A trail on production performance of cowpea genotype received from the Horticulture Research Division, pokhara-5, Malepatan, kaski was carried out at Horticulture farm of campus of live sciences from July 2018 to evaluate cowpea genotype suitable for the dang district of Nepal. Three different cowpea genotypes with four check varieties were tested on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Data were obtained on Days of 50% Flowering, Plant Height, Number of branches, Number of Leaves on Plant, Pod Length, Individual Pod Weight, Number of Green Pod per Plant, Number of Seed per Pod, Yield per Plant, Yield per Plot, yield per hectare were obtained. Tested genotypes differed significantly for vegetative as well as yield parameters. According to the result there is highly significance in the pod length between the variety. The Highest pod length was obtained from long yard bean (57.54cm) followed by Malepatan-1(25.11cm) , Prakash (22.78cm), Gajale-bodi(18.36cm), IT04K-227-4(17.65cm), IT86F-2062-5(16.42cm), IT07-298-15(14.34cm). The highest pod weight was found in Long yard bean (19.80g) while lowest from IT07-298-15(3.52g).The highest yield (4.97 t/ha) was recorded from long yard bean followed by Gajale body(4.79 t/ha), Malepatan-1(4.77t/ha),IT04-227-4(3.89t/ha),Prakash(3.88t/ha),IT86F-2062-5(3.58t/ha) and the lowest (2.88t/ha) from IT07K-298-15. Data from economic analysis revealed that long yard bead leads to significant high B: C ratio calculated 1.91 and the lowest 1.10 in IT07K-298-15.Based on the results obtained, Long yard bean genotype gives highest yield and better B/C ratio compare to other genotype in the dang condition.
Keywords: Genotype; Evaluation; Cowpea; Dang; Economic analysis; Genotype; Green Pod; Long yard bean; Horticulture
Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) is one of the versatile leguminous vegetable contributing to the health and livelihood of millions of people in tropical and sub-tropical countries, and Asia Rachie KO  and having much more protein than other vegetables and it could be a thrives well in warm weather due to its drought-tolerant capacity. Islam emphasized that all parts of the plant used as food are nutritious providing (20-24%) protein, (63.3%) carbohydrates and (1.9%) fat in cowpea seeds Gopalan . Their mineral contents: calcium and iron are higher than that of meat, fish and egg Achuba  which make them very useful in blood cholesterol reduction. In Nepal, cowpea can be grown successfully both in spring-summer and rainy-autumn seasons in the plains and hills. It does not require a high rate of nitrogen fertilization; its roots have nodules in which soil bacteria called Rhizobia help to fix nitrogen from the air. Most vegetables crops can successfully be grown from Terai to the high hills in normal and off-season provided appropriate varieties and technologies for production Pandey & Pokhrel .
In Nepal, despite the fact that a large number of varieties and agro-techniques have been developed but the productivity of cowpea has still not reached the desired level. Ndiaga  concluded that cowpea cultivars with different plant morphology would require different optimum environmental conditions to express their full seed yield potential. The success of most crop improvement programmed largely depends upon the genetic variability and the heritability of desirable traits in reproductive period and grain yield of cowpea under high temperature condition and the duration of reproductive period Singh . Varietals differences of cowpea in terms of growth pattern, seed maturity date is extremely diverse from plant to plant, making breeding programs for cowpea more complex than other crops. Therefore, there is great need for genetic improvement and farmers can attribute development of cowpea varieties with acceptable and better traits, which can be achieved through the study of the different growth and yield component, which occur in different varieties of cowpea as low seed yields to unfavorable agronomic practices. Some of the superior varieties were collected from different parts of the country developed by research institutes and evaluated with keeping view of
hunt the variety with unique features useful for the growth, seed
yield, quality attributes, and which would go a long way to help the
vegetable crop production. In Nepal Cowpea is generally grown
in marginal land with little or no inputs and therefore the yield is
very low. The estimated area, production and yield are 4620.7 ha,
56790.10 metric ton and 12.3mt/ha respectively. While in Dang,
the area coverage of fresh cowpea was 120ha and yield was 15
mt/ha. Area and production are increasing every year because of
availability of dual purpose (green pods as vegetable and dried
pulse) short duration varieties. (MOA STST 2072-2073).
