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The Application of Novel Inputs and Advanced Technology in Dairy Product Processing a Review
Almaz Genene Tafes*
Ethiopian Meat and Dairy Industry Development Institute, Ethiopia
Submission: October 03, 2019; Published: October 21, 2019
*Corresponding author: Almaz Genene Tafes, Ethiopian Meat and Dairy Industry Development Institute. P.o.Box 1573 Debre-Zeit, Ethiopia
How to cite this article: Almaz Genene Tafes. The Application of Novel Inputs and Advanced Technology in Dairy Product Processing a Review.
Dairy and Vet Sci J. 2019; 13(3): 555882. DOI: 10.19080/JDVS.2019.13.555882
This review work summarizes the current advanced dairy processing technologies with a special focus on the application of novel enzymes, starter cultures, and technologies. Novel camel chymosin (CHY-MAX® M) a recent milk clotting enzyme that have application in cheese-making process shows more efficacy than other coagulant. It resulted better for camel milk coagulation. β-galactosidase enzymes commercially used to hydrolysis lactose in dairy products while microbial Transglutaminase is cross-linking enzyme with great role in dairy products processing through enhancing protein functional in yogurt, cheese, and ice cream. Phospholipases hydrolyze phospholipids and used in cheese and yogurt to increase cheese yield whereas a novel exogenous Lipases enzyme enhance cheese flavor and ripening. Novel Starter cultures will help to produce new commercial fermented products such as novel probiotic yogurt. Starters such as Lactoccus lactis, Pediococcus acidilactici and Lactobaillus plantarum were isolated as a potential lactic acid bacterium from spontaneously fermented camel milk. Many novel starter cultures and uses of advanced technologies such as membrane filtration in dairy industry for microorganism removal, cheese, yogurt, and whey processing whereas ultra-high-pressure homogenizer (UHPH) novel nonthermal processing technology were reviewed.
Milk is a special complex fluid produced by the mammary gland of mammals. It is nutritionally complete food but perishable unless hygienically handled and processed to relatively shelf stable products. Processing of milk to different dairy product enhance shelf life, utilization of distance market, transportation, product diversification and improve quality [1,2]. The application of additives, inputs, ingredients, enzymes and technology mostly done to attain desired product characters [3-5]. In Ethiopia surplus milk is mainly processed traditional product such as butter, ghee, cottage cheese (ayib) and spontaneously fermented (Ergo) with traditional technologies and marketed informally. However; modern milk processing was expanding that can processes different dairy product like pasteurized milk, cheese like provolone, mozzarella, gouda type, white/feta, set yogurt, flavored yogurt, butter and cream [6-8]. Such development of Dairy industry will encourage application of different inputs and technologies. Therefore, this review work was done with the main objective of assessing available information on the application of novel enzymes, dairy cultures and advanced technology in dairy product processing to be available for intended local milk processing industries, researchers, consumers and ingredient suppliers.
It has been reported that there are many kinds of enzymes applied by dairy processing from which, cheese making is former biotechnological application of enzymes rennet which is a crud extract obtained from the fourth stomach calf was applied. The action rennet on milk is cleavage k-casein and the precipitation of para-casein. Plant origin coagulant also reported by different authors for instance Calotropis procera (Sodom apple), Cynara sp, ginger, lemon [9,10]. Moringa oleifera flowers . Increase in cheese production resulted increase demand for coagulant and locking alternative coagulant sources . As indicated recently, novel camel has been obtained through heterologous expression in Aspergillus Niger from Camelus dromedaries (CC) .
