55Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Submission: February 11, 2022; Published: February 25, 2022
*Corresponding author: Ebrahim Alinia-Ahandani, Department of Biochemistry, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran
How to cite this article: Ebrahim A-A, Zahra A-T, Milad S, Zeliha S, Mahdi A-A. A New Perspective on the Introduction of Some Medicinal Plants for Oral
Health and Teeth Adv Dent & Oral Health. 2022; 15(2): 555909. DOI: 10.19080/ADOH.2022.15.555909
Medicinal plants are considered as a major asset in any society. The role of these plants is more visible today than ever before and requires a stronger position every day. In recent years, research on their effects in various areas, including the fight against disease. Today’s lifestyle changes have caused various foods to cause more serious harm to humans by having substances and plaques that destroy oral tissue health. Viral and bacterial as well as using like mouthwashes and cleaners, fight against cancer and dietary supplements are developing and evolving. Chemical drugs, due to their side effects, sometimes damage other parts of the body. They need to be researched more in the future. In this short review paper, the effects of some of the most important medicinal plants like Curcuma longa, Ananas comosus, Zingiber offinale, Salvia rosmarinus, Mentha piperitaand Syzygium aromaticum, that are used today to treat and improve oral health issues are introduced. Finally, suggestions for better and more use are given.
Medicinal plants are agents that contain one or more of their active ingredients. This substance, which makes up less than 1% of the dry weight of the plant, has medicinal properties that affect living organisms. Medicinal plants contain many ingredients that are used to treat diseases and eliminate its symptoms [1-7]. Herbal medicine uses plant seeds, roots, leaves, bark or flowers for medicinal purposes. The biological properties of these plants have beneficial effects. Herbs are used to treat chronic and acute diseases and various ailments, including cardiovascular disease, prostate problems, depression, inflammation, oral issues and immune system. Medicinal plants are used all over the world to treat diseases and many studies show their effectiveness. Today, the tendency to use herbal medicines has become more popular [8-11]. The side effects of chemical drugs, environmental requirements and the gradual trend towards natural products have led to the acceleration of the use of medicinal plants in some developed and developing countries, especially in the last decade, but its unknown side effects pose a serious threat to their arbitrary and excessive use.
At present, the misconception is that herbal medicines have fewer side effects and are less dangerous, while this is not true, and any herbal medicine has side effects in addition to its benefits. Other factors that affect the properties of the plant, such as the type of environment in which the plant grows, how it is harvested and how it is processed in order to obtain the extract, by soaking in water, alcohol or other solvents to extract some chemicals [12-14]. Manufactured products include dozens of chemicals, including fatty acids, steroids, alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, etc. Painful diseases such as arthritis (inflammation of the joints), back pain and tendonitis (inflammation of the tendons) are caused by inflammation. Inflammation is a natural reaction of the immune system to infection or injury . If inflammation becomes chronic, it can cause other diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes in addition to causing pain.
In the following, we will introduce you six medicinal plants that
are often used as natural pain relievers.
Turmeric or Currant (Scientific name: Curcuma longa) is a
type of known plant and spice. Turmeric belongs to the genus of
Liliopsida, the order of Zingiberales, the genus of Zingiberaceae,
and the curcuma species [16-19]. Turmeric powder is a dark
yellow color that is one of the most widely used spices in the
world. The main habitat of this plant is India and Iran, also it is
the main part of the famous curry spice. This plant is one of the
most powerful antioxidants and reduces inflammation in the
body, repairs the skin and improves cognition (memory) [20,21].
Turmeric, due to its richness in a chemical called curcumin,
improves insulin resistance in diabetics, neutralizes excess blood
insulin, and thus prevents fatigue caused by low blood glucose and
reduced appetite and weight. In traditional medicine, turmeric
is used to relieve the pain of arthritis and oral health; Because
this plant contains an antioxidant called Curcumin. According
to studies, curcumin can overcome cytokines (proteins that are
secreted following the inflammatory process) and be an effective
analgesic [22,23]. Prostaglandins are produced in various tissues
of the body in response to tissue damage or infection and as part
of the healing process. They cause inflammation, pain and fever.
Therefore, curcumin can also have analgesic effect by inhibiting
the effect of prostaglandins. Curcumin is also effective in reducing
pain associated with autoimmune disorders and tendonitis .
Pineapple is known as a fruit and herb that is generated from
southern Brazil and Paraguay. Its size is 1-1.5 meters and the size
of the ridge on it is up to 30-100 centimeters. This fruit would
be called hincarp in horticulture [24-26]. It is a perennial plant
belonged to the tropics of the Americas. It has prickly and pleasant
fruits; In Cuba, Puerto Rico and Hawaii, pineapple is extended.
The fruit and flesh of the fruit are highly canned . Also in
the Philippine Islands, thorny leaves are used to weave threads.
According to the FAO in 2019, Brazil, Thailand, Philippines, Costa
Rica and India are the largest producers of pineapples. Bromelain
is an enzyme extracted from pineapple stems. It contains
prostaglandin levels. Prostaglandins are lipid compounds that
have hormonal-like effects in the body and therefore can have
different effects depending on the type of receptors to which they
bind. If you have arthritis, diseases related to musculoskeletal
stress, such as temporomandibular joint syndrome, or traumarelated
inflammation, bromelain can help and relieve pain. Reduce.
This enzyme is also found in fresh pineapple fruit. Bromelain can
also help repair and improve muscle and connective tissue and
also has a great researched effect on oral health .
