Evaluation of Anti Thyroid Activity of
Asaparagus Racemosus Root Extract against Thyroxine Induced Hyperthyroidism in Rats
Santhi T*, Narendra babu and Deekshitha R
Department of M pharmacy, chalapathi institute of pharmaceutical sciences, India
Submission: July 15, 2019;Published: August 21, 2019
*Corresponding author:Santhi T, Department of M pharmacy, chalapathi institute of pharmaceutical sciences, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India
How to cite this article: Santhi T. Evaluation of Anti Thyroid Activity of Asaparagus Racemosus Root Extract against Thyroxine Induced Hyperthyroidism in Rats. J of Pharmacol & Clin Res. 2019; 7(5): 555721. DOI: 10.19080/JPCR.2019.07.555721
Objective: The present study was formulated in order to evaluate the Antithyroid potential of asaparagus racemosus root in wester rats.
Methods:asaparagus racemosus (Family: Asparagaceae), is used in the mythical system for anti inflamatory, diabetes and urinary disorders and anti oxident. The genus of asaparagus exhibited the presence of tyrosine which is responsible for the formation of T3 and T4 hormones. Hyperthyroidism was induced in experimental rats by administering thyroxine (600μ/kg/ml) orally for 14 days. Hyper thyroid male wester rats weighing 150-300gm were treated with oral doses of 100mg/kg of asaparagus racemosus aqueous extract for a period of 21 days. Propyl thiouracil for 21 days. Served as the standard.
Results: In this study, morphological assessment demonstrated that thyroxine treated gathering demonstrates increased levels of Triiodo-Lthyronine and L-thyroxine. Simultaneous administration of aqueous extracts of asaparagus racemosus root lowered the increased levels. The decrease in the levels of T3 and T4 by the extracts was compared with the reference drug propyl thio uracil
Herbal medicine has as of late pulled in much consideration as option prescription valuable for treatment and anticipation of way of life related disorder . Thyroid hormonal disorders are associated with the imbalance of T3 and T4 hormones secreted by the thyroid gland directly into the blood, the severity of thyroid hormonal imbalance leads to some of the common diseases like
diabetes and hypertension and disturb the BMR (basal metabolic rate) of the body. Approximately half the cases of thyroid disease involve hyperthyroidism and the other half involves hypothyroidism. Even though day-by-day herbal drugs are gaining much importance for their affordable and safe nature, scientific investigations towards the mitigation of thyroid disorders by the plant extracts are meager. In almost all these reports, only one thyroid hormone (T3 or T4) was altered by the plant extract. Therefore, in our endeavor to find out a plant extract that can regulate the levels of both the thyroid hormones. Asparagus racemosus Willd. (root) (family-Asparagaceae) also known by the name “Shatavari” means “who possesses a hundred husbands or acceptable to many”. It is considered both a general tonic and a
female reproductive tonic  Asparagus racemosus (AR) may be translated as “100 spouses”, implying its ability to increase fertility and vitality. In Ayurveda, this amazing herb is known as the “Queen of herbs”, because it promotes love and devotion. is the main Ayurvedic rejuvenative tonic for the female, (Figures 1&2) as is Withania for the male. Throughout India, Tropical and subtropical parts including Andamans and ascending in the Himalayas up to an altitude of 1500m .
Wistar albino male rats (150-300g) were maintained for 7 days in the animal house of Chalapathi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guntur under standard temperature conditions (24° ± 1°C) with 60% relative humidity and illuminated 12/24 h . The animals were allowed to acclimatize to laboratory conditions 48 h before the start of the experiment. 6 rats / group were used in all sets of experiments. The animals were allowed free access to drinking water and rat feed  (Figures 3&4) All the protocols were approved by Institutional Animal Ethical Committee (IAEC)
and conducted according to Committee for the Purpose of Control
and Supervision of Experimental Animals (CPCSEA) registered
no: at Department of Pharmacology, Chalapathi Institute of
Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lam, Guntur .
The roots of Asaparagus racemosus was authenticated by Dr. P.
Satyanarayana Raju (Plant taxonomist) of Department of Botany
and Microbiology at Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur.
Asparagus racemosus roots were collected from chalapathi
institute of pharmaceutical sciences, lam, Guntur.
