Muhammad Danish Toor1, Muhammad Adnan2*, Ali Raza2, Rehan Ahmed3, Anosha Arshad1, Hassan Maqsood1, Fakhar Abbas1, Muhammad Mughees-ud-din1, Muhammad Hanzla Shehzad1 and Muhammad Khubaib Zafar4
1Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Pakistan
2 Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Pakistann
3 Department of Management sciences, Bahria University Islamabad, Pakistan
4 Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Pakistan
Submission: June 22, 2020; Published: July 02, 2020
*Corresponding author: Muhammad Adnan, Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Pakistan
How to cite this article: Muhammad D T, Muhammad A*, Ali R, Rehan A, Anosha A, et al. Land Degradation and its Management: A Review. Int J Environ
Sci Nat Res. 2020; 25(1): 556157. DOI: 10.19080/IJESNR.2020.25.556157
Land is the essential component which provides us food, shelter, and fiber. It is non-renewable resource which is degraded day by day. Some major factors like climatic, natural and anthropogenic deteriorate