fulltext-header.php): failed to open stream: No such file or directory in /home/suxhorbncfos/public_html/jcmah/JCMAH.MS.ID.555754.php on line 4
Warning: include(): Failed opening '
fulltext-header.php' for inclusion (include_path='.:/opt/alt/php56/usr/share/pear:/opt/alt/php56/usr/share/php') in /home/suxhorbncfos/public_html/jcmah/JCMAH.MS.ID.555754.php on line 4 Pterocarpus Marsupium for the Treatment of Diabetes and Other Disorders
Pterocarpus Marsupium for the Treatment of Diabetes and Other Disorders
Dhayaney Vijayan and Sibi G*
Department of Biotechnology, Indian Academy Degree College-Autonomous, India
Submission: January 24, 2019; Published: March 01, 2019
*Corresponding author: Sibi G, Head of the Department, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Academy Degree College-Autonomous, Bangalore, India
How to cite this article: Dhayaney V, Sibi G. Pterocarpus Marsupium for the Treatment of Diabetes and Other Disorders. J Complement Med Alt
006 Healthcare. 2019; 9(1): 555754. DOI:10.19080/JCMAH.2019.09.555754
Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb., is a deciduous tree commonly grows in India and Sri Lanka. It is well known to Ayurvedic medicine because of its curative and lenitive properties. The heartwood extract of P. marsupium is reported to have many pharmacological compounds and used in treatment of various disorders. Literature was collected via electronic search (PubMed, ScienceDirect) from published articles that reports medicinal properties of P. marsupium. A significant research of antidiabetic activities and other medicinal properties of P. marsupium combined with bioactive compounds isolated from the plant will provide leads for the discovery of new drugs for the management of many disorders with minimal side effects.
Diabetes is a chronic disorder of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism characterized by increased fasting and post prandial blood sugar levels. The increasing worldwide incidence of diabetes mellitus in adults constitutes a global public health burden. Out of the two types of diabetes, the incidence of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus is much higher than the insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Even insulin therapy does not reinstate a permanent normal pattern of glucose homeostasis and carries an increased risk of atherogenesis and hypoglycemia. Plants are used as traditional remedies in one or other form for the treatment of diabetes. There has been an exponential growth in the field of herbal medicine and these drugs are gaining popularity both in developing and developed countries because of their natural origin and less side effects. Drugs derived from natural products have played a major role in the development of pharmaceutical treatments for diabetes.Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb., is a deciduous tree commonly grows in Sri Lanka and India . It is popularly known as Vijaysar in Hindi and is a valuable medicinal plant, used mainly in Ayurveda, for the treatment of diabetes [2-4]. It is well known to Ayurvedic medicine because of its curative and lenitive properties. Its flowers are employed against fever, its heartwood as depurative, hemostatic, and rejuvenating, its wood is used for chest and body pain as well as indigestion, etc. The gum (kino) obtained from the tree is used in diarrhea, pyrosis and toothache. Bruised leaves are used externally for boils, sores, and various skin diseases. The water kept in tumblers made out of the wood of this plant is said to be beneficial for chest pain and diabetes. The bark of P. marsupiumis very effective in preventing cataract formation and reducing hyperglycemia in alloxanized diabetic rats  and the heartwood is useful as hypolglycemic agents .
A systematic search was carried out in Pub Med, Scopus and Web of Sciences using a combination of Boolean operators. Peer reviewed papers in English on the keyword Pterocarpus marsupium were retrieved and evaluated based on titles and abstracts. The retrieved papers were managed using Mendeley and the data were consolidated.
Aqueous extract of heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium was given orally to alloxan induced type-2 diabetic rabbit model (Pradhan et al., 2017). Both the fasting blood glucose (194.8±12.7 vs. 155.2±16.3) and postprandial blood glucose (191.6±23.2 vs. 149.2±14.5) were decreased indicating the hypoglycaemic effect of P. marsupium. Incubation of red blood cells with glucose in the presence of alcoholic extract of P. marsupium under high glucose conditions lead to reduction in the accumulation of intracellular sorbitol in a dose dependent manner. There was 50% reduction of sorbitol accumulation with alcoholic extract of was observed with IC50 151.00μg/ml and 105.12μg/ml for ascorbic acid . Ethanolic extract of P. marsupium heartwood have antihyperglycemic activity in streptozotocin treated diabetic rats . At 100 mg/kg dose levels, fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance and serum insulin levels were recorded as 113±3.40mg/dl, 35930±102.9AUC and 160±31.3ng/l respectively. Blood glucose lowering
effect of P. marsupium heartwood was also reported. Antidiabetic
activity of P. marsupium Roxb. heartwood in alloxan
induced diabetic rats using extracts obtained by optimized
conventional and non-conventional extraction methods was
evaluated by Devgan et al. . Ultrasound-assisted extraction
was proved to enhance the antidiabetic activity of P. marsupium.
Mohan Kumar et al.  reported that the exposure of mouse
pancreatic and muscle tissues to P. marsupium extract stimulated
the insulin secretion and glucose uptake, respectively, in a
concentration-dependent manner. Gairola et al.  found that
the aqueous extract significantly reduces type 2 diabetes in rats
and can prevent hyperinsulinemia and hypertriglyceridemia.