The study was conducted in the Horticulture field of Mid-western
Academy and Research Institute, campus of live sciences located
at Tulsipur sub-metropolitan of dang district in Rapti zone,
which is at province 5. The cowpea seeds used for the study were
obtained from the Horticulture Research Division, pokhara-5,
Malepatan, kaski. The seven-cowpea varieties were evaluated i.e.
IT07K-298-15, IT04K-227-4, IT86F-2062-5, Malepatan-1, Gajale
body, Prakash and long yard bean. In field trials, the cowpea varieties
were arranged in a Randomized Block Design with three replications.
Sowing took place on July 24, 2018, at the beginning of the
rainy season having the individual plot size 2.56m²(1.6m*1.6m).
Plant spacing was maintained 40cm ×20cm. Compost 6 tons and
NPK 20:40:20 kg/ha was applied as basal dose during field preparation.
A standard insecticide, cypermethrin 2ml/l was applied at
25 DAS to control flowers Thrips, aphid etc. To raise the crop recommended
package of practices were followed. The different varieties
were evaluated based on growth, flowering and yield performance.
The various parameters were recorded from five randomly
selected tagged plants. All the recorded data were compiled and
analyzed through RSTAT package. The mean data were subjected
to statistical analysis following analysis of variance technique.
Cost of cultivation was calculated on the basis of local rates of inputs
used during the research, gross return was calculated from
the value of grain yield/ha and the difference of gross return and
cost of cultivation was the net return obtained then the Benefit:
Cost ratio was calculated for the purpose of economic analysis.
The growth attributes were analyzed and presented in (Table
1) reveals that growth parameter of different genotype in
regards to plant height is highly significant (at 1% level of probability)
till 15 days after sowing with highest plant height of
27.59 cm in case of Gajale Body followed Malepatan-1 (25.53
cm), IT04K-227-4 (24.90 cm), long yard bean (24.82 cm), Prakash
(24.54 cm), IT86F-2062-5(24.30 cm) and lowest in case of
IT07K-298-15(20.63 cm). Result reveals that plant height is significant
(at 1% level of probability ) till 25 DAS with highest plant
height of 45.20 cm in case of long yard bean that results quit resemble
to Sapkota et al.2015(37.60 cm) and the lowest in case of
IT07K-298-15(26.62cm). And at 35 DAS result reveals that plant
height is significant (at 5% level of probability) with highest plant
height of 104.69cm in case of long yard bean and the lowest in
IT07K-298-15 (37.77cm). The huge variation in plant height might
be due to the genetic characteristic of the individual varieties Kelechukwu
With respect to number of branches per plant, the different
varieties of cowpea varied clearly. It is evident from the table 1
that the number of branches per plant increased under various
treatments at 15 DAS, 25 DAS and at 35 DAS. From the data, it is
clear that among varieties, the number of branches were significant
(5% level of probability) at 15 DAS and 35 DAS but found
non-significant at 25 DAS. The number of branches range from
1.60 to 2 at 15 DAS in which highest branches number was foundin IT86F-2062-5(2) and IT04K-227-4 (2) whereas lowest at malepatan-
1(1.60). While at 25 DAS there is no variation in the number
of branches between the varieties. At 35 DAS the number of
branches ranges from 5 to 9.53 where highest branch number was
shared by Gajale bod (9.53) and the lowest by the long yard bean
(5). Variation in the number of branches per plant showed high
values for heritability and genetic advance, suggesting that great
scope for crop improvement exists Thaware .
In case of number of leaves per plant variation among the different
varieties were observed. Variety Prakash had significantly
lower number of leaves per plant where as Variety Gajale body
produced significantly higher number of leaves per plant at 15
DAS. There is no significance between the varieties in case of number
of leaves per plant at 25 DAS. However, there is significant (at
5% level of probability) at 35 DAS. Variety Gajale body produced
higher number of leaves per plant while the variety long yard
bean had significantly lower number of leaves per plant at 35DAS.