Ginger (Zingiber officinale), (from Middle Persian Sangipel,
also in some ancient texts named as Shengvir) is a flowering plant of the ginger family, the stem of which is used as a spice
or medicinal plant in traditional medicine [28,29]. This plant is
native to Southeast Asia. Their flowers are yellowish green with
purple edges and creamy spots and small, conical and dense
spike flowers that emerge from the stem in summer. The main
ingredients of ginger include sugars (from 50 to 70%), fats (from
50 to 70%). Up to 18%), oleoresin (from 4 to 7.5%) and caustic
compounds (from 1 to 3%). 1 tablespoon of fresh ginger (ie 6 g)
contains 5 calories, 1 g of carbohydrates and a very small amount
of fat., protein and fiber. Drinking ginger tea helps relieve colds
and congestion caused by colds and can get better effects on oral
health. On the other hand, taking supplements containing ginger
is effective in reducing pain . Ginger relieves pain caused by
arthritis by lowering prostaglandin levels. Some studies show that
ginger can reduce pain and inflammation more effectively than
non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin [31,32].
Roman rosemary (Salvia rosmarinus), a perennial woody plant
with fragrant, evergreen, needle-like leaves and white, pink, purple
or blue flowers, is native to the Mediterranean region. Until 2017,
it was known by the scientific name Rosmarinus officinalis, which
is now just a synonym . This plant is from the Lamiaceae family
of mint, which also includes many plants. The name “rosemary” is
derived from the Latin ros marinus (“sea dew”). Rosemary is known
in traditional medicine as a weak analgesic [34,35]. According to a
two-week study of stroke sufferers suffering from shoulder pain,
they were given rosemary-containing analgesic gel twice daily for
20 minutes with acupressure (a technique similar to acupuncture
performed with fingertip pressure).) Received a 30% reduction
in pain; But those treated with acupressure without rosemary gel
had only a 15% reduction in pain. Researchers have also found
that rosemary oil can be more effective than acetaminophen in
relieving pain, according to another animal study . Of course,
the concentration of rosemary oil is important in creating an
analgesic effect; if it is higher than a certain limit, it can have the
opposite effect, so to relieve pain, instead of pure rosemary oil,
using specialized products formulated for this purpose would be
mentioned. On the other hand, rosemary oil is likely to reduce tissue
inflammation that inflammatory pain can also lead to swelling,
pain, and stiffness. In a study of people with rheumatoid arthritis,
people who received a 15-minute knee massage with rosemary oil
three times a week had inflammatory pain. Their knee area was
reduced by 50%. However, the rate of pain reduction in the group
of patients who did not use rosemary oil was only 12% [37,38]
Peppermint (Mentha piperita) is a species of mint, it is a
plant of the continuous dicotyledonous petals, which is an edible
and medicinal vegetable [39-41]. This plant is also called lily of
the valley, peppermint, halibut and asparagus. Peppermint has
anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and soothing effects. The active
ingredients in peppermint oil are carvacrol, menthol and limonene.
Diluted peppermint extract is often used in topical analgesics.
Peppermint is traditionally used to relieve painful spasms and
problems associated with arthritis. Rubbing peppermint oil on
the temples and forehead can also relieve tension headaches
(the most common type of headache). However, you should avoid
rubbing peppermint oil on cut skin, because this substance can
cause allergic reactions. For this reason, you should do a skin
sensitivity test before using peppermint oil on the painful area. To
do this, apply a small amount of oil on the skin of your arm. If after
24 hours there are no signs of allergies such as redness, itching,
swelling, etc., topical application of this oil will most likely be safe
for you. Note that this oil should not be used for children [42-44].
Clove is a type of medicinal plant; the tree of this plant is green
all the year. The flowers of this plant have a strong aromatic smell
and the height of the tree is 10 to 12 meters and sometimes it
grows up to 20 meters and has large leaves with red flowers. The
flower buds are pale at first and gradually turn green and then
red, at which time the fruit of the tree is ready to be harvested.
It is used as a spice in pickles and its seeds are also used as
medicine [45,46]. Carnation is currently harvested primarily in
India, Indonesia, Madagascar, Iran, Zanzibar, Pakistan, Vietnam,
and Sri Lanka. Cloves, like other herbal supplements, can be used
to treat a wide range of ailments. Cloves help reduce nausea and
treat colds. This plant can also relieve headaches and pain caused
by arthritis. Clove also has a toothache effect. In addition, cloves
can be used as a topical analgesic. One study suggests the use of
cloves to treat fungal infections, although more research is needed
to prove its effectiveness [47,48]. Eugenol, the active ingredient
in cloves, is a natural painkiller found in some over-the-counter
medications. Rubbing a small amount of clove oil on the gums can
relieve toothache temporarily until you see a dentist; but if you
apply a lot of undiluted clove oil on your gums, it will probably
damage your gums; Therefore, it is better to consult your dentist
before using this method at home [49-51]. If you have bleeding
disorders or are taking blood-thinning medications, you should be
very careful when consuming products containing cloves, as clove
oil can increase the risk of abnormal bleeding.
In order to promote community health and eliminate the
exorbitant costs of treatment, it is enough to create a proper
culture about these products so that communities are encouraged
to use these natural medicines and do not start using chemical
medicines with any small disease. For example, the common cold
or common new weak mutations of Covid 19 are some of the
diseases that people get several times a year, if you are careful,
people who constantly take a variety of pills to cure this disease
(even before the disease and with the least symptoms to try), they
take more colds than other people for a long time, but people who
are more resistant and use less pills and chemicals have a stronger
immune system and last longer [52-58]. They achieve a short recovery time. By reviewing the cost of oral treatment in dental
clinics and offices and considering that the price of many dental
equipments and materials has raised hugely, you will surely come
to the conclusion that the best way is to take care of and prevent
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