It was a 2nd generation fermentation produced chymosin and commercially available as CHY-MAX M® from Chr. Hansen Denmark. CHY-MAX® M shows a seven-fold higher C/P ratio than bovine chymosin or 70%
higher clotting activity and only 25% of the general proteolytic activity . Camel chymosin worked well for cow, goat, and ewe milk cheeses and feasible application in donkey milk cheese
. CHY-MAX® M also results in better for camel milk coagulation
for soft white cheese making. It exhibits a higher level of
thermo stability than bovine chymosin and resulted lower level
proteolysis, good flavor in cheddar cheese. Camel chymosin, contains
two additional positive patches that favour interactions with
the substrate . it also has wide range of temperature tolerance
that will ranging from 25 to 45 °C, with a maximum activity at 40
°C . Cheeses by this coagulant resulted retained melt characteristics
for a longer time and shelf-life .
β-Galactosidase is commonly known as lactase hydrolyses
widely found naturally and has been isolated from animals, plants
as well as microorganisms . The commercially available β-galactosidase
from microorganisms like fungi, bacterial, yeast that
have great interest in industrial processes mainly depends on the
hydrolysis reaction . It helps to produce lactose free products
for lactose-intolerant individuals, solve whey disposal issues on
commercial scale and reduce the crystallization in ice creams and
condensed milk which occurs due to high lactose concentration
. The cold-active β-galactosidase got biotechnological attention
in food industrial for Lactose intolerance consumers since
hydrolysis lactose of dairy products at lower temperature .
Production of β-galactosidase from Lactic acid bacteria shows that
Lactobacillus dulbrueckii gives the highest enzyme activity around.
While Lactobacillus strains isolated from yogurt and Lactobacilli
from gastrointestinal tract produce lactase enzyme in dairy products
Microbial Tansglutaminase (TG, EC 18.104.22.168) enzyme has a catalyzes
transfer reaction between the acyl and g-carboxyamide of
peptide-bound glutamine residues and primary amino groups in a
variety of amino residues of proteins. Transglutaminase (TG) has
been found in animal and plant tissue [22,23]. It has been reported
that TG cross-linking enzyme commercially available and play
great role in dairy products processing improving protein functionality.
In yoghurts prevent syneresis and resulted firmer but
soft texture . According to the experiment of improves hardness,
melting and stretch ability properties of high fat Mozzarella
cheese by using TG level of 0.02% with best results organoleptic
properties while low fat Mozzarella treated with 0.05% TG have
acceptable meltability stretch ability, oiling of fat leakage and organoleptically.
Its increased yield of soft cheese (17.38%) verses
untreated (16.01%), less syneresis and longer shelf life, reduce
bioavailability of nutrients for deteriorative microorganisms due
to its cross-link property . In ice cream it increased overrun,
partial coalescence of fat globules, melting resistance, hardness,
apparent viscosity and consistency. TG can be used as a partial replacement
for fat in ice cream. TG gives a higher positive effect
on yoghurt structure by increase viscosity due to protein binding
effect. In stirred yoghurt best value for syneresis”, firmness”, and
“flavor . Also, in set and low-fat yoghurt stabilization against
syneresis and play role in goat milk yoghurt.
Phospholipases (A1, A2, C and D) are a complex and crucially
important group of enzymes that hydrolyze phospholipids. In
dairy industry used in cheese and yogurt to increase cheese yield
through interrupting milk fat and protein in curd . Hydrolisis
of milk phospholipids by phospholipases enzyme increases the
yield of Mozzarella cheese, Pizza cheese, Chihuahua-type cheese
. The application of phospholipases increases cheese yield
without affecting quality. It is a recent technology since it was
introduced in 2005 by Novozymes A/S and Christia Hansen A/S
with trade name YieldMAX™ from the filamentous fungi Fusarium
sp. Yield MAX hydrolyzes the sn-1 ester bond of phospholipids, to
lysophos pholipids and fatty acids. The hydrolysis of cheese milk
by phospholipase prior to renneting increase total cheese yield by
3.2% and DM yield in mozzarella cheese through moisture and fat
retention, improved emulsification and water-holding capacity
. It can be applied up to 0.01-1% (w/w) of fat .