Akundabweni [9,10] also reported that there is positive correlation
in between high pod and grain yield and number of leaves per
plant. They found that lower total fresh leaf yields were associated
with early to medium flowering and high total pod and total grain
yields (Table 1).
The data presented in Table 2 revealed that there was a significant
variation in days taken for 50% flowering. Minimum days
for flowering were taken by the variety long yard bean (39.33
days) which was statistically at par with Malepatan-1 (40.33
days). Whereas, maximum time for flowering was taken by variety
IT07K-298-15 (43.00 days) which was also statistically at par
with Prakash (41.66 days) and Gajale body (41.66 days). In this
experiment, time taken for 50% flowering varied from 39.33 days
to 43 days. NGLRP (2000) reported that Prakash was the earliest
in flowering (40 days) and the cowpea varieties flowered earlier
(43 days) at Rampur than Surkhet (51 days) and Nepalgunj (52
days). Yohana (2014) reported that time taken for flowering varied
from 50.67 to70.17 days under Nigerian condition. Variation
in days taken to flowering in different location might be due to the
different Agro climatic condition and variation in studied varieties
Pod length: The data presented in Table 3 revealed that the
pod length varied significantly in all the varieties. Significantly
longest pod was produced in long yard bean (57.54 cm) followed
by malepatan-1 (25.11 cm). Significantly shortest pod length was
recorded in IT07-298-15 (14.34 cm) followed by IT86F-2062-5
(16.42 cm) which was statistically at par with IT04K-227-4 (17.65
cm), Gajale bodi (18.36 cm) and prakash (22.78 cm). Pandey et
al., (2006) reported that pod length varies from 16.21 to 25.60
cm. Sapkota et al,  reported that pod length of long yard been
found to be 39.5 cm on non-mulched condition. Magashi et al, 
reported that pod length varied from 13.77 cm to 16.50 cm under
Nigerian condition. Khan et al,  reported that pod length
ranged from 10 to 38 cm under Pakistan condition. Variation in
pod length of cowpea might be due to variation in agro-climatic
condition and variation in genotypes.
Individual pod weight: There was a significant variation in
pod weight among the different varieties as shown in table 3. Individual
pod weight varied from 3.52g to 19.8g with respect to
different varieties of cowpea. Significantly highest individual pod
weight was recorded in long yard bean (19.8g) and it was lowest
in IT07K-298-15 (3.52g).The higher individual pod weight was
also recorded in Malepatan-1 (7.2g), Gajale body (6.19g), Prakash
(6.15g). The lower individual pod weight was also recorded in
IT86F-2062-5 (4g) and IT04K-227-4 (4.95g). The higher individual
pod weight was might be due to the higher fruit length and diameter.
In this experiment, variation in pod weight was recorded
with respect to different varieties. Variation in pod weight might
be due to the variation in pod length among the different varieties
studied. Peksen  also reported that there is a significant
and positive correlation in between pod length and individual pod
weight. Similar findings were also reported in present experiment.
The observation on number of pods per plant has been presented
in Table 3, which indicated that different cowpea genotypes
showed a variation among themselves with respect to number
of pods per plant. On the basis of analysis, highest number of
pods per plant was recorded in IT04K-227-4(34.1) which was statistically
at par with IT86F-2062-5 (33.37), IT07K-298-15 (32.72).
Whereas, the lowest number of pods per plant was recorded in
long yard bean (13.35) which was also statistically at par with
Prakash (22.98). In this experiment number of pods per plant
varied from 13.35 to 34.1. In general, higher the number of pods/
plants more pod yield is obtained but the results of the experiment
showed that fruit size (length and diameter) and weight of
individual pod is also determining factor for yield estimation. Pandey & Singh  also reported the significant variation in number
of pods per plant among the different varieties of cowpea, which
is similar in the present experiment (Table 3).