Asaparagus racemosus roots were shade dried at room
temperature for 15 days, roots were powdered in a mechanical
grinder . These were subjected to extraction by Soxhlet
extraction method using aqueous as a solvent. Excess solvent
was removed by solvent evaporation to obtain the dry weight
of the plant extracts. At the time of oral administration, the
concentration of extract selected were 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg
body weights .
Aqueous extracts of Asparagus racemosus were subjected
to different chemical tests for identification of phytochemical
constituents. Phytochemical tests were carried out by standard
methods such as proteins, amino acids, tannins, phenolics,
saponins, flavonoids, triterpenoids, steroids, fixed oil  (Figures
The healthy male wester rats starved for 3-4 h were subjected
to acute toxicity studies were performed in accordance with the
OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development)
guidelines no. 425 (Up and Down Procedure). No death was
observed till the end of the study. The test samples were found
safe up to the dose of 2000mg/kg and from the results 500mg/
kg was chosen as the maximum dose for further experimentation
b. Group-II: Hyperthyroid induced animals (thyroxine-
600μg/kg/ml) for 14 days.
c. Group-III: Hyperthyroid induced animals treated with standard drug (PTU propyl thio uracil 10mg/kg) for 21 days
d. Group-IV: Hyperthyroid induced animals treated with A.
racemosus root extract (100mg/kg) for 21 days.
e. Group-V: Hyperthyroid induced animals treated with A.
racemosus root extract (200mg/kg) for 21 days.
Twenty-five wester male adult rats which have assigned into
five groups each having five animals were selected for the study.
Serum from the experimental rats were analyzed for thyroid
hormone level (ELISA METHOD) and lipid profile (KIT METHOD)
before and during the experiment. Blood was collected by retroorbital
puncture under light diethyl ether anesthesia. Serum was
separated by centrifugation at 2000rpm for 15 min in normal
centrifuge and used for the analysis. Hyperthyroidism was induced
in experimental rats by administrating Thyroxine (600μg/kg/ml)
orally for fourteen days and induction of hyperthyroidism was
confirmed by analyzing the serum thyroid hormone level and with
liver complication of hyperthyroidism .
Body weights of each rat were measured from each day of
starting experiment to end of experiment. The rats are to sacrifice
with appropriated intervals using automatic electronic balance.
At sacrifice, the weight of liver, left thyroid gland, was measured
at g levels (absolute weights), and to reduce the differences from
individual body weights, the relative weight (% of g or mg/g body
weight) was calculated as [(absolute organ weight (g or mg)/body
weight at sacrifice (g)) ×100]).(20). 
All animals were observed daily for clinical signs for 5 weeks
from the first injection day. The body weight and food consumption
of each rat were measured at the initiation of treatment and once a
week during the treatment period. The amounts of food and water
intake were averaged every week during the treatment period .
Lipid irregularities may ascribe to the disabled thyroid
capacity. Before the accessibility of serum thyroid hormone
estimations, serum cholesterol level was utilized to help in the
judgment of the thyroid issue. Total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL
and triglycerides were discovered. Following twenty-one days of
treatment with standard medication and asaparagus racemosus
root concentrate of two dose separate fixations (100mg/kg,
200mg/kg) total cholesterol, HDL and LDL levels expanded while
VLDL and triglycerides diminished essentially and arrived at
normal extent .
Blood samples for hormonal determination were collected
from the sacrificed animal by cardiac punch, then the collected
samples and centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 15 min. following this How to cite this article: Santhi T. Evaluation of Anti Thyroid Activity of Asaparagus Racemosus Root Extract against Thyroxine Induced Hyperthyroidism
003 in Rats. J of Pharmacol & Clin Res. 2019; 7(5): 555721. DOI: 10.19080/JPCR.2019.07.555721
the serum was separated and placed in micro centrifuge tubes
and stored in ice cold condition until analysis. Then the serum
concentration of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and
thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were determined .
The phytochemical screening of root extracts of asaparagus
racemosus revealed the presence of Alkaloids, Glycosides,
flavonoids, saponins, tannins and carbohydrates (Table 1). As the
aqueous extract possessed the most phytochemical constituents,
it was selected for evaluation of anti-thyroid activity
Significant (P<0.01) decreases of body weights and food
and water intake were detected. However, these decreases of
body weights were significantly (P<0.01 or P<0.05) inhibited by
treatment of PTU 10mg/kg, AR extracts 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg
from 21 days (Table 2).