Milk contains indigenous and exogenous enzymes like proteinases
and lipases of microbial and animal origin. In Dairy industry
Lipases used to hydrolysis of milk fat triglycerides (triacylglycerols),
that can modify the fatty acid chain lengths and flavor formation
in cheeses . Lipases can be obtained from animal tissues
such as pancreatic glands (bovine and porcine) and pre-gastric
tissues of young kid, lamb and calf and from microbial M. miehei,
A. niger, A. oryzae that mostly applied in cheese making . Application
of exogenous lipases in the dairy industry is enhancing
cheese flavor and acceleration of cheese ripening throughout
controlled hydrolysis of triglycerides . Lipases have different
kinds of selectivity toward their substrates and hydrolysis starts
with the lipid binding and the catalytic serine attack on the carbonyl
carbon atom of the susceptible ester bond . Lipases
could be added before starter and rennet in cheese milk.
Milk has been preserved by fermentation through the action
of lactic acid bacteria, which convert lactose lactic acid and other
organic acids . Starter cultures were microbial preparation
singe or many strains and the lactic acid resulted from action of
them form characteristic body and texture of the fermented milk
products pays formation of overall flavor and enhances preservation
[36,37]. Starter have additional advantages than fermentation
termed functional starter cultures. The possibility of development
of new commercial products using novel starter cultures were reported
. Indicative products like a novel probiotic yogurt with
Lactobacillus pentosus KCA1 having both the genomic and functional
capability . There are Lactic acid bacteria stains that
prevent lactose intolerance and accumulation of galactose.
On the other hand, form spontaneously fermented camel milk
Lactococcus lactis, Pediococcus acidilactici and Lactobacillus plantarum
were isolated as potential starter cultures bacteria resulted good acidification and needed pH value . Cheese ripening is a
slow and expensive process therefore, attenuated starters can be
used to accelerating cheese ripening and flavor since they produce
less acid during fermentation but produces active starter enzyme
. Functional starters used as accelerating agents. Lactobacillus
casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus were adjunct
starters cultures in cheese ripening . Novel tarter culture
that have potential as bacteriocins production and bio preservation
Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris,
Enterococcus spp. lactobacillus carvatus Lactobacilllus sakei, Pediococcus
acidilactici, Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus Plantarum,
Lactobacillus ruteri and Streptococcus thermophiles.
Exopolysaccharides producing lactic acid bacteria like lactobacilli,
streptococci and lactococci give good body and texture in
fermented dairy product while galactose fermenting lactobacilli
and streptococci resulted low level galactose and low browning
in mozzarella. Lactose negative L.delbrueck ssp. bulgaricus help to
avoid over acidification in yoghurt resulted good body and texture
of curd and synersis prevention. Autolyzing lactic acid bacteria enhanced
proleolytic and lipolytic and acceleration cheese ripping.
While propionic bacteria improve vitamin content of fermented
dairy product were reported as novel cultures.
Membrane filtration is a separation process of liquid like
milk into “permeates” and “retentate” through semi-permeable
membrane. Membrane filtration is applied in dairy industry since
1960s . It was a novel non thermal environmentally friendly
 suitable and economical alternative to centrifugation, lactification
and evaporation, reducing cost of production as well generating
new revenue resources [45-47]. Reverse Osmosis (RO),
Nano filtration (NF), Ultrafiltration (UF) and Microfiltration (MF)
were four membrane type that were commonly used in dairy industries
. Removal of microorganisms using heat treatment
like Ultra high temperature induce irreversible modifications of
milk component, change of flavor, cheese- making properties .
As the advance in technology using membrane separation technique
become possible option for microbiological safety.
