Why Farmers Adopt Agro-Industrial By-Products
in Animal Feed? Lesson Learned in Algerian Case
Fateh MAMINE1*, Noure El Imène BOUMALI2, Etienne MONTAIGNE3 and Fodil ARBOUCHE4
1Départment ACT, Bâtiment 22, 02 place Pierre Viala, 34060 Montpellier, France
2UMR Moisa-SupAgro, 2 place Pierre Viala, 34060 Montpellier, France
3UMR Moisa, 2 place Pierre Viala, 34060 Montpellier, France
4Department of Agronomy, University of Gharaia, 47000, Algeria
Submission: August 06, 2020; Published: September 17, 2020
*Corresponding author: Fateh MAMINE, UMR Selmet-INRAE, Département ACT, Bâtiment 22, 02 place Pierre Viala, 34060 Montpellier, France
How to cite this article:Mamine F,Boumali NI, Montaigne E, Arbouche F. Why Farmers Adopt Agro-Industrial By-Products in Animal Feed? Lesson Learned in Algerian Case. Ann Soc Sci Manage Stud. 2020; 5(5): 555674. DOI: 10.19080/ASM.2020.05.555674
The Algerian animal sectors suffer from a major handicap which is the insufficiency of fodder resources. The current structure of the animal feed industry is essentially based on the imported raw material (corn and soybean meal). It is in this logic that this study teat the problem of adoption of agro-industrial by-products as innovative inputs in animal feed. Our results based on a logistic model analysis with re-sampling applied to the survey data of farmers in the Souk Ahras region of northeastern Algeria show that the adoption of this innovation is determined by several factors related to the socio-professional profile of the farmer and the structure of the breeding. The seasonality that characterizes the availability of these by-products does not constitute an obstacle to their use by farmers. The diffusion of these new techniques will require public institutions’ support through better dissemination of information and specialized training in this area.
In the manner of all the semi-arid countries, the pastures provide the primary fodder source. Their surface in Algeria represents nearly 40 million hectares. The cultivated fodder resources consist of cereal stubble, vegetation grazed fallow representing 97.7% of the total forage area, some cultivated fodder (1.95%) and natural fodder (0.51%). These areas are characterized by low forage productivity . The insufficiency in animal feeding, regression land, limited use of resources on the part of farmers, remains a topical issue given that availability is closely linked to market prices regulated by supply and request. Faced with this situation, Algeria chooses to import to fill the shortfall of feeds in the local market. According to the National Office of Animal Feed Food (ONAB) 3 million tons of maize are required to meet annual national needs. The Algerian government has decided to support and accompany the development of maize and barley. Thus, it is committed to filling the shortfall by encouraging the development of local production of barley and maize by buying at a higher price than the import. Local production of maize is well supported with 4500 DA/q (32€/q), against 17.9 €/q for the imported one. Despite efforts, Algeria could not meet the market needs in livestock feed
because it requires an estimated area of 200 000 and 300 000 hectares of maize (against leas than 1000 ha cultivated actually in Algeria), knowing that this crop needs lots of water in a semi-arid country. Imported material feed matter generates significant costs to the Algerian state. In 2014, the purchase of maize cost 977.13 million $ and barley 196.6 million $. During the last twenty years, and to meet the growing demand for animal products, maize imports have increased more than 10,000 times and soybean meal by nearly 7,000 times (ONS 2017). However, agro-industrial by-products, “waste in their current state”, are available in appreciable quantity, allowing their integration in the animal feed sector although their use requires nitrogen treatments or complementation. These can contribute to the improvement of animal feed in the region where they come from. These are, in particular, the milling bran, tomato and citrus pulp, molasses, olive-pomace, grape marc, brewers dried grains, and apricot pits. Some are energy supplements such as molasses and pulp, others are protein supplements such as almond of apricot and brewers dried grains . The work of [3-5] has demonstrated the technical utility of using these by-products in the feed industry through
partial substitution of raw materials (soybean meal and maize)
Agro-industrial factories generate various by-products,
farmers may be asked to use it in their food rations. However,
accurate information and knowledge on these by-products
seem necessary for their adoption in farms. This article aims
to analyze the factors influencing the adoption by farmers of
these by-products in feeding their flocks. This paper can serve
as a guide to a public policy whose objective is to enhance feed
resources management and animal production by developing
an agroecological practice (valorize agro-industrial waste). It
includes three sections. After this introduction presenting the
context of the study, section 2 presents the methodology of
the study starting from the sample to the establishment of the
questionnaire, and finally, the choice of variables and statistical
analyses used. Section 3 presents the results and discussion and
includes two subsections: a food management characterization
of the surveyed farms and an analysis of the determinants of
adoption of innovative input in the diet of livestock. A conclusion
at the end of the paper to return to the main results of this study
and the prospects for their implementation by public power in
The objective is to analyze the factors that determine the use
of by-products and their place in the food structure of livestock
farms. Thus, we have investigated farmers in the region of Souk
Ahras, the major cradle of animal production in Algeria. The
choice of the survey area is justified by the geographical location
of this region where farmers benefit from the proximity not only of
livestock feed industries but also agro-industrial factories emitting
by-products subject of our study. This region is also known for
the diversity of farming systems adapted to its representative
bioclimatic three floors of the country namely a rainy mountainous
area (600 mm/year) temperate lowland area (400 mm/year) and
finally an area of high semiarid trays (less than 350 mm/year).