Aqueous extract of P. marsupium has significantly decreased the
fasting blood glucose (182.5±4.1mg/dL) in type 2 diabetic rat.
It also decreased the postprandial hyperglycemia significantly
(112.3±2.8mg/dL) as compared to diabetic control group
(301.4±5mg/dL). P.marsupium modulated the inflammatory
cytokine TNF-α in type 2 diabetic rats . Dhanabal et al. 
studied the antidiabetic activity of various subfractions of the
alcohol extract of the bark of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. in
alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The butanol subfraction of the
alcohol extract of P. marsupium exhibits significant antidiabetic
activity and corrects the metabolic alterations in diabetic rats.
Mukhtar et al.  reported the hypoglycemic activity of P.
marsupium wood at an oral dose of 250mg/kg in alloxan induced
diabetic rats. The aqueous extract of P. marsupium significantly
(P<0.001) reduced the blood sugar levels from 72.32±5.62 to
61.35±1.2mg% 2 h after oral administration of the extract and
also significantly lowered the blood glucose in alloxan diabetic
rats from 202.91±5.44 to 85.22±11.28mg% 21 days after daily
oral administration of the extract . Alloxan-diabetic rats
fed with the ethanolic extract of P. marsupium wood for 5 days
resulted in a significant lowering of fasting blood sugar level.
There was a 5-fold increase in blood glucose level of alloxan to
rats after injection compared to normal controls and feeding of
the extract to alloxan-diabetic animals lowered the blood sugar
by 70% as compared to the alloxan-diabetic controls .
Many recent studies reveal that antioxidants capable
of neutralizing free radicals are effective in preventing
experimentally induced diabetes in animal models. In DPPH
scavenging activity and ABTS∙+ scavenging activity, IC50 values
were found to be 138.3, 12.4, 13.5 and 47.8, 3.9, 4.2μg/mL for
aqueous, methanolic extract of P. marsupium and standard
ascorbic acid respectively. In α-amylase inhibition assay
and α-glucosidase inhibition assay, IC50 values for standard
Acarbose, aqueous and methanolic extract of heartwood were
44.09, 166.72, 48.20 and 45.17, 172.32, 48.12 respectively .
The effects of different fractions of heart wood of Pterocarpus
marsupium on antioxidant enzyme like protein thiols and the
efficacy of the extract for the protection of the renal function in
alloxan induced diabetic rats was evaluated by Bhata, Nayak .
P. marsupium extract showed a promising antioxidant effect, as
well as hypoglycemic activity. Aqueous extract of P. marsupium
showed high antioxidant activity in all different assays used
and also protected mitochondria against oxidative damage. It
significantly reduced lactate dehydrogenase release along with
reduction of lipid peroxidation . The herbal extract mixture
of P. marsupium and O. sanctum has succeeded in not only
rectifying dyslipidemia but also in restoring the endogenous
antioxidant levels to the pre-diabetic status in non-diabetic and
alloxan induced diabetic adult female Wistar rats .
The cytotoxicity of P. marsupium aqueous extract was
evaluated by Gosetti et al.  using calcein acetoxymethyl
ester (calcein-AM) assays. Different cell lines were incubated
for 24h with different concentrations of the aqueous heartwood
extract. The IC50 values for cancer cells are comparable among
the cell lines and are significantly lower (at least 50%) for the
cancer cell lines than for non-tumoral cell lines, highlighting
a selective cytotoxicity of the extract towards the cancer cells.
α-dihydroxychalcone-glycoside (α-DHC) isolated from P.
marsupium has effectively reduced nitric oxide and cytokine
production by the LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage
cell line. The compound effectively attenuated the expression of
inflammation-mediating enzymes COX-2 and iNOS at the mRNA
as well as protein levels in a concentration dependent manner
. Pterostilbene isolated from P. marsupium was found to
cause apoptosis in breast (MCF-7) and prostate (PC3) cancer
cell lines. It also inhibited Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9)
and α-methylacyl-CoA recemase (AMACR), two very well-known
metastasis inducers .
Hugar et al.  has reported that Pterocarpus marsupium
showed potential reproductive effects on testosterone
propionate induced Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) female
albino rats and could be used as an alternative therapy in the
treatment of PCOS.
The protective effect of Pterocarpus marsupium bark extracts
against cataract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male albino
rats was investigated by Xu et al. . The blood glucose was
reduced up to 36% following treatment with bark extracts.
The blood insulin and tissue GSH contents were substantially
increased more than 100% in diabetic rats following treatment
with extracts. Aldose reductase activity was reduced up to 79.3%
in diabetic rats following treatment with extracts. he findings
concluded that the use of P. marsupium bark extracts could be
the potential therapeutic approach for the reduction of aldose
reductase against diabetic cataract.
Major hindrance in amalgamation of herbal medicine in
modern medical practices is lack of scientific and clinical data
proving their efficacy and safety. This review article showed the
anti-diabetic potential of a P. Marsupium for the management of
hyperglycemia, along with good antioxidant activity. However
limited data were available about the collective pharmaceutical
property of P. Marsupium. This plant may provide leads for the
discovery of new drugs for the management of many disorders
with minimal side effects.