Microfiltration has larger pore size and used to remove bacteria
and fat from milk and enable to produces bacteria free raw milk
that can further be transformed into fluid milks, cheeses, powder
or protein by products since it rejects fat and microorganisms
while allowing other milk constituents to pass through the membrane
. MF is same time referred as non-thermal cold pasteurization
as it doesn’t affect sensory attributes. The other applications
in cheese production help to improving the nutritive quality,
reduce microbial load, adjust compositional and yield of cheese by
increasing total solid content, utilization of whey, reducing dosage
of rennet, starter culture and processing steps . Cheese production
application of all four membrane could be possible however;
UF is most widely used while microfiltration is to less extent.
In cheese production while MF is used in removal of bacterial from
milk, bacteria and fat from brine solution placed for longer time
. Ultrafiltration have three possibilities for cheese making for
protein standardization, use of intermediate or medium concentrated
retentates and use of liquid pre-cheeses. Different cheese
verity such as Camembert, Cheddar, Mozzarella and many other
cheese varieties be made with. Nanofilteration removal of minerals
while Reves osmosis water from milk and whey .
UF can result good quality fresh and brine cheese with higher
yield but same report indicates slower ripening rate due to
decreased in proteolysis. Manufacture of most fermented milks
is concentration of the milk base to increase solids content solids.
Membrane techniques have been successfully applied for the
preproduction of concentrated, set and stirred . UF help to
increase protein, fat content of the milk desired above the level
present in raw milk and reduces lactose, some soluble protein
fractions and minerals. Manufacturing of concentered yoghurt
type such as Ymer traditional fermented dairy product in Denmark,
hrikhand and chakka in Indian using membrane filtration
. The yogurt product that made by using UF is called ultrafiltered
retentate concentrated yogurt . UF technology in
yoghurt manufacturers shorter gelation time, impruves physical
quality of end product, extended shelf-life, reduce risk of syneresis
and excessive acid development during post-fermentation due to
reduced lactose content and consistency of the final product. The
major benefits UF on yogurt is less whey separation, acceptability
since assuming using UF have purity than other non-dairy stabilizers.
Whey processing is main application of membrane technology
with more than 75% of all membrane usages. Milk protein can
be recovered by using MF, UF and NF processes. MF separates the
casein micelles and whey proteins  whereas NF highly permeable
to water and monovalent ions and used to concentrate whey
and reduce mineral contents of the whey.
Conventional Homogenization carried out to reduce milk fat
globule size to prevent creaming during storage as the milk is
passed under moderate pressures up 18 - 20 MPa. . UHPH has
a similar principle as conventional homogenizers but it works at
higher pressures up to 400 MPa. It is a non-thermal processing
technology helps to develop novel products with longer shelf life ,
higher safety with better sensory and nutritional properties, less
Maillard reaction, less whey protein denaturation, no lactose isomerization
than in pasteurized milk, higher yield, longer shelf life
and better textural of fresh cheese . UHPH treated milk have
equal or better microbial shelf life than high-pasteurized milk.
Higher value of texture characteristics, viscosity, lower syneresis
and higher water holding capacity in yogurt . UHPH system is
a dual function technology it has capacity to replaces functions of
conventional separator equipment, homogenizer and pasteurizer.
Even if not alone promise to sterilization and aseptic packaging
application of UHPH is recent novel technological opportunity for
dairy industry [57,59].
The development of dairy processing and research resulted
application of different inputs, new innovations and technologies.
Novel enzymes such as camel chymosin (CHY-MAX® M), β-galactosidase,
Phospholipases, Transglutaminase and lipases were indicative
inputs that have a wider advantage in dairy processing
industry. Similarly, novel starter culture that are multi-functional
are also available. Membrane filtration is advanced technology
that have been applied in dairy industries in fluid milk, whey
processing, removal of microorganisms, cheeses and yogurt manufacturing.
While ultrahigh pressure homogenizer a recent novel
technological opportunity for dairy industry as it is replacing
roles of conventional separator, homogenizer and pasteurizers
equipment. Therefore, information on novel enzymes and cultures
and technology were raised. However, more detailed study
and assessment on consumer acceptability, availability, usage and
if any negative effect on consumer should need to be further well