Warning: include_once(../article_type.php): failed to open stream: No such file or directory in /home/suxhorbncfos/public_html/asm/ASM.MS.ID.555634.php on line 121
Warning: include_once(): Failed opening '../article_type.php' for inclusion (include_path='.:/opt/alt/php56/usr/share/pear:/opt/alt/php56/usr/share/php') in /home/suxhorbncfos/public_html/asm/ASM.MS.ID.555634.php on line 121
When the culture is introduced in some territory, different economic actors come into connection and begin to relate to improve the territory itself, for an improvement of local development. Culture is an opportunity for a real position where local actors make a huge effort to represent this territory with a positive image and to obtain very favorable economic, social and media results. In this sense, Xavier Greffe  reminds us in his report on “the cultural attractiveness of the territory” (2006), that some studies have established a very strong correlation between economic development and cultural development in the French regions “the regions with a minor advance quickly in the last twenty years are those in which the weight of cultural activities has also progressed more slowly Taliano des Garets F .
It is evident that major events, such as festivals, can influence the confirmation of the image of the organizing city using its favorable perception as a potential travel destination [3-5]. Festivals contribute to the improvement of the image of the Edimburgh International Festival, New Orleans, Mardi Gras). The organization of the festivals can be the last stage to end the negative reputation of the city and start with a new page. Festivals attract people and tourists and remove the negative image. The festivals have the advantage of improving the image of the city as the case of Germany after the Second World War, with the Olympic Games in Munich in 1972, and the image of Japan, after the Second World War, when it organized the event of the Olympic Games in Tokyo in 1964.
In short, the image of the city is one of the most important factors in the field of territorial marketing so that the image of the spiral is strongly related to the City marketing tool. Given the great competition that exists between cities and the speed of the phenomenon of globalization, which was manageable for large
cities, it has been unfortunately difficult and complicated for
medium and small cities. Consequently, this phenomenon forced all cities and regions to redefine themselves and look again to improve the image and make it more attractive.
This effort put into the image will allow the city to compete internationally to attract tourists, investors, and organize conferences, events [6-13]. Nowadays, one of the most important issues is to take care of the image of the city. It is an essential function of the local authorities, and for this reason the latter realized that the more investment is made in the development and the improvement of the image of the city, the latter will increase more and will be more attractive. In the field of business, social activities, tourism ... the importance of the image of the city is enormous in a way that generates a mental image about it that becomes an important component of future success or failure [6,14].
Festivals are considered as essential elements, because they play a crucial role in improving the image of the organizing city of the event, in a relatively short period of time . During the last two decades, festivals have been considered as an effective tool for urban policy and are intended to stop the decline of a geographical area by positively regenerating its image and increasing its attractiveness for tourists and residents alike [10,15,16]. From the nineties, several authors believed that there was a relationship between the place occupied by culture within the territory and the importance of regional development.
“The matter is extremely serious; we are convinced that culture will be the motor of tomorrow” . For DiMeo (2001), “the territory is steeped in cultural values, each reflecting the affiliation to a localized group”, then , indicates that culture exerts a very large economic influence on local development. because culture transmits symbols and presents a strong value
in communication “and by the same author:” several territories
in difficulties find their way thanks to cultural activities that help
them find an opportunity to create new activities “.
After two years , it shows culture as an element of the
structuring of a territory and as an asset capable of favoring the
creation of other activities, with culture we can transmit a capacity
for reflection in a territory, of creation and of a project that will
exceed the only artistic sector to take advantage of most of the
activities. OECD (2005) stipulated that culture contributes to local
development, making it an attractive place for its inhabitants and
visitors, influencing the creation of products associating aesthetic
and useful dimensions.
Culture is the “factory” of the territory Kahn , for Santaga
 culture and territory form an indivisible and native binomial:
a territory is both a social place and a place for the production
of activities economic, which are influenced by the culture of the
territory. In order to make a difference as a visitor or cultural
tourist, we must differentiate ourselves from the competition
by presenting and offering a “specific” product Pecqueuur .
Culture and economics are two spheres that have been ignored
for a long time or “more or less two phenomena separated in the
opposite way” . Historically a difficult field to assimilate.