The survey was conducted in 2017 with a random sample of 57
farmers who agreed to be interviewed. The survey was conducted
face-to-face in front of the feed outlets to target concentrated feed
users, breeders subject to our study. After verification of survey
results, only 40 questionnaires were validated and used in the
The study questionnaire consisted of four sections. The first
relates to the individual characteristics of farmers interviewed
(age, experience, level of education, agricultural training at the
installation, participation in information days and agricultural
training organized by the Chamber of Agriculture). The second
section seeks to identify the farm characteristics and practices
(UAA, labor, manpower and high species). The third part seeks
to characterize the food management of livestock (feed used
and their quantities, supplying). Finally, the last part is devoted
to assessing the attitudes of farmers towards agro-industrial byproducts.
Here we first look to find out if farmers know these
by-products before asking if they use them in the feed of their
livestock and their perceived level of availability in the market.
To analyze the determinants to use innovative inputs (agroindustrial
by-products) in animal feed, the collected data were
transcribed and then treated by the SPSS statistical analysis
software. Here we identified two dependent variables (Byprod_
know and Byprod_use) (Table 1), but at the survey verification
phase, we found that the surveyed farmers know at least two byproducts
from the list we presented to them (the milling bran,
tomato and citrus pulp, molasses, olive-pomace, grape marc,
brewers dried grains and apricot pits). That’s why we did not do
statistical analyzes in connection with the first dependent variable
(Byprod_know). To analyze in connection with the by-products
use, we first characterized the feed management of surveyed
farms and defined a set of variables describing the individual
characteristics of the farmers, farm characteristics and finally byproducts
market characteristics (Table 1). These dimensions are
considered by the literature specialized in the issue as the main
factors influencing the decision to adopt the innovation in the
agricultural environment [6-8].
A binary logistic model (Byprod_use) with a bootstrap
resampling (100 replicates) was employed to process the data. This
method resampling is highly relevant to analyze the determinants
of the innovation adoption and address the lack of answers or a
low sample size . It has the advantage of weighted estimates
reflect the true population parameters [8-11]. To analyze the
results of the model, three thresholds of statistical significance (p
≤ 0.1; p ≤ 0.05 p ≤ 0.01) were fixed.
The livestock farms surveyed use both dry forages (hay) but
also concentrated feed (barley, compound feed). The amounts
and diversity of feed inputs depend on herd size and production
purposes (milk, red meat, white meat). The feed inputs of cattle
farms surveyed are dominated by concentrated feed which
represents 60% of the total tonnage consumed, equivalent to
360 q/year (Table 2). These results confirm the importance of
concentered feed as a main input in the surveyed farms and show
the relevance of our sample to address the issue of the place of
by-products in the management of feed inputs and the possibility
of conventional inputs substitution. The remaining 40% of feed
inputs include barley that is another concentrated. By feed inputs
insufficiency, the cereal straw is an agricultural by-product that
systematically used in ruminant feed, so we did not consider it in
our study as an innovative input into animal feed. Cereal straw
represents 13.5% of consumed inputs (the equivalent of 80 q/
year) which is a non-negligible share of feed inputs especially
considering its cost of 290 DA/bale of straw of 18 kg for average
annual spending of 130,540 DA/year. However, the first item of
expenditure in feed inputs remains the concentrated feed with
1,284,287 DA/year before the hay that costs 290,320 DA/year.
Hay and straw are from the production in the farm and/
or purchased from other farms during the harvest season.
Concentrated feeds are exclusively purchased from animal feed
dealers, cooperatives or directly from animal feed manufacturing
units. Indeed, the substitution of a part of concentrated feed by
innovative input would be an important opportunity to reduce the
animal feed cost and consequently improve the farmer’s income.
The estimated logistic model shows that 10/13 explanatory
variables are significant (Table 3). All individual farmer’s
characteristics are determinant to by-products adoption as inputs
in innovative animal feed. As against certain characteristics of
the farm are not significant since it is the herd composition and
its size that influence the choice of use of by-products in animal
husbandry. Moreover, the type of supplier and the availability of
by-products do not seem decisive in the adoption of these new
animal feeding inputs.
The individual characteristics of the farmers are all
determinant to by-product adoption as inputs in livestock feed.
The age of the farmer seems to influence a very significant decision
to use agro-industrial by-products in animal husbandry. Several
authors have reported similar results where young farmers are
more prone to accept new techniques in agriculture [12-15].
Unlike most older farmers attached to their old practices, young
farmers are often more enthusiastic to adopt new techniques in
our case the use of new inputs in livestock feed. However, this
result is to clarify the experience factor plays a decisive role in the
adoption of by-products in animal feed. Results in this direction
have been reported by several authors [16-21]. The farmer
needs some experience to take this to a new feeding technique.
