respectively. It has average
relative humidity of 80% throughout the year.
The study which lasted for a period of 13 weeks was conducted
by using 33 matured primiparous Kalahari Red does
within age range of 2-21/2 years with an average body weight of
38.10±1.13kg. Flock treatment was carried out by the veterinarians
on the farm two weeks before mating in order to ensure that
only goats that are in good health conditions were used. Oxytetracycline
20% LA (Oxytetracycline 200mg/ml as dihydrate) was administered
intramuscularly at 1ml per 20kg bodyweight, while Vita-
Strong® Injection was administered intramuscularly at 1ml per
10kg bodyweight as vitamin supplement and anti-stress. Ivanor®
(Ivermectin Injection 10mg/ml) was also administered subcutaneously
at 1ml per 50kg bodyweight to control gastro-intestinal
worms, fly larvae, lice, ticks and mites. Experimental animals were
selected from flock of 68 does. Three healthy, experienced and vigorous
Kalahari Red bucks were used to detect goats on heat. The
bucks used are 21/2 years old with an average weight of 44.70kg.
Goats detected to be on heat were placed in a holding pen as experimental
animals. The selected goats were ear-tagged and randomly
assigned to pen houses used for the study. Mating was done
by introduction of the 3 Kalahari Red bucks into the pen houses
(i.e. a buck/treatment). Proper observation was done to ensure
that conception takes place before data collection commenced.
The goats, after mating were fed experimental concentrate diets
at three levels of protein.
The does were fed 3 experimental concentrate diets (Table 1)
at 3% of their body weight on dry matter basis as follows: Low
(LPD, 12.42% CP), Medium (MPD, 14.18% CP) and High (HPD,
16.35% CP) protein diets as supplements to forage (Chloris gayana)
on the paddock. These dietary supplementations resulted
into each doe receiving crude protein of 124.93g/day, 145.87g/
day, and 168.19g/day from the consumption of low, medium and
high protein diets respectively. There were 11 does per treatment.
Feeding of the experimental diets is done twice a day i.e.
half portion in the morning by 8:00h and the remaining portion
in the evening by 16:30h. Grazing of the does was done by 10:00h
after morning feeding and the does were returned from grazing by
16:00h. Fresh and clean portable water was made available to the
does daily ad libitum throughout the study.
*contains Vitamin A (I.U.) 10,000.000; Vitamin D2 (I.U.) 2,000,000; Vitamin E (I.U) 20,000; Vitamin K (mg) 2,250; Riboflavin (mg) 5000; Pyridoxine
(mg) 275; Biotin (mg) 50; Pantothenic acid (mg) 7500; Vitamin B1 (mg) 175; Vitamin B12 (mg) 15.0; Niacin (mg) 27,500; Folic acid (mg) 7500. Choline
Chloride (mg) 400; Antioxidant (mg) 125; Fe (g) 20.0; Zn (g) 50.0; Mn (g) 80.0; Cu (g) 5.0g; I (g) 12.0; Co (mg) 200; Se (mg) 200.
Data on udder and teat measurements were taken on the pregnant
does at 2 weeks interval starting from week 9 after successful
mating till all the does kidded. Restraining of the does was done
by letting the does into a milking crate, hold the head by another
person, then tie the hind legs to the walls of the milking crate. The
udder and teat parameters were not taken at initial weeks before
week 9 because they were not well developed and distended before
All measurements as indicated on Figure 1 were taken using
flexible canvas tape graduated in centimetre (cm).
Udder and teat measurements taken on the does included the
a. Udder Length (UL): This was taken between cranial and caudal
attachment of udder with body of the doe i.e. measurement
between the point of attachment of udders to body of
the does and base of the teats. This measurement was taken
on both sides of the does (i.e. left and right), then divided by
b. Udder Width (UW): This was taken between two lateral lines
of attachment of the udders with abdominal wall of the does
from the rear;
c. Udder Circumference (UC): This was taken as the perimeter
i.e. horizontal distance round the udders of the does at the
widest part of the udders. This was because of the different
shapes and sizes of the udder during pregnancy;
d. Udder Volume (UV): The UV was not measured directly on the
UV values were determined using formula below:
Where: = 22/7
UL is the Udder Length (cm)
UW is the Udder Width (cm)
e. Distance between Teats (DBT): This was taken as measurement
between the tips of two most prominent teats (1 from
each half of the udder) of the does when they were in resting
f. Teats Height from Ground (THG): This was taken as distance
between the tips of two most prominent teats (1 from
each half of the udder) of the does (taken separately) from
the ground while the does were standing still on a levelled
ground. The values obtained were later added together, and
then divided by 2.
g. Teat Length (TL): This was taken as the measurement from
basal part of the udder length to the tip of the teats i.e. measurement
from point of attachment of teats (to the udder) to
tips of the teats.
h. Teat Width (TW): This was taken as diameters of the two
most prominent teats without flattening of the teats. The tape
was placed across the teat horizontally to take its diameter
without applying pressure on it. The values obtained from
teats on both halves were added together, then divided by 2.
i. Teat Circumference (TC): This was taken as the perimeter i.e.
horizontal distance round the two most prominent teats of
the does. The values obtained from both teams were summed
up and then divided by 2.
