Study on Effect of Phosphorus on Growth and Flowering of Marigold (Tagetes Erecta)
SP Dangi*, K Aryal, P Soti Magar, S Bhattarai, D Shrestha, S Gyawali and M Basnet
Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Nepal
Submission: October 21, 2019; Published: November 04, 2019
*Corresponding author: SP Dang, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, TU, Nepal
How to cite this article: SP Dangi, K Aryal, P Soti Magar, S Bhattarai, D Shrestha, S Gyawali and M Basnet. Study on Effect of Phosphorus on Growth and Flowering of Marigold (Tagetes Erecta). JOJ Wildl Biodivers. 2019: 1(5): 555571 . DOI: 10.19080/JOJWB.2019.01.555571
A field experiment to study “Effect of phosphorus on growth and flowering of Marigold (Tageteserecta)was conducted at the Mid-Western Academy and Research Institute Campus of live sciences Tulsipur, Dang. The variety used in this experiment was Karma orange. The experiment was laid out Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications of each treatment. Data were collected using simple random sampling without replacement. In the experiment marigold plants were fertilized with seven different doses of phosphorous (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120 kg/ha). Dose of nitrogen (200kg/ha) and potash (90kg/ha) was constant throughout the filed. Result revealed that application of phosphorous significantly affected the various yield governing parameters like number of branches, number of flowers per plant, flower diameter and flower weight but other factors like plant height, days of first bud appearance, days of flowering were not significantly affected. The result obtained were maximum plant height (54.06cm) at 20 kg/ha, maximum number of branches at 100kg/ha, maximum number of flowers per plant at peak bloom stage was 42 at 80kg/ha, fresh flower diameter (7.55cm) at 100kg/ha and fresh flower weight (15.96gm) at 100kg/ha. Maximum yield obtained in three successive harvesting was (622.39gm/plant) at 100kg/ha and the minimum yield was (349.43gm/plant) at control treatment. From this experiment we can conclude that (100 kg/ha) dose of phosphorus might be best for obtaining maximum yield at Tulsipur, Dang condition.
Tageteserecta, the Mexican marigold is a species of the genus Tagetes and family Asteraceae or Compositae, native to Mexico. Despite it’s being native to Maxico and Central Americas, it is often called African marigold. There are two basic types of Marigold the large-flowered American (also referred to as African) Marigold Tageteserecta and the smaller-flowered French marigold (Tagetespatula). Marigold is a potential commercial flower that is gaining popularity on account of its easy culture, wide adaptability, and increasing demand in the subcontinent . The flowers are grown for market value and is sold in market as a cut flower and garland. For yellow color xanthophylls is present. Xanthophylls comprising 90% of the petals identified pigments. Marigold flowers are available in a variety of colors, including yellow, orange mixed colors. Marigold Flowers will bloom from mid-summer all the way until frost. Marigolds are highly valued for their orna
mental appeal as well as medicinal properties. Tagetesis a multipurpose plant having ornamental, ritual, medicinal, anthelmintic, insecticidal, colorant, food, and forage applications. Oil extract of Tagetessppare used against fly repellent and grown as a trap crop. Marigold contains antioxidants in flower oil that is used against blood fat, inflammation intestine and immunity.
The floriculture has been becoming one of the prominent sectors in Nepalese economy contributing 0.05% of the total national Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Although, the annual growth rate of flowers production is 24%, the import value was 0.4 million in 2014/015 . The quantity of importing flower products has been increasing annually because of higher demand than that of domestic production. In addition, the floriculture is constrained by higher cost of production that led to importing larger quantity of flower products. Although, there is a Flower Promotion Policy, (2069) the flower producers and concerned stakeholders in floriculture
are not fascinated and encouraged to enhance the production
and productivity. There is higher potentiality for expanding of
floriculture and enhancing flower products because of diversified
agro-ecological settings in the country. Despite being flourishing
with greater possibility, this sector is still at very earlier stage of
establishment. This sector has been facing several constraints
such as inputs, technology development and transfer, credit access,
and flower market, and etc. Such constraints hindered the
floriculture and led to higher quantity of imports of the flower
products estimated to be Rs. 40 million in 2014 .
Excessive amounts of phosphorus hinder micronutrient absorption.