Economic analysis (according to the findings of Ricardo,
Marshall and Keynes, in particular), culture was the subject of
an early interest on the part of the economists of the seventies,
when they sought to measure the economic importance of
cultural activities. This is explained as much by the progress of the
economic analysis as by the developments in the cultural field and
the impact of new technologies in the production and distribution
of cultural products. Nowadays it seems accepted that the atypical
properties of cultural goods have allowed conceptual advances
Farchy and Sagot-Duvauroux ; so when we have sought to
integrate the economy into the reality of the market economy
(heterogeneity of the product, imperfect information ...) and be
free of inappropriate assumptions to analyze the consumption
of commercial products (the likes of stability, the decrease of
marginal utility ...), culture was seen as an adequate field of
evidence for new theoretical advances. The existence of multiple
and complex relations between economy and culture can be seen
now, as to suggest “a quite marked convergence between economy
and culture in modern capitalism”  or a recursive loop ;
“Nowadays, the fruits of knowledge, information, science and
culture can be fully valued and, probably, these intangible riches
are the most strategic resources that are in the context of the
globalization of the economy” .
According to the 12th edition of the World Day of Cultural
Diversity for dialogue and development on May 21, 2013, the
universal declaration on cultural diversity, Unesco stipulated
that: “Placing culture at the core of development constitutes
an investment in coming from the world and the condition of
the success of a well understood globalization that takes into
consideration the principles of cultural diversity “. In fact, culture
is not only that area that does not matter and that is always in
third or fourth level. On the contrary, culture today has become a
key to success, which must be included in the overall development
of each territory of each country.
Most of the cultural investments made by a territory allow
it to better define its identity and create real social cohesion
among citizens Yudice . In this way, the products and cultural
activities help to take the historical image and to offer the pleasure
the beauty and the true soul of this territory to all the citizens first,
and then to the cultural tourists. Most of the cultural investments
made by a territory allow it to better define its identity and create
real social cohesion among citizens . In this way, the products
and cultural activities help to take the historical image and to offer
the pleasure the beauty and the true soul of this territory to all the
citizens first, and then to the cultural tourists.
The cultural manifestations classify the public into young
people, adults, men, women, nationality, age, religion ... In other
words, culture has become a device that helps territories: cities
or regions, to be conceived as a brand that can attract visitors and
cultural tourists [25,26]. Territorial marketing oriented towards
cultural events is executed by making a connection between the
public sector, the private sector and voluntary organizations
. Until today, culture is not really considered by political and
economic actors as a true factor for development, culture is a set
of distinctive, spiritual, material features ... that characterize a
territory or a group of people. The latter includes, apart from the
arts, ways of life, traditions and beliefs. In this way, culture plays a
very important role alongside tourism in achieving the objectives
of sustainable and sustainable economic growth.
In fact, local development according to  It is a process of
diversification and enrichment of economic and social activities
in a territory, the mobilization and coordination of resources and
energies A product of the efforts of its population, this will call
into question the existence of a project to develop the integration
of its economic, social and cultural components and will make
a space of continuity, “active solidarity”. Therefore, one of the
strategies that a territory could follow alongside a territorial
marketing process is a local development strategy, valuing its
history and heritage and reinforcing its tourist attractiveness. A
series of practices has been implemented that help to evolve the
sectors and the different areas connected to these activities by
mobilizing local actors (companies, associations ...), investing in
the field of culture and helping to give new life to such territories.
as a tool and a source of new investment ideas .
One of the most important things is to make the public
loyal towards the cultural events that they carry out within that
territory, especially giving them the desire to return. In effect,
the consent of the participation of the local population is a very
important and essential real initiative for a real strong identity of
said territory from its citizens and its local actors. Although the
cultural manifestations have an international form, it is necessary to involve the local population that increases the dynamics
towards the project itself, so that it is more a collective work,
favoring a solidary atmosphere. Throughout this chapter we will
develop in a first time a section to talk about the different products
and cultural events and then a second section developing the role
of the festival in the success of the management of the territory.
Gold J (1994) Locating the message: Place promotion as image communication. in Gold J and Ward S (eds). Place Promotion: The Use of Publicity and Marketingto Sell Towns and Regions. John Wiley & Sons, Toronto.
Kotler P, Haider DH, Rein I (1993) Attracting Investment, Industry, and Tourism to Cities, States and Nations-Marketing Places. The Free Press How to measure the economic impact of mega-events-World Economic Forum Davos. New York.
Short JR, Kim YH (1998) Urban representations: selling the city in difficult times. In: T Hall, P Hubbard (Eds.),In the Entrepreneurial City:Geographies of Politics, Regime and Representation. John Wiley, Sons, Chichester, UK, pp. 55-75.
Morgan N, Pritchard A (2002) Contextualizing destination branding. In Destination Branding: Creating the Unique Destination Proposition. In: SP Morgan, S Pritchard, R Pride (Eds.),Butter worth-Heinemann, Woburn, MA.