It is usually the case of farmers who have low educational levels
which not allowing them to have the needed skills to integrate
new technologies in their breeding workshop. As against the
farmers with a higher educational level are more skeptical about
the by-product use efficiency as an animal feed input. Although
several authors have made a positive correlation between the
educational level and new techniques acceptance in agriculture
[22-24], it seems the opposite in our case. A high educational level
creates a perception of more complex and higher risk and makes
farmers less receptive to the adoption of innovation . The risk
relating to by-products use in animal feed (nutritional values and
unknown dosage, the presence of anti-nutritional factors, lack of
skills of processing and storage ...) remains a blocking factor for
by-product use by farmers even if they participate to information
days organized by the Chamber of Agriculture. This is because,
according to our investigations, that no information was provided
by this agency on the by-product integration possibilities as a
new feed source for livestock. The lack of communication on byproduct
utility as potential feed input strengthens farmer’s risk
perception on it. Therefore, it is essential to relativize the impact of
the professional network on the decision to adopt the innovation
to the extent that it does not disseminate targeted information in
Our results, however, show that specialized training at the
setting-up phase helps to motivate farmers to adopt this new feed
technique. This is what was also reported by Yiridoe et al. . In
this training, the farmers get the information and skills necessary
to use by-products in their breeding workshops. The constant
need to provide more effective training to farmers to enable them
to understand the characteristics of new technologies is evident in
our case. It is always possible to increase the motivation of farmers
to adopt innovations by providing them new knowledge through
specialized training [27,28].
The results of the estimated model also show that farm
characteristics influence the use of by-products. The availability
of labor in the farm increases the probability of by-product
adoption as inputs in animal feed. It can be explained by the
need for additional work related to the by-products supply and
process for their use (conservation, storage, dosage). As has
been demonstrated by several authors [29-33], unavailability of
labor limits new technologies adoption and encourage farmers to
practice conventional production.
The farm size expressed by the UAA does not represent
in our case a determining factor for the adoption of this new
feeding technique. Several studies have had similar results where
economies of scale advantage provided by a large farm is not an
incentive for the adoption of an innovation [23, 34-35]. The herd
composition and size are key factors in the use of by-products
in animal husbandry. Our results show that it is the farms with
a greater number of cattle that integrate more by-products in
animal feed management. Sheep number has the opposite effect
and does not encourage farmers to use the by-products. The heavy
use of compound and concentrated feed in cattle farming is the
cause of this finding. Indeed, farmers rely on the by-products use
to partially replace conventional feeds of their livestock. Small
ruminants are less dependent on the provision of concentrated
feed especially since these are small herds managed in a semiextensive
way with low inputs. Poultry is almost soilless breeding
as it only receives industrial feeds made mainly from soybean and
maize . The economic context partly explains by-products
adoption in animal feed. Indeed, supply difficulties on the livestock
feed market (insufficient quantity, poor quality, and high prices)
encourages farmers to look for cheaper alternatives even if they
are seasonal . This is also why the by-product’s availability
and the animal feed supplier type does not influence the farmer’s
decision to use the by-products. The seasonality that characterizes
the production of agro-industrial by-products does not seem to
be a barrier to their use in livestock farming, because their use
is complementary to that of the concentrated feed and the basic
ration. Therefore, different authors advocate thresholds of use
to improve the nutritional efficiency of these by-products and to
reduce their health risks on livestock [38-44].
Algerian animal sectors suffer from a major handicap is
the lack of forage resources. The current structure of the feed
industry is built mainly on imported raw material (soybean meal
and maize) where the share of domestic production is marginal.
In this situation of the livestock sector fragility, the search for
alternatives to import to reduce public spending and better use
of local resources is more than ever a necessity. It is in this sense
that our work fits. It is built around the issue of the valuation of
agro-industrial by-products as an innovative input in livestock
feed. We performed our study on the incentives for the adoption
of a wide range of by-products available in the country that has
undergone extensive nutrition research in animal feed (the milling
bran, tomato and citrus pulp, molasses, olive-pomace, grape marc,
brewers dried grains and apricot pits). Our study shows that the
adoption of this innovation is determined by several factors, first
of all, related to the farmers’ socio-professional profile where
specialized training in the installation can be an important lever
for the State to strengthen the diffusion of this new feeding
technique. Unlike the herd composition and size that may
influence the farmer’s decision, the farm size has not influenced
the adoption of these innovative feed inputs in farming. Cattle
breeding, given its high dependence on concentrated feed, seems
more conducive to the use of agro-industrial by-products, hence
the need to focus more research on that niche. Intensive farming is
often synonymous with a higher need for feed resources opens the
way for the by-products use to bridge the feed gap and to reduce
costs that result. The seasonality that affects the agro-industrial
by-products availability does not seem to hinder their adoption
by farmers. However, the diffusion of these new technologies
will require more public support through improved information
dissemination and specialized training in this filed.
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