Prevalence of Acute Sinusitis in Pediatric
Age Group in Satellite Town Quetta
Nida Tabassum Khan* and Muhammad Saad
Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Life Sciences & Informatics, Balochistan University of Information Technology, Engineering and Management Sciences, Takatu Campus, Airport Road, Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan
Submission: March 09, 2023; Published: April 04, 2023
*Corresponding author:Nida Tabassum Khan, Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Life Sciences & Informatics, Balochistan University of Information Technology, Engineering and Management Sciences, Takatu Campus, Airport Road, Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan
How to cite this article:Nida Tabassum Khan and Muhammad Saad. Prevalence of Acute Sinusitis in Pediatric Age Group in Satellite Town Quetta. J of Pharmacol & Clin Res. 2023; 9(2): 555758. DOI: 10.19080/JPCR.2023.09.555758
Current study concludes that the prevalence of Acute sinusitis among pediatrics age group in Satellite town Quetta is found to be relatively moderate (39%). In addition, a strong positive association between acute sinusitis and it associated symptoms were identified. Besides, triggering factors like stress, tension, cold and dust etc. escalates the intensity and quality of acute sinusitis i.e., severity of diseases. Another interesting finding of our studies revealed that in spite of moderate percentage of pediatric age group patients suffered from acute sinusitis but females were more affected than male patients which displayed lower prevalence rate. Thus, awareness and education regarding the implications of acute sinusitis among pediatric age group is must and considering the characteristics of our health system, we can infer that this study would be beneficial in the primary care setting in the future, encouraging general practitioners to make correct diagnosis and treatment of acute sinusitis.
Keywords: Paediatrics; Sinonasal; Post nasal drip; Acute; Headache
Acute sinusitis is depicted as an exacerbation of the mucosal covering of the nasal passage and paranasal sinuses that perseveres as long as about a month [1,2]. It will in general be brought about by different variables, including allergens, respiratory diseases, microorganisms, or parasite as well as aggravations from the environment [3,4]. It is quite possibly of the most unavoidable clinical issue in pediatrics and has become more transcendent . Acute sinusitis disturbs bodily fluid and causes obstruction of the sinus ostia as its pathophysiological causes [6,7]. Release of inflammatory mediators and bodily fluid hypersequestration, which disturbs the mucociliary transport framework, are factors that causes or are related with sinusitis in pediatrics [8,9]. Additionally, inflammation causes swelling, which blocks sinus outflow and can bring about bacterial infection which can possibly spread to the head and respiratory tract [10,11]. Besides, various sinusis triggers, including presence of pathogen, stress, strong, sneezing, cold/polluted air, pungent odor etc. [12,13].Thus, the aim of this research is to determine the overall prevalence of Acute sinusitis among paediatric patients and also to identify those factors that contributes towards such condition. However, since this study is a questionnaire based study therefore there could be under/over reporting of acute sinusitis prevalence among pediatric age group and additionally sample size was not very large. Thus, these were the limitations of this study.
This study is a cross sectional study conducted at Saiban family hospital among pediatric age group (1-12years) keeping sample size 100. The patients were selected at random and participation was voluntarily. All patients and their legal guardians provided informed consent.
a) Pediatric age group (1-12years).
b) Having any one or two sinonasal symptoms persistent for 15 or more such as, runny nose (mucous discharge), nasal obstruction/congestion/fever/ headache/daytime coughing or difficulty in breathing etc.
c) Only those patients were included in the study that were not previously diagnosed with acute sinusitis and visited doctor’s clinic for first inspection since the occurrence of symptoms but may have suffered from sinusitis before.
i. Patients which had some kind of other disease or disorder
were excluded from the study such as primary or secondary
diagnosis of cognitive impairment, craniofacial abnormalities,
fungal diseases etc.
ii. Pediatric patients are already diagnosed with sinusitis.
iii. Pediatric patients less than one year of age.
Assessment of acute sinusitis specific symptoms in pediatric
sample was achieved with the help of a questionnaire which
exhibited adequate psychometric properties and also helps to
determine its prevalence among the studied patients. Statistical
analysis of the data was achieved using Microsoft excel 2013.
Table 1 & Graph 1 depicts the respective age group of the pediatric
patients who participated in this study. Table 2 & Graph
2 depicts the gender of the pediatric patients who participated
in this study. History of Acute sinusitis among 100 pediatric
patients were given in Table 3 & Graph 3. Symptoms associated
with Acute sinusitis experienced by pediatric patients were given
in Table 4 & Graph 4. Gender-wise prevalence of Acute sinusitis
among pediatric patients was given in Table 5 & Graph 5 Overall
prevalence of Acute sinusitis among pediatric patients was given
in Table 6 & Graph 6.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and the
leading causes of acute sinusitis among pediatric age groups living
in Satellite town, Quetta. The results of current study showed
that overall prevalence of acute sinusitis among n=100 pediatric
patients was significantly low i.e., 39%  though a high proportion
of pediatric patients i.e., 61% suffered from symptoms
including headache, itchy nose/eyes i.e., allergic symptoms but
were not diagnosed with acute sinusitis  as depicted in Graph
6.The possible reason for this high proportion is because these
symptoms were quite similar to the symptoms of common cold/
seasonal fevers or infections therefore a large number of pediatric
patients were not diagnosed with acute sinusitis since these
patients suffered from common cold or seasonal fever perhaps
. Out of 100 sample size i.e., 34% of patients were males and
i.e., 44% were females as shown in Graph 5. Another interesting
fact found in the study were the variation seen between the symptoms.
Graphically we can see that fever is the prime symptom in
acute sinusitis with 58% of the individuals experiencing it 
than nasal discharge which accounts for only 13% in individual
patients as depicted in Graph 4.
Nasal discharge is a prominent symptom in common cold
however in acute sinusitis post nasal drip is the clinical symptom
in which mucus discharge from the nasal passage is obstructed
instead mucus from nose or sinuses drips down the back of throat
 .As far as the history of the patients with acute sinusitis is
considered among 100 pediatric patients the results revealed
that 31% had contracted acute sinusitis in the past which makes
them more vulnerable to acute sinusitis infection  while remaining
69% of pediatrics had never experienced any episode
of acute sinusitis. Perhaps a complete family history should be
taken in account in future to identify the proneness of a particular
pediatric patient to this respiratory distress . Though,
if these above-mentioned symptoms along with non-consistent
symptoms such as nasal discharge, allergies etc. that varies from
patient to patient are not treated will soon become chronic affecting
the quality of life of a child . Sinusitis can be characterized
into many types including mild, severe and acute based on the
severity of the symptoms for which clinical examination is a must
. Acute sinusitis should be treated if proper treatment is not
administered on time, it can become chronic . Additionally,
increase of particulate matter in the atmosphere, plays a vital role
in causing acute sinusitis or worsen its existing symptoms .
But precautionary measures like wearing masks, eating healthy
etc. and proper medication could minimize the chances of its occurrence
among children .
We consider this study as a helpful guide to properly diagnose
acute sinusitis and distinguish it from common cold on the basis
of symptoms. In addition, the identified environmental factors
that causes or worsen acute sinusitis symptoms among children
could be overcome with the help of medication or precautionary
measures. By comparing the healthcare system of our country to
other countries we can say that this study will be favorable in primary
care settings in coming future.