Is There any Correlation Between Urine Leukocytes and Nyctophobia
Muhammad Imran Qadir and Amna Ashraf*
Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Pakistan
Submission: September 10, 2019;Published: September 17, 2019
*Corresponding author: Amna Ashraf, Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Pakistan
How to cite this article: Muhammad Imran Qadir, Amna Ashraf. Is There any Correlation Between Urine Leukocytes and Nyctophobia. J of Pharmacol & Clin Res. 2019; 8(1): 555729. DOI: 10.19080/JPCR.2019.08.555729
Various people having many different types of phobias. these fears have many signs and symptoms. Fear of darkness is known as nyctophobia. It is basically present in children but in some cases also find in adults. Major reason of fear of darkness is past experiences of life that leave unforgettable memories in mind. Presence of leukocytes in urine is indication of attack of foreign particles in body. Leukocytes are involved in defense of body against invaders. These invaders act as antigen and activate immune response. In urine of healthy individual, count of leukocytes is very minute. To understand the relation between urine leukocyte and nyctophobia project was designed. 100 samples were collected, and dipstick test was performed in lab. Results were analyzed and relationship of nyctophobia and urine leukocytes was determined. From experimental analysis it is concluded that there is no relation between urine leukocytes and fear of darkness.
Keywords: Nyctophobia; Depression; Dipstick test; Student’s t-test; Supernatural; Restlessness; leukocytes; Spleen; lymph; Thymus
There are many fears existing in this world. These fears control people’s thinking. Those who start thinking about their fears and remain in that state for long time, then their fears become phobias. Fear of darkness is one of them. Those people who are afraid of darkness are also afraid of ghost, supernatural things and they believe that ghosts haunt people at night, so they feel insecure in darkness. Fear of darkness is also known as nyctophobia. This fear causes restlessness and anxiety. This world is best suited for those who over come their fears and step out of their comfort zone to overcome their phobias.  A case history of nyctophobia patient is discussed here. That female patient was suffering from darkness phobia. In therapy, she was asked many questions about her past experiences. She recalled her traumatic past experiences of childhood. From her case study it was observed that the root cause of her darkness phobia is that her mother locked her in dark room for punishment in her childhood.  Leukocytes are the part of immune system and involve in defense of body against foreign invaders. These invaders attack body and cause various diseases. Major sites of production of lymphocytes are spleen, lymph, thymus and bone marrow. If the value of leukocytes is high in urine then it indicates that body is currently facing attack of any foreign particle and immune system is working against that attack. In normal condition, amount of leukocytes in urine is very minute .
Causes of Urine Leukocytes
There are many causes of presence of white blood cells in urine. The major reasons of urine leukocytes are given below;
a) Kidney infection
b) Bladder infections
c) Holding in urine
d) Kidney stones
e) Urinary system blockage
f) interstitial cystitis
h) Anemia 
Material and Method
100 samples were collected from different areas of multan and all these samples were tested in the laboratory using Dipstick test. Samples were stored at room temperature.
I took the sample first and mixed it well and make a homogeneous solution. Then I took strip and dip it in urine sample and keep placing it in sample for 1 minute. Then I removed it from sample container and after that by using tissue paper I removed extra amount of sample from the strip. Left it for reaction for 2 minutes. In the end of experiment, I matched the color of strip with the chromatic scale given in the kit.
The project was design at Institute of Biotechnology, Multan. In this project 100 samples were collected and tested in laboratory. Those people who gave their urine samples were also asked about their fear of darkness. A questionnaire was given to then and they answered all question according to their state of mind.
After completion of survey and testing the urine samples in laboratory results were noted and then performed student’s t-test for statistical analysis.
Results and Discussion
Results of samples are given below in table1 and percentage of positive leukocytes in urine is given in table 2. All 100 samples were collected from Multan. Samples were taken from both genders. With the help of questionnaire I differentiated nyctophobic individuals from non-nyctophobic. Out of 54 nyctophobic individuals 13 showed positive results while in non-nyctophobic individuals out of 46 just 11 showed positive results.
It was generally though that there is a correlation of nyctophobia and urine leukocytes but after experimentation and statistical analysis of results it is proved that there is no relation of fear of darkness and urine leukocytes in males but positive results found in females.
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