Ocimum basilicum or sweet Basil which belongs to the Family Lamiaceae (mints), is native to areas in Asia and Africa and grows wild as a perennial on some pacific islands. Basil was brought from India to Europe through the Middle East in the sixteenth century, and subsequently to America in the seventeenth century . It contains essential oils such as linalool, (Z)-cinnamic acid methyl ester, cyclohexene, α-cadinol. Also it contains phenolic compounds such as rosmarinic acid, which is the active principle in this study.
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of FSH hormone and LH hormone on male fertility and its ability to facilitate pregnancy in female albino rabbits, using Ocimum Basilicum alcoholic extract. We seek in our research to increase male sex hormones (androgens) by increasing FSH and LH and by doing so increasing fertility. Basil herb is widely used in many medical conditions, food preparations and others, it also a very popular herb and many people believe that natural products are always safe and good for them.Many men have hormonal disturbance which can lead to many pathological conditions so it’s useful to conduct a study to see the effectiveness of the basil herb extract on treatment of the sexual hormones disturbance and see its effect on related fertility. The regulation of testosterone concentrations throughout the body is critical for male reproductive function. The hypothalamus and pituitary gland regulates the production of testosterone and the cells that assist in spermatogenesis. GnRH activates the anterior pituitary
to produce LH and FSH, which in turn stimulate Leydig cells and Sertoli cells, respectively. The system is a negative feedback loop because the end products of the pathway, testosterone and inhibin, interact with the activity of GnRH to inhibit their own production (Figure 2).
Low blood concentrations of testosterone stimulate the hypothalamus release of GnRH. GnRH then stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete LH into the bloodstream. In the testis, LH binds to LH receptors on the Leydig cells and stimulates the release of testosterone. When concentrations of testosterone in the blood reach a critical threshold, testosterone itself will bind to androgen receptors on both the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary, inhibiting the synthesis and secretion
of GnRH and LH, respectively. When the blood concentrations of
testosterone once again decline, testosterone no longer interacts
with the receptors to the same degree and GnRH and LH are
once again secreted, stimulating more testosterone production.
This same process occurs with FSH and inhibin to control
Sweet basil used as a source of flavoring principles and
medicinally, is used to aid digestion as it is a carminative, in an
infusion to relieve enflamed or tired eyes, antioxidant, Tea made
from fennel is a mild laxative and diuretic . Basil contains a
compound called rosmarinic acid that responsible for increasing
sex hormones and provides antiviral, antimicrobial, and antiinflammatory
pharmacological properties .
Chemical studies revealed that rosmarinic acid is the
predominant phenolic acid present in both flower and leaf
tissues. Unusual basil accessions were identified that can serve
as genetic sources of phenolic acids for crop improvement .
Also, it contains essential oil is used industrially in production of
soaps and other cosmetic products for its aromatic qualities .
This study was done by using Ocimum basilicum dry leaf
extract for New Zealand rabbits at two different doses (1.95g
and 2.4g) of the herb extract according to their weight, then
blood samples were taken to laboratory for serum FSH and
serum LH analysis [7-10]. Nine adults, both males and female
albino rats weighing 700-1600gm were used in the presented
study. The animals were kept in the animal house in the Medical
Research Center .
Animals were housed in separate cages, each cage contain
one male and two females under conventional and controlled
conditions, the first cage was labelled as a control group, the
second cage was labelled as sample No. (1) and the third one
was labelled as sample No. (2).
Each New Zealand rabbit males of both samples No.(1) and
No.(2) wear given a 1L of water to be drink before the experiment
starts, then they remained amount of water was subtracted from
the total amount of water given, the result of this was divided
by 10 to determine the suitable amount of water that should
dissolve the dose, the New Zealand rabbit males of both samples
No.(1) and No.(2) were thirsted from afternoon until the second
day at the morning, then the therapeutic dose were given, which
was 1.95g dose for 1.3kg weighing New Zealand rabbit male in
sample No. (1) and 2.4g dose for 1.6kg weighing New Zealand
rabbit male in sample No. (2), the duration of this study was 14
Blood samples were collected using Razor, Cotton and Syringe
in to Heparin Test tubes, then it was separated into blood and
plasma using centrifuge machine, blood serum FSH and serum
LH were taken from male rabbits of control group, sample No.
(1) group and sample No. (2) group three times, before starting
the experiment, after 7 days (during the experiment) and after
14 days (after finishing the experiment).
FSH hormone was allowed to reach room temperature, the
package was opened, the steps required were taken out and the
rest was sealed in the bag with desiccant after expelling the air
it were stored at 2-8oC. The substrate contained in well No. (4)
was ensured that it was colorless. Devices which do not have
this characteristic were discarded. 80-100μL of the undiluted
samples were dispensed, Calibrators or control in well No. (1)
Of each strip. The strips were inserted into the tray in UNION,
the run was started, and the system performed the following
a) The sample was pipetted, conjugated into the assigned
well, mixed, and incubated at 25 ͦC.
b) The content was discarded and washed 3 times.
c) Substrate (FSH) was added, and incubated at 25 ͦC.
d) Stop solution was added, mixed and reading was taken.
e) The result was calculated.
The same procedure was repeated to determine the serum
Upon applying ultrasound on New Zealand rabbits female it
was found that all female in both samples (No.1 and No.2) were
pregnant within the specified treatment period, which suggest
there were more sexual activity during giving sweet basil extract
Ultrasound results proved a male sexual hyperactivity
manifested by the approved pregnancy of females , This is
similar to another study were done by Leyendecker G et al. 
on pregnancies following chronic intermittent administration
of Gn-RH by means of a portable pump a new approach to the
treatment of infertility in hypothalamic amenorrhea.
New Zealand rabbits that received 1.95gm of the extract
of the under test herb, showed in the first week an FSH values
that were significant and LH values that were not significant
which suggest that this herb at the specified dose is follicular
stimulating hormone stimulator dose but not luteinizing
hormone stimulator dose ,the same New Zealand rabbits that
received 1.95gm of the extract of the under test herb, showed
in the second week an FSH values that were significant and LH
values that were not significant which suggest that this herb at
the specified dose is follicular stimulating hormone stimulator
dose but not luteinizing hormone stimulator dose. This is similar
to another study were done by Graham KE et al.  in which
only FSH only significant on evaluation of the expression of
follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) beta mRNA and secretion of
FSH from LbetaT2 cells in response to GnRH and activin A.
New Zealand rabbits that received 2.4gm of the extract of the
under test herb, showed in the first week an FSH values that were
significant and LH values that were significant which suggest
that this herb at the specified dose is both follicular stimulating
hormone stimulator dose and luteinizing hormone stimulator
dose, the same New Zealand rabbits that received 2.4gm of the
extract of the under test herb, showed in the second week an
FSH values that were significant and LH values that were highly
significant which suggest that this herb at the specified dose is
follicular stimulating hormone stimulator dose and luteinizing
hormone stimulator dose. This is similar to another study done
by Bruni JF et al.  on the effects of naloxone, morphine and
methionine enkephalin on serum prolactin, luteinizing hormone,
follicle stimulating hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone and
growth hormone in which FSH and LH are both significant.
Some Side effects were observed such as indolence, loss
of appetite and decreased activity of the New Zealand rabbit’s males who are taking the treatment. Hence animal laboratory
trials can be preceded into further research in clinical trials.