Excessive phosphorus results in deficiency of iron and
zinc. However, reduced phosphorus quantities stunt plant growth.
Because the plant cannot photosynthesis correctly, sugars are not
turned into energy and cause purple coloring to appear across the
plant. It is crucial to maintain a balanced amount of phosphorus in
the soil by fertilizing correctly. This study was done to find out the
dose which is below the toxic level and above the deficiency level.
Findings of this result may provide the optimum dose of Phosphorus
which may provide maximum profitable yield and may meet
the market demand and ultimately improve the economic condition
The research was carried out at the horticulture research farm
of MARIColS, Tulsipur Dang in the year 2018. The experiment was
laid out in RCBD (Randomized Complete Block Design) with 7 different
treatment doses of phosphorus (0, 20, 40, 60, 80,100,120)
kg/ha and each treatment being replicated three times. 21 plots
were made, and each plot has 20 plants and data was taken from
5 random plants after tagging. The research field was divided in
3 replications and each replication having seven plots. Gaps between
the plot was maintained 1.5m and gap between replication
was 50cm for easy access to management practices. Each plot was
maintained of 2.5*2m2 size. The seedling of African marigold variety
karma orange was raised in germination tray. Coco peat was
used as growing substrate. After emergence of 2 true leaf seedlings
were transplanted. Before transplanting the plots were applied
with fertilizer and ridge and bund were made. Planting was
done in 50*50 cm2 distance.
Dose of nitrogen and potash was constant in each plot and the
phosphorus was varied among the treatment. FYM was incorporated
initially during field preparation @ of 15ton/ha. Nitrogen
was supplied in ammonium (NH4 +) form through urea and Diammonium
Phosphate (DAP). Dose of nitrogen supplied through urea
and DAP was at the rate of 200kg/ha. Half dose of nitrogen was
applied before transplanting with full dose of potash and phosphorus
and the remaining doses of nitrogen was applied in two
splits after 30 and 60 days of transplanting. Phosphorus was supplied
in the form of P2O5 through DAP. Potash was supplied in the
form of k2O through Muriate of Potash (MOP). Dose of Potash was
at the rate of 90kg/ha in each 21 plots. The varying dose of phosphorus
was our treatment. The different doses were (20, 40, 60,
80, 100, 120) kg/ha. Data collection was started after 14 days of
transplanting and continued up to final harvesting 95 day of transplanting.
After data collection data were entered in Microsoft excel
then R-studio software was used for data analysis. Significance of
data were observed by ANOVA table at 5% level of significance. After
finding significance difference in some of the parameters further
Least Significant Difference (LSD) was calculated in R-studio
using the package agricolae.
Analysis of variation showed that there was not significant
different in final plant height of plant in different treatment. Table
and figure below show the result which is not significantly different
but little variation among the treatment. Maximum plant
height was 56cm in 20kg/ha phosphorus dose. Minimum plant
height was 46 cm at control treatment. In this research maximum
plant height was 54.06 cm recorded at T2 (20kg/ha phosphorus).
The result revealed that there is not significant effect of phosphorus
on plant height. Other factors than like nitrogen and plant gene
is responsible for not significant difference in height. Nitrogen is
mainly responsible for vegetative growth, chlorophyll content and
protein contain in plants and phosphorus is mainly responsible
for root growth, resistance and early maturity. Increase in plant
height due to increased nitrogen application is closely related with
the findings of Singh & Rao  in marigold (Tagetesminuta L).
Since the dose of nitrogen was constant is each plot the significant
difference in height was not seen.
ANOVA showed that there was significant difference in number
of branches due to the different levels of phosphorus treatment.
Maximum number of branches was seen 24 in (100) kg/ha
and the minimum number of branches were found to be 15 in control
treatment. The most effective and economic dose was found
to be 100kg/ha. The detail result is shown in following figure and
table. The maximum number of branches per plant was recorded
in increased dose of phosphorus (80.100,120) kg/ha, while the
minimum number of branches was found in T1 (control dose).