Aliquots were taken from experimental concentrate diets and
Rhodes grass to determine nutrient composition of the samples.
The samples were oven-dried at 65 °C for 3days until constant
weight was obtained, then milled with industrial blender into fine
particles. The blended samples were kept until when needed for
laboratory analysis. The nutrient composition was determined by
following the procedure of A.O.A.C. (2005) at the Food Processing
Laboratory in Department of Food Science and Technology,
Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Nigeria. The nutrient
composition of the concentrate diets fed, and Rhodes grass grazed
upon by the pregnant Kalahari Red goats is presented in Table 2.
Calculated using MAFF (1984) equation
LPD: Low Protein Diet; MPD: Medium Protein Diet; HPD: High Protein
Diet; ME: Metabolizable Energy
Udder and teat morphometry from 9th week of pregnancy until
kidding of pregnant Kalahari Red does grazing on Rhodes grass
(Chloris gayana) supplemented with three concentrate diets is
presented in Tables 3 & 4. Supplementation of grazed pregnant
Kalahari Red does with MPD resulted into does with superior udder
and teat development taken with the exception of teat length
where HPD supplemented does recorded highest value. HPD and
LPD supplemented does recorded lowest values for all udder and
teat measurements taken respectively. This could be attributed
to improved protein utilisation by the does which resulted in improved
maternal body tissues growth, thus enhanced udder and
teat development. Mean udder length (UL) ranged from 6.98- 15.74cm with mean increment rate of 0.73cmwk-1, where does
fed MPD had greatest influence on UL with an increment rate of
0.85cmwk-1. It was observed that major increment in UL was observable
in 3rd trimester (Figure 2). This result agreed with James
& Osinowo  who reported that there is exponential increase in
udder dimensions during the last trimester of pregnancy than early
trimester of pregnancy. The graph (Figure 2) obtained from UL
development was non-linear, which was corroborated by James
 who reported that the pattern of udder growth during pregnancy
cm3/week (for udder volume)
UL: Udder Length; UW: Udder Width; UC: Udder Circumference; UV: Udder Volume; KD: within 24hours before Kidding; LPD: Low Protein Diet;
MPD: Medium Protein Diet; HPD: High Protein Diet
# Decrement ; *Decrement rate
DBT: Distance Between Teats; THG: Teat Height from Ground; TL: Teat Length; TW: Teat Width; TC: Teat Circumference; KD: within 24hours before
Kidding; LPD: Low Protein Diet; MPD: Medium Protein Diet; HPD: High Protein Diet
Mean udder width range of 6.74-14.04cm was obtained,
while mean range of 20.71-42.68cm with mean increment rate of
1.83cmwk-1 was obtained for udder circumference (UC). Does fed
MPD recorded most increased UC with 28.76cm as increment. This
implied that MPD had tendency of producing does with most developed
UC. Graph obtained (Figure 3) from UC was a non-linear and
sloped from right to left downwards. James et al. (2008) obtained
similar graphs of UC for West African Dwarf, Sahel and Red Sokoto
goats. Udder volume (UV) had mean range of 177.37-1807.04cm3,
with mean increment rate of 135.81cm3 wk-1. Does under MPD recorded
highest increment value (2440.46cm3). There was noticeable
and appreciable increment in UV of the does starting from
week 15 of pregnancy. This result was in line with Hurley (2006)
who reported that the rate of mammary growth during peri-partum
was higher than the rate during early and mid-pregnancy. The
rate of this growth was attributable to extensive lobulo-alveolar
development leading to rapid increase in the size of udder [8-10].
Graph obtained (Figure 4) from UV was a non-linear and sloped
from left to right upwards. It was observed that there is an inverse
relationship between teat height from ground (THG) and UL. An
increase in UL leads to decrease in THG and vice versa. Mean THG
ranged from 32.28-24.16cm with decrement rate of -0.67cmwk-1.
The graph (Figure 5) of THG was a non-linear graph that sloped
from left to right downwards.
Supplementation of pregnant Kalahari Red does graze on
Rhodes grass with medium protein (14.18% CP) diet recorded
most superior increments in udder and teat measurements such
as udder length, udder width, udder circumference, udder volume,
distance between teats, teat width, and teat circumference.
The authors are grateful to Tertiary Education Trust Fund
(TETFund) for funding the research, the fund was facilitated by
Directorate of Grants Managements (DGM), and IFSERAR, FUNAAB.
Also, to IFSERAR, for providing the Kalahari Red goats with
all necessary materials on the farm.