The observation on number of seed per pod has been presented
in Table 3 which indicated that different cowpea genotypes
showed a significant variation themselves with respect to number
of seed per pod per. Varieties Long yard bean and IT86F-2062-5
had produced the maximum number of seeds pod-1 16.33 and
15.38 respectively, .which were at par, followed by Prakash(13.67)
, IT04K-227-4(12.73), Gajale bodi(12.47) , Malepatan-1(10.48)
and IT07K- 298-15(6.06). Amanullah  found that there is a
positive relation between the number of seed per plant and the
individual pod weight that directly influenced the yield of the variety.
In this experiment Long yard bean (16.38) had the highest
number of seed per pod and having the highest individual pod
length. represent significant at 5% level of probability, represent
significant at 1% level of probability and represent significant at
0.1% level of probability
The highest yield per plant was recorded in Long yard bean
(199.27g) which was also statistically at par with Gajale bodi
(193.72 g).The lowest individual plant yield was recorded in
IT07K-298-15 (115.55g) which was statistically at par with
IT86F-2062-5 (143.54 g). This might be due to the higher number
of pods per plant and moderate to higher individual pod weight.
Pandey & Singh  also observed similar finding. The data presented
in Table 4 showed that yield (tones/ha) varied significantly
(at 1% level of probability) with respect to different varieties.
Among the different varieties maximum yield was recorded in
Long yard bean (4.97 tonnes/ha). Higher yield was also recorded
in case of Gajale (4.79 tonnes/ ha) followed by Malepatan-1
(4.77 tonnes/ha), Prakash (3.88 tonnes/ha), IT04K-227-4 (3.89
tonnes/ha), IT86F-2062-5 (3.58 tonnes/ha) and IT07K-298-15
(2.88 tonnes/ha) respectively. In this experiment, yield varied
from 2.88 tonnes/ha to 4.97 tonnes/ha, this might be due to variation
in genetic makeup of the variety. Such variation in the yielding
ability of the genotypes was also reported by Ram , Mahammad
 and Amanullah . Higher yield of the above varieties
might be due to the moderately higher number of pods per plant,
pod length and individual pod weight. Different scientists like, Rajput
, Neema  and Pandey  observed variation in yield
of the different varieties (Table 4).
It is an actual monetary gain by each rupee of investment under
a treatment. It can be expressed as profitability also. The selling
price of Cowpea was NRs. 40/Kg and the cost of cultivation
was calculated NRs 1, 04,000. Based on these rates and the then
market prices of other inputs used following economic calculation
were made. Data on Benefit: Cost ratios as affected by different
treatments were given in (Table 5).
Production of cowpea in Nepal is limit by lack of improved
varieties and seeds. Majority of germplasm introduced in Nepal
were not characterize for adaptation and as such their usefulness
for deployment in breeding programs as well as considered for release
to farmers cannot be ascertained. To effectively determine
the usefulness of any introduced germplasm accessions, evaluation
is necessary [22-24]. From the studies, it may be concluded
that higher yield of cowpea may be obtained from the varieties
having higher individual yield, plot yield, number of pods per
plant, individual pod weight, early 50% flowering in nature. This
study revealed that cowpea varieties such as long yard bean, Malepatan-
1 and Gajale bodi, which gives the better yield as compare
to the other varieties. Results on economic analysis demonstrated
that in ‘Long yard bean’ shows the higher B/C ratio than other
varieties so selection this variety can be profitable to the cowpea-
producing farmer of the dang district.
We are indebted to the staff of Horticulture Research Division,
Pokhara, Malepatan for providing the seeds and for their technical
assistance. The research presented in this manuscript is partially
supported by Jit-Shavitra Research Mini-grant through the scholarship
of Academic Excellence Program of Association of Nepalese
Agricultural professionals of America (NAPA) on any products
of this research. We also thank our advisor Assistant Professor
Manoj Basnet, Department of Horticulture, IAAS, Paklihawa, for
his guidance on data analysis and invaluable comments on the
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