Usage of Inulin, Lemon, Carrot and Pea Fibers as Prebiotic for Bifidobacteriun Animalis Subsp. Lactis (BB-12)
Mutlu Buket Akin* and Musa Serdar Akin
Harran University Engineering Faculty Department of Food Engineering, Sanliurfa, Turkey
Submission: February 01, 2019;Published: February 08, 2019
*Corresponding author: Mutlu Buket Akin, Harran University Engineering Faculty Department of Food Engineering, Sanliurfa, Turkey
How to cite this article: Akin MB, Akin MS. Usage of Inulin, Lemon, Carrot and Pea Fibers as Prebiotic for Bifidobacteriun Animalis Subsp. Lactis (BB-12). Dairy and Vet Sci J. 2019; 9(5): 555773. DOI:10.19080/JDVS.2019.09.555773
Prebiotics, contain oligosaccharides, lignin, resistant starch, tannins and associated plant substances, stimulate growth of probiotic organisms. A lot of dietary fibers (DF) are used as prebiotics in foods. In this study, it was investigated if inulin, lemon, carrot and pea fibers have prebiotic effect or not on Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (Bifidobacterium BB-12). For this purpose skimmed milk was inoculated with Bifidobacterium BB-12 fortified with different DF, such as inulin, lemon, carrot and pea fibers. According to the results inulin and pea fiber stimulated Bifidobacterium BB-12, whereas lemon and carrot fibers had no prebiotic effect on Bifidobacterium BB-12. The highest prebiotic effect of inulin and pea fiber were found at a level of 2%.
Keywords: Bifidobacterium BB-12; İnulin; Lemon; Carrot; Pea fiber
Abbrevations: DF: Dietary Fiber; BB-12: Bifidobacterium; MRS: Man Ragosa Sharpe; LSD: Least Significant Difference
Prebiotics are defined as non digestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or more desired bacterial species in the colon, thus improving host health. Many oligosaccharides, are added to food as prebiotic, mainly to allow the preferential growth of probiotic organisms and called as prebiotics . Dietary fiber (DF), which includes oligosaccharides, lignin, resistant starch, tannins and associated plant substances, is a remnant of the edible part of plant; it is analogous carbohydrates that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the human small intestine and undergo complete or partial fermentation in the human large intestine. It improves human health by the prevention, reduction and treatment of some diseases, such as diverticular and coronary heart diseases [2,3]. In this study it was investigated whether or not inulin, lemon, carrot and pea fibers have prebiotic effect on Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (Bifidobacterium BB-12).
Materials and Methods
Bifidobacterium BB-12 (Chr. Hansen, Turkey), inulin (Sigma, İstanbul), lemon, carrot and pea fibers (Arosel Food,İstanbul, Turkey) and skim milk powder (Pınar Dairy, İzmir, Turkey) were used as materials. Man Ragosa Sharpe (MRS) agar, nalidixic acid, neomycine sulphate, lithium chloride and paramomycine sulp hate obtained from Sigma chemicals (İstanbul, Turkey). All other reagents used were of analytical grade. 13 different reconstituted skim milk, with 12% dry matter, were prepared. For propagation of Bifidobacterium BB-12, each sterile reconstituted skim milk was supplemented with 0.50%, 1% and 2% inulin, lemon, carrot and pea fiber. Bifidobacterium BB-12 was grown until pH reach to 4.7 at 37°C, using a 0.05% (w/v) inoculum. The milks were kept cooled at 4°C until for enumeration. Bacterial counts were determined after 8h fermentation. Fermented milks were decimally diluted in 100mL sterile peptone water (0.1%) and 1mL aliquot dilutions were poured onto plates of the various selective and differential agars in triplicate. Bifidobacterium BB-12 were incubated anaerobically by using MRS-NNLP agar . The plates were incubated at 37°C for 72h. Anaerobic conditions were created using Anaerocult A sochets (Merck). The results were expressed as colony-forming units per gram (cfu g-1) of sample. Statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS Version 5.0 (SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL, USA). Statistically different groups were determined by the LSD (Least Significant Difference) test .
Results and Discussion
Table 1 show the variations in Bifidobacterium BB-12 counts in reconstituted skim milk with and without DF. Bifidobacterium BB-12 counts were found to be in the range of 7.35-7.96 log cfu g-1, respectively. As seen, inulin and pea fiber had prebiotic effect for Bifidobacterium BB-12, whereas lemon fiber and carrot fiber did not have (p< 0.05). Even if a slight increaring was found in the Bifidobacterium BB-12 counts in the skimmed milk fortified with lemon and carrot fibers, they were not significant (p>0.05). Pea fiber led to slight increasing in the number of Bifidobacterium BB- 12, while inulin caused the noticable increasing. Guler-Akın, Göncü, Akın & Akın, & Güler-Akın [1,6,7] also reported that probiotics had the ability to ferment DFs.
Fiber level affected the number of Bifidobacterium BB-12 statistically (p< 0.05). The highest prebiotic effect of inulin and pea fiber were found at a level of 2%. The higher inulin and pea fiber added, the more Bifidobacterium BB-12 obtained. The numbers of Bifidobacterium BB-12 decreased as lemon and carrot fiber increased (p< 0.05) due to the possible decreasing of water activity of milk. As known DF is highly hygroscopic and had a high water binding capacity .
Results showed that lemon fiber and carrot fiber didn’t affect of Bifidobacterium BB-12 counts and they had no prebiotic effect for Bifidobacterium BB-12. In contrast, inulin and pea fiber stimulated Bifidobacterium BB-12 and they could be used as potential prebiotic for Bifidobacterium BB-12.
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