About the Erosion Hazard Situation of the Slope
of the Azerbaijani Lands and its Elimination
Rae ZH Aliyev*
Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry of the National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan
Submission:October 11, 2018 ; Published: November 14, 2018 ;
*Corresponding author: Rans ZH Aliyev, Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry of the National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan.
How to cite this article: Rans ZH Aliyev. About the Erosion Hazard Situation of the Slope of the Azerbaijani Lands and its Elimination. J Gynecol Women’s
Health. 2018: 12(4): 555842. DOI: 10.19080/JGWH.2018.12.555842
As a result of the erosion process, considered as a common human problem, the majority of the mountainous and foothills of the Azerbaijan Republic have lost their fertility. Implementation of complex measures to restore lost fertility in these lands is inevitable as demand of the day and has also been reflected in important state programs to be addressed as a specific problem with its relevance. For this purpose, a comprehensive set of measures have been developed and developed in the country, taking into account the ecological conditions of landscapes and climate conditions of natural zones.
Keywords: Soil erosion; Landscape; Bias; Soil cover; Natural and farming
Most of the mountainous and foothold areas of Azerbaijan (43.3% of the country’s land) have been exposed to erosion and lost their fertility. In order to restore and maintain the fertility of erosive lands, zonal complex anti-erosion measures should be undertaken. When applying combat measures, soil-vegetation cover of natural zones, climatic conditions, degree of soil erosion, slope tendencies and ecological conditions of landscapes should be taken into account (Figure 1).
Soil-vegetation cover, bio-gum and so on, in the territory of the Republic, including the Minor and the Greater Caucasus, rise from the sea level to the altitude. Accordingly, different natural areas are separated. Hydrotechnical, agrotechnical, phytomelorative (forest and grass melorma) measures should be implemented in complex and complementary conditions to protect soil cover from erosion.
In addressing the problem of land erosion, it is necessary to overcome the factors leading to its occurrence.
First of all, economic and organizational measures should be taken. It is of utmost importance to use erosionous and erosive lands more efficiently, to restore soil fertility, to ensure the proper location of farms, perennial plantings, forest strips and roads taking into account the relief structure and soil conditions.
Large-scale land surveys should be undertaken in order to design erosion measures, to properly organize the area and placement of agricultural crops on a scientific basis. A map of erosion factors and a map of anti-erosion measures should be drawn up for the study areas.
The Scientific Research Institute of Erosion and Irrigation developed maps for a number of farms in mountainous and foothills regions of the Republic. Land protection schemes should be applied on slopes up to 5º and in areas with poor and washed out areas where cultivated crops should be cultivated primarily. 20% of this turnover should be perennial herbaceous plants. The results of research conducted at the Erosion and Irrigation Institute over the past 30 years have shown that the 5-10º slopes should dominate the grazing crops in the rotating sowing system and should not exceed 20-25% of the cultivated crops. Plants in perennial shrub transplants should have 25-30% perennial herbs.
Seedlings planted at the slopes of 10-15º should be fully cropped up and crop rotation of perennial herbs should be up to 60% in the sowing system. In cultivated areas where
severe erosion is required, cereal crops should be completely
discontinued. In such areas, only perennial herbs should be
planted. This event protects the soil from erosion well and is
very economically beneficial. It is better to stop cultivation of
field crops in areas with temperatures above 15º and use them
as natural fodder.
Anti-erosion control measures on the slopes (plowing
and other cultivation works along the slope width, flooding of
water and buffer strips, deep lubrication, etc.) improves the
water-physical properties of the soil, prevents the surface flow
and creates moisture in the soil. Thus, in the slopes with 8-10º
slopes, the amount of soil that washed in the slopes is reduced by
2.5 times, humidity is 3-4% and fertility is 21.2%.
It should be noted that on the sloping slopes, it is only
possible to prevent the erosion process completely when it is
pushed along the slope width. Additional anti-erosion measures
should be undertaken on such slopes. One of these measures
is the opening of the puddles that keep water in the direction
of the slope when ice creeping. Rainfall prevents surface water
flow and drainage, increases moisture content in soil, increases
productivity of agricultural crops.
It has been established that deep softening of soil with strips
in the prevention of erosion is of great economic significance.
