Today, with the trend of economic and cultural globalization, the focus on administration is an urgent and important job, to build a modern, dynamic and effective public administration. Reducing troubles, an administration taking objects to serve as the main principle and purpose, from which to build, develop and perfect the administration. Office plays an important role in organization and organization. Good office performance will be a tool for development, facilitating the benefits of agency activities. In contrast, poor office performance will lead to many difficulties and fail to achieve the desired effect.
Planning (Planning) is the function of paving the way for the office. Planning is very important, helping the office to predict and gather activities and tasks arranged in a certain order to achieve the goals set. The operation of any agency needs information. Information is a basis for leaders to make timely and accurate decisions. Information includes many types and from many different sources. The leader cannot collect and process all the information on his own, but requires help - that’s the office. Office is the “window” is the “filter” of information because all information coming or going is collected, processed, delivered at the office. Therefore, the establishment of plans and plans in the administrative office need to make plans and administrative plans so that administrative procedures can meet the development situation in the congress. enter the globe.
Planning is a function of governance that includes activities that define goals for the future and the appropriate means to accomplish those goals. The outcome of the plan is a plan - that is, a written document that clearly identifies the sequence of activities that the company or organization will perform. Planning is the process of defining organizational goals and the best way to achieve those goals. Thus, the planning work in the above sense must include simultaneously two processes of determining goals (what needs to be done?); Identify the path to the goal (how to do it).
Planning is one of the most fundamental and meaningful activities of managers. The concept of planning in general is understood to be the outline and improvement of ideas and projects. Planning is highly strategic and with the development of the organization, the role of this activity is increasingly important. It is the backbone that governs all activities and cultures of an organization. However, a recent study in Harvard Business Review
(HBR) shows that only 11% of big company leaders are happy
that strategic planning is worth the effort. This figure does not indicate that the planning of US CEOs is not really effective. In fact in recent decades, there has been a change in the skills and planning methods of US business leaders. This article would like to generalize these two ways for readers to have an overview of how American leaders plan. The ultimate purpose of planning is to set specific goals and methods. In 4 administrative functions, it can be said that Planning is the most important function, because we cannot conduct work without knowing what we want to achieve and what to do to achieve those goals. .
In fact, planning plays a very important role in the business as well as the operation of any other organization. Without poor planning or planning will lead us to heavy failures. Typically, Ford was in the process of launching the Edsel in September 1957. Because of the lack of careful planning, the company went on to make mistakes. That is the name of the model does not attract customers, the time of the market is not appropriate (at that time new models were often sold in November every year), bad design, there are many technical problems. The price is too high while customers are targeting cheaper cars, and above all, overpromotion
of the car without a market survey. As a result, the
Edsel only lasted for four years (from 1957 to 1960) with sales
of 60,000 units in the first year, less than 30% of expectations.
Another typical case is P&G (Procter and Gamble) - the world’s
leading group of personal care products - that has made false
judgments in planning the number of sub-brands of a brand. They
think that the more choices for customers, the higher the sales will
be. They launched 52 sub-brands of just one Crest toothpaste and
31 sub-brands of a dandruff Head & Shoulders. Because they have
not carefully researched the development plan and strategy for the
product, they have pushed their customers against the adversity
completely confused by a series of products. As a result, the Crest
only accounted for 15% of the US market share of toothpaste,
left behind by Colgate. Therefore, in office work, mastering the
principles and planning plan selection is extremely important.
In terms of science, the plan is considered a specific action
plan, and planning is the process of organizing the preparation
and implementation of specific plans that have been proposed.
Planning is a process in which an administrator identifies and
selects an organization’s goals and outlines the actions needed to
achieve its goals. Planning is a content and is the most important
function of management. Because of this, the plan is tied to the
selection and implementation of the future operational programs
of an organization, of an enterprise. Planning is also the choice
of reasonable approaches to predetermined goals. The plan is to
identify goals and decide the best way to achieve your goals.
Planning the plan will help increase the manager’s ability
to succeed in order to analyze and anticipate opportunities,
challenges, difficulties and advantages in the process of achieving
goals. Since then, there is a solution to grasp opportunities and
limit risks. Through it, will orient the organization’s activities,
unify thoughts and actions, focusing on key tasks and objectives
in each period. This is the basis for the decentralization, the task
of implementing the coordination of elements and departments in
the organization to actively create tasks and tasks for departments
and members in the organization, helping develop declare
operational and inspection activities and adjust (goals, activities).
First, Planning helps create systematic thinking to predict
governance situations. In governance, Planning will help
determine the direction of both businesses, companies, and
organizations. The administrator - then the captain - must figure
out many options to cope with many different situations, because
of the uncertainty, the turning of the possibilities is obvious
and inevitable. Therefore, careful planning and depth - that is
systematic - is something that cannot be overlooked.
Secondly, planning helps to coordinate all efforts of the
organization in the process of achieving goals. Planning shows
measures to enable maximum exploitation of the enterprise’s
strengths, take advantage of business opportunities, limit risks for
businesses. The planning is dominated by the collective creativity
and affection. Decisions made by planning must receive the
agreement and smoothness of most members of the organization.
Thus, the goals of the organization are achieved.
Third, planning helps focus on goals that avoid waste. Planning
should provide a package of measures to enable maximum
exploitation of the strength of the business to achieve the goal.
Once focusing on the goals, businesses can complete the work
with the lowest level of risk and risk possible. Because planning
is preparing the organization for better operation in the future.
Fourth, planning will create cooperation and coordination
between individuals and departments within the organization.