Lipid abnormalities may attribute to the impaired thyroid
function. Prior to the availability of serum thyroid hormone
measurements serum cholesterol level was used to assist in the
diagnosis of thyroid disorder. Table 3 shows the lipid profile in
different experiment groups of rats. total cholesterol, HDL, LDL,
VLDL and triglycerides were found to be 124, 40.12, 82.90, 9.21
and 31.86mg/dl respectively in normal rats. The total cholesterol,
HDL, and LDL got decreased to 80, 20.16, and 62.68mg/dl whereas
VLDL and triglycerides was increased to 14.34, and 43.31mg/dl
in hyperthyroid rats. After twenty-one days of treatment with
standard drug and Asaparagus Racemosus root extract of two
different concentration (100, 200mg/kg) total cholesterol, HDL,
and LDL levels increased while VLDL and triglycerides decreased
significantly at 5%level and reached normal rang.
T3, T4 and TSH level of the control animals were found to
be 1.02ng/ml, 22.62ng/ml, and 1.82μg/ml respectively. The T3
and T4 values increased to 2.63ng/ml and 73.15ng/ml, while
TSH level decreased to 0.71μg/ml significantly in hyperthyroid
induced rats. T3 and T4 were decreased to 0.91 ng/ml and
31.07ng/ml, whereas TSH was increased to 1.43μg/ml for those
rats treated with standard drug. Rats treated with Asaparagus
Racemosus root extract in two different concentration (100mg/kg,
200mg/kg ) showed decrease in T3 and T4 levels and increase in
TSH levels (Table 4) group treated with 200mg/kg of Asaparagus
Racemosus root extract showed better result than the 100mg/kg
concentration and was found to be effective as the standard drug
The weight of the thyroid gland was significantly lower in the
experimental group than in the control group. Relative weights
of thyroid gland and liver of control rats significantly (P<0.01)
decreased as compared with thyroxine induced rats. However,
these decreases of organ weights were significantly (P<0.01)
increased by treatment of PTU and all two different dosages of AR
extracts as compared with thyroxine induced, respectively (Table
Histopathological studies were embraced to study the tissue
section of the thyroid gland and liver of different experimental
groups of rats.
The decreases in sinusoidal space due to hepatocyte
hyperplasia in liver in control rats. In histomorpho metrical
analysis, significant (P<0.01) decreases of the mean thicknesses
of cross thyroid glands and follicular lining epithelium, were
detected in hyperthyroid induce with significant (P<0.01)
increases of hepatocyte numbers as compared with control rats.
These hyperthyroid treatments related histopathological changes
of thyroid gland, liver was dramatically inhibited by treatment of
all two different dosages of AR extracts or PTU 10mg/kg.
The present findings inferred that the gathering treated
with the most noteworthy convergence of plant concentrate
indicated great come about as that of the standard medication
and was underpinned concentration of Asparagus Racemosus
root can possibly overcome hyperthyroidism in albino rats. The
treatment of aqueous concentrate of root of Asparagus Racemosus
have indicated noteworthy changes in thyroid hormone level
and lipid profile level in diverse exploratory gatherings of rats.
The measurement of Asparagus Racemosus extract 100 mg/kg is
found to be intense and strong towards the opposition to thyroid
action, when contrasted and control. Our preliminary results are
encouraging, but further molecular studies are needed to clarify
the exact mechanism behind the anti-thyroid activity of Asparagus
First and foremost, I take this opportunity to express my
sincere thanks to my guide Dr. narendra babu, M. pharmacy, PhD,
Professor & Head of Department, Department of Pharmacology,
chalapathi Institute of Pharmaceutical sciences, for his guidance
and support to make this project a success and helping me
complete the project. It was a great experience to work under his inspiring guidance.
Seong-MoKim, Sang-ChanKim, In-KwonChung (2012) Antioxidant and Protective Effects of Bupleurum falcatum on the l-Thyroxine -Induced Hyperthyroidism in Rats. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Volume 2012 Article ID 578497 1-12