This measure prevents the surface flow of 75-80%, the sediment
is well ground to the soil, and so the water-physical property of
the soil improves considerably. Opening of cracks in the slopes
is of great importance in soil-saving agrotechnical measures.
Roughing, plowing, pasturing, and mowing, and so on. Gives
excellent results in areas.
Cuttings on perennial herbaceous crops should be carried
out in the autumn when the soil is condensed, and in autumn
sowing areas before sowing or soil. The bedrock reduces the
water flow of the soil, prevents its washing, increases the
amount of moisture in the soil, and thus significantly reduces the
productivity of agricultural crops as it is well known, the erosion
process in the summer and winter pasture areas is widespread.
Thus, more than 80% of summer pastures, and 60% of winter
pastures have been exposed to erosion. Therefore, it is necessary
to keep cattle grazing and livestock breeding in order to meet
the high nutritional requirements of livestock and to obtain highquality
Proper compliance with grooming time and norms will result
in surface and basic improvements 90% of forests in the Republic
are located in the mountainous areas. Their water-soluble and
soil-protecting role is indispensable. Forests do not allow the
flow of water and regulate the water regime. In addition, forests
have a great resort value. However, as a result of forest breakage
or cattle grazing, forest lands are eroded. For this reason, about
20% of the forests have been eroded in our study area. More than
80% of the underground forest was exposed to erosion.
Therefore, protection of forests should be given special
attention, conditions should be created for good restoration, and
measures should be taken to create new forests in open and dry
areas. The erosion of the country is also widespread. Cultivation
erosion as a result of planting, knitting and so on.
The spheres are broken down and become useless. So it is
important to take measures to combat the ravine erosion. There
are many extinctions in the mountainous and foothill regions of
the Republic, that is, the developmental slopes. On the slopes
of these hills, it is possible to create fields to sow the seeds of
perennial herbs, which also tighten the walls of the cup.
When mounting the gobs, special attention should be paid
to the development of forests in and around it. It is necessary to
plant trees and bushes to fasten areas of rocks. In order to avoid
sliding on slopes, it is necessary to direct the surface water flow
to another location. To do this, drainage on the slopes should be
used. Hydrotechnical constructions should be used to protect
river basins from erosion, floods in the Republic.
These constructions help prevent the flood by sinking the
coastal material that has been created as a result of the erosion
process, protecting the coast of the river from collapsing. Along
with water erosion, wind erosion is widespread throughout the
territory of the Republic. The air conditioning process is one of
the main factors causing erosion and occurs in the foothills of the
Lesser Caucasus. Complex measures must be taken to prevent
soil and sand from being drawn by winds.
When planting forest strips, the dominant wind direction,
strength and so on. Should be taken into account. The abovementioned
measures should be implemented in a coherent
manner in order to protect the soil cover and to increase the
efficiency of its use. If every farm fights correctly, the land is
protected from rupture, its fertility increases, resulting in a
higher and stable harvest of agricultural crops.
More than 20% of the territory of the Republic over the past
15 years has been occupied because of Armenia’s aggression
and has long turned into a bloody battleground. Here, military
erosion has developed extensively. Toxic bombs, bullets and
mortar missiles have destroyed hundreds of villages, towns,
and several districts, ruining landscapes, demolishing the land,
cutting off a thousand hectares and sowing their vineyards. It has
poisoned and polluted the toxicological environment by using
toxic substances during the war. Such lands should be thoroughly
cleaned with systematic and ameliorative measures after their
occupation and the land should be treated with special care.
Here, complex measures must be taken to return the lands to
agricultural turnover. The soil should be subjected to toxicology.
Zone genocide has also occurred in the area that has turned
into a battlefield. Thus, in the war-ravaged areas, all creatures
have fled, and there is no chance to find sparrows here. All
this has created ecosystems that have disrupted ecosystems,
disrupted the ecosystems and caused a great impact on the ecological situation. Complex, melorative and special measures
are also required in areas to be liberated [1-9].
In progress soil erosion in mountain and foothills of the
Republic, large parts loss fertility. For resto ration here. To this
end, it is necessary to have at least one aspect of the climate,
covering vegetation, and even naturally environmental aspect