Although planning is the work of individuals (administrators),
the goal of this stage is to coordinate the human resources and
resources of the whole enterprise in the working process. The
work of running the business of a business is always a headache
for managers. Each individual, every part of the organization
has its own functions and operations, operating in a specific
area of expertise, but all are responsible for creating the overall
performance of the business. Now, when planning well, managers
will know how to coordinate individuals and departments,
eliminate internal conflicts, attacks that have long been a threat
to the company, tighten The relationship between individuals -
individuals, individuals - organizations and this department with
the other, makes the work smooth.
Fifth, through planning will increase flexibility and adapt
to changes in the external environment. It can be said that in
addition to customer factors, many other factors affect the success
of businesses. So the Planning process determines the survival of
the business before the constant fluctuations of adverse factors.
Consideration must be given to the significant deviation between
planning and practice so that there is a plan to adjust, making the
plan feasible, but it should avoid arbitrary and continuous changes
leading to the risk of failing to achieve the item Deficit and failure
are certain. The benefits of planning are expressed through the
following model (Figure 1).
The SWOT matrix is a very useful tool for capturing and
making decisions in any situation with any agency or organization.
The SWOT tool component includes:
I. Strengths (Strengths): are agents within agencies,
organizations, businesses that are positive or beneficial to
help them achieve their goals in setting up their development
II. Weaknesses: are agents inside agencies, organizations,
businesses that are negative or cause difficulties in achieving
the organization’s objectives.
III. Opportunities: Opportunities outside agencies,
organizations and businesses (business, social, government)
are positive or beneficial to help achieve the goals of the team.
IV. Theats (Theats): are agents outside agencies,
organizations, businesses (business, social, government,)
that are negative or cause difficulties in achieving goals
organizations (Table 1)
The application of SWOT model in office work planning
will help the organization to develop a plan to have the unit
development direction in all aspects: when there is a development
plan, it is possible to estimate the human resources and the
business. In fact, ... is directed towards overcoming the backlogs
of the previous period, promoting the strengths that have been
made, setting out the things to do to bring benefits to the unit,
helping the unit go up. This will contribute to saving time and
cost: when things need to be done, it will help shorten the time for
preparation and implementation. At that time, people were active
in the work that they were assigned. Help improve the relationship
between people in the unit: everyone in the unit must work
together to work together to work towards common goals, helping
each other to achieve high results at work. In addition, officials
at the agency regularly improve their knowledge to improve
their experience and give suggestions to leaders to lead the best
goals and plans to be delivered. Organ development increases
the likelihood of achieving the desired results with clear goals.
Overcome how to do groping, arbitrary, passive deal. Thereby, it
will help leaders to be proactive in recognizing opportunities and
responding to uncertain factors, events occurring in the process
of operation, helping them have a test basis for love. Figure of
performing tasks with clear standards, assessing the true results
of activities and contributions of each department and individual
in the organization.
Step 1: General awareness of the Olympics: need to carry
out specific tasks:
a. Collect information
b. Analysis of general information
c. Results of previous activities
d. Experience in the past
e. Factors and conditions are available
Step 2: Build goals: To plan the first stage, it is necessary
to identify the problem:
a. What is the plan to solve?
b. What goal is reached?
c. Why chooses that target?
d. How to do it?
e. Who does it? Ever done?
f. Where to perform?
g. Identify options to choose
h. Identify options to choose
Determine the premise of the plan. In order to
determine the objectives in order of priority, at the same time
determine the guidelines and solutions to implement, besides
preparing the contingency plans with the corresponding
objectives and solutions.
Step 4: Identify options to choose: List some options, and
raise the strengths, weaknesses and necessary conditions
when choosing each option. The organization’s office
prepared to consult the draft plan, outlining many issues
that should be focused on obtaining comments on each plan
(when necessary and can direct pilot implementation to prove
to implementation capacity of each option), outlined the
strengths and weaknesses of each option, to finally discuss to
select the optimal plan.
Step 5: Evaluate options to choose: Based on the criteria:
I. Units directly implementing the plan.
II. Superiors, co-managers and some equivalent units.
III. Scientists, experienced people.
IV. Discussion through the draft office administrative plan
V. Rewrite the complete plan after collecting comments
VI. Submit to the higher level for approval
Step 6: Form dependent plans
I. Prepare documents to issue including plan, appendices if
available, instructions for implementation.
II. Develop a propaganda plan, information on plan
documents and means for implementation.
III. Estimated plan for implementing the plan.
IV. Expected agencies and departments to implement.
V. The Office submits to the leaders for approval and
promulgates the plan together with the above documents to
facilitate the implementation of the plan.
It can be said that planning is to achieve the goal of the
organization so the departments and members will focus their
attention on achieving this goal and thus agree on all interactions
between parts throughout the organization. Planning is the most
basic function of an administrator. Planning establishes the
foundations and orientations for implementing organizational,
leadership, and inspection functions. Helping administrators to
actively deal with all future instability related to internal issues
such as outside the environment, minimizing uncertainties of the
future, focusing on activities to target, reduce costs to increase
efficiency. Planning is a powerful tool in coordinating the efforts of
members in a business. Planning tells the direction of the business.
Thanks to planning, an organization can develop teamwork. When
each person in the group works together and knows what he wants
to achieve, the results will be higher. Therefore, it is necessary to
continue to effectively implement the working regulations of each
unit, improve the working regime, enhance the responsibility of
the heads of administrative agencies. Formulating regulations and
procedures for managing the process of performing tasks of each
branch and mass organization in performing tasks, ensuring the
management and evaluation of the level of accomplishment of
tasks of each cadre and civil servant in unit. There are measures to
promote planning in the unit: strict implementation of planning to
avoid the implementation of the response. Organizing discussions,
propagating about the importance of planning work to all officials
and public employees in the unit. Defining clear objectives and
plans to attract performers: when the objectives and plans are
clear, the security implementers are easily bored and do not want
to perform [1-7].