New Approaches of Some Herbs Used for Reproductive Issues in the World: Short Review
Ebrahim Alinia-Ahandani*, Ani Boghozian and Zahra Alizadeh
Department of Biochemistry, Payame Noor University, Iran
Submission: July 19, 2019;Published: July 26, 2019
*Corresponding author: Ebrahim Alinia-Ahandani, Department of Biochemistry, Payame Noor University, Iran
How to cite this article: Ebrahim Alinia-Ahandani, Ani Boghozian, Zahra Alizadeh. New Approaches of Some Herbs Used for Reproductive Issues in the World: Short Review. J Gynecol Women’s Health. 2019: 16(1): 555927. DOI: 10.19080/JGWH.2019.16.555927
Medicinal plants as one of the medical sources in all disorders must be attended by modern societies [1,2]. Achyranthes indica has several synonyms: Achyranthes aspera L. var. indica L., Achyranthes aspera L. var. obtusifolia (Lam.) Suess and Achyranthes obtusifolia Lamarck. Achyranthes aspera is used in rural Ethiopia for fertility control. Achyranthes bidentata (‘Niu Xi’ in Chinese medicine, Radix Achyranthes Bidentatae) is used in traditional Chinese medicine as a tonic, emmenagogue, diuretic, and antifertility agent. An aqueous extract of powdered Achyranthes bidentata can accelerate the regeneration of a crushed common peroneal nerve in rabbits. The ethanol extract of the root of Achyranthes aspera Linn. has antifertility activity which is not permanent. The ethanol extract has estrogenic activity demonstrated by the significant increase in uterine weight, diameter of the uterus, thickness of endometrium and vaginal epithelial cornification in immature ovariectomized female albino rats [3-6]. Artemisin extracted from Artemisia annua L., reduced the fertility of rats, especially at high doses (5 to 10 times the therapeutic dose used in humans). The rats had lower maternal progestagens and testosterone. The doses given to the rats were 5 to 10 times the therapeutic dose used in humans [7,8]. Crude stem bark hydro-alcohol extracts of Cola nitida (20μg/ml) inhibited the release of LH induced by LHRH, but had no effect on FSH release. The active compounds may be phenols: catechin, quinic acid, tannic acid, chlorogenic acid and flavonoids . Coleus barbatus is used to abort pregnancy in Brazil and as an emmenagogue in other countries . Coleus barbatus showed an anti-implantation effect in the pre-implantation period in rats, but after embryo implantation the extract had little effect. The hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts from the aerial parts of Cordia curassavica (Jacq) Roemer & Schultes essential oil, was evaluated against 13 bacteria and 5 fungal strains . The oil and extracts exhibited antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and five fungal strains. Sarcina lutea and Vibrio cholerae were more sensitive to the essential oil and Vibrio cholerae to the hexane extract. Rhizoctonia solani was more sensitive to the essential oil and Trichophyton mentagrophytes to the hexane extract. Curcuma comosa Roxb. has traditionally been used in Thailand for treatment of inflammation in postpartum uterine bleeding . Its anti-inflammatory effects were established. The oil of Eupatorium macrophyllum contains mainly monoterpenes (sabinene and limonene) , which Latin American respondents refer to as ‘irritating’ chemicals that are used to stimulate contractions. Mimosa pudica root powder (150mg/kg body weight) when administered intragastrically, altered the oestrous cycle pattern in female Rattus norvegicus [14,2]. Dioestrus lasted for 2wk. There was a significant reduction in the number of normal ova and a significant increase in the number of degenerated ova. The dried methanol extract of the powdered roots of Mimosa pudica (300mg/kg body weight/day) were given to female mice for 21d and caused a prolonged estrous cycle with a significant increase in the duration of the diestrous phase [15,16]. No significant changes were observed in the level of progesterone and LH. A significant increase in the estradiol level in the diestrus stage was found in the treated animals, along with a significant decrease in the secretion of FSH in proestrus and estrus stages. The treated animals had smaller litters, but the pups were normal and the treatment had no effect on subsequent untreated litters. Mimosa tenuiflora seeds (10% of the ration) given to pregnant rats from days 6-21 of pregnancy caused bone malformations in the fetal pups .
Ocimum gratissimum var. macrophyllum accessions contained thymol as the major volatile oil constituent, and xantomicrol as the major flavone. The accessions could be divided based on volatile oil constituents into six groups:
a) thymol: alpha-copaene
b) eugenol: spathulenol
c) thymol: p-cymene
d) eugenol: gamma-muurolene
e) eugenol: thymol: spathulenol
f) geraniol 
Aqueous and ethanol extracts of aerial parts of Piper auritum have produced spasmogenic uterine stimulant and vasodilator effects . Of all Piper species only 10% (112 of 1,000+ known species world-wide) have been phytochemically investigated. These 112 species contain 667 different compounds distributed as follows: 190 alkaloids/amides, 49 lignans, 70 neolignans, 97 terpenes, 39 propenylphenols, 15 steroids, 18 kavapyrones, 17 chalcones/ dihydrochalcones, 16 flavones, 6 flavanones, 4 piperolides (cinnamylidone butenolides) and 146 miscellaneous compounds [20,21,16].
When rats were given ruda (Ruta graveolens) for the first 4 to 10 d of pregnancy in two separate research studies it reduced their fertility and had a negative effect on embryo development; however this effect was not seen in hamsters given ruda for the first week of pregnancy . De Freitas et al. did not find any negative effects when they gave mice the hydroalcoholic extract of Ruta graveolens aerial parts (1000mg/kg per day) between the first and third day of pregnancy (DOP), between the fourth and sixth DOP or between the seventh and ninth DOP. However they, like other researchers quoted literature showing that deaths have resulted when ruda was used as an abortifacient by women. Senna (Cassia occidentalis) is widely used as an expectorant and an anti-inflammatory agent. The anti-inflammatory activity is attributed to the constituents isolated from roots and stem. Cassia occidentalis treatment protected mice from cyclophosphamide- induced suppression of humoral immunity. The chemical constituents isolated from Cassia occidentalis include anthraquinones, fatty oils, flavonoids, gallactomannan, polysaccharides and tannins. Many of these constituents isolated from other plant sources have shown immunomodulatory activity . This study made the case that total plant extracts show more efficacy versus single constituents. The anthraquinone glycosides of the plant are reputed to be oxytocic and should not be given to pregnant women, unless it is to help delivery . The methanolic extract of Urena lobata roots has broad spectrum antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity and inhibitory action against nitric oxide release from macrophages. Isolated compounds from Urena lobata include mangiferin from the aerial parts, triglycerides and small quantities of quercetin [25,26].
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