Phosphorus at increasing levels also showed increase in number
of primary branches. These results are in accordance with the
findings of  in (Tagetespatula L) cv. PusaArpita and the findings
of  in Tageteserecta cv. Pusa Narangi (Table 1)
Days to bud appearance was not found to be significant different
in different doses of phosphorus. Maximum mean days taken
to first bud appearance in plant were recorded 50.67 days in T5
and minimum mean days for first bud appearance was recorded
47.67 days in T7. The effect of phosphorous on days of flowering
was statistically non-significant. From table below we can observe
the maximum days of flowering (65.33DAS) in T1. While the minimum
days of flowing (62DAS) was observed same in T3 and T7.
Although the difference was not significant, but we can see that
increase in phosphorus level had decreased the time taken for
first flower opening. The significant difference might have not
seen because the character (days of flowering) might have been
governed by other factors like plant gene and other environmental
factor other than plant nutrient. Which is similar with the result
of  The result showed that increasing N and P rates in African
marigold reduced the number of days required for 50% flowering
Different doses of phosphorus treatment significantly affected
the numbers of flowers per plant. Maximum mean numbers
of flowers were recorded in treatment 5 (80kg/ha phosphorus)
and the minimum number of flowers were recorded in control
treatment. Here the result showed that increased dose of phosphorus
increased the number of flowers per plant. The Significant
increase in number of flower and marigold yield and its attributes
with the application of increased level of phosphorus have been
reported in African marigold by . The effect of phosphorous on
flower diameter was statistically non-significant. From the table
below we can observe the flower diameter varies from 6.38 to
7.55. The maximum flower diameter (7.55mm) was observed in
T6 followed by T7 and T5 respectively. Minimum flower diameter
was observed in T1 and T3. Almost equal size flower was obtained
from the different phosphorus level, but slightly increasing size was seen in increase dose of phosphorus. Significant difference
was not found because flower diameter might have been governed
by plant gene but not the environmental factor or phosphorus level.
The increase in phosphorus is found to be involved in the initiation
of flower primordial formation leading to increase in number
of flower and size as well as the attributes of yield .
Data analysis revealed that there was significant different in
weight of fresh flower due the different treatment levels of phosphorus.
It was found that maximum mean weight of flower was
15.95 in T6 (100kg/ha phosphorus) and the minimum mean
weight was 12.53 in T3 (40kg/ha phosphorus). Here the control
treatment, treatment 2 and treatment 3 had similar type of result
and in further increase in phosphorus level lead to increased
weight of fresh flowers. The maximum weight was found in T6 .
also observed that increasing N and P rates in African marigold
increased the individual weight of a single flower. Yield of fresh
flower per plant was found to be significantly different due the
different treatment levels of phosphorus. It was found that maximum
mean yield of flower was 622.39gm in T6 (100kg/ha phosphorus)
and the minimum mean weight was 349.43 in T3 (40kg/
ha phosphorus). The result is shown below in table and figure. The
findings revealed that flower yield per plant varied from different
doses of phosphorus treatments and the result was also significantly
different among treatment. The maximum flower yield
per plant was recorded under the treatment T6 (100kg/ha phosphorus)
followed by treatment T5 (80kg/ha phosphorus) and the
minimum flower Yield per plant was recorded in the T1(control).
The increase in flower yield might be attributed to increased supply
of major nutrients like N, K and P which played their unique
functions in the growth and development of plants . These results
are in close conformity with those of Baboo & Gaikwad et al,
[9,10]. The significant increase in marigold yield and its attributes
with the increased level of phosphorus have been reported in African
marigold by  (Table 3).
From this research it can be concluded that the phosphorus
play an important role on yield of African marigold. The application
of T6 (Phosphorus 100 kg/ha) was observed to be the best
with respect of most of the parameters examine under this research
i.e. plant height, number of branches per plant, flower size,
fresh flower weight and yield. For number of flowers T5 (80 kg/
ha phosphorus) was found best and with respect to early flower
opening T7 (120 kg/ha phosphorus). Economic analysis revealed
that T5 and T6 gives the best economic return. It is recommended
to use 100 kg of phosphorus per hectare land for commercial cultivation
of marigold in Tulsipur, Dang conditions.
We would like to express our sincere thanks to Mid-West
Academy Research Institute, Campus of live sciences, Tulsipur,
Dang, Tribhuvan University for providing necessary facilities and
logistic supports. This research presented in this manuscript is
partially supported by Jit-Shavitra Research Mini-grant through
the Scholarships for Academic Excellence Program of the Association
of Nepalese Agriculture Professionals of America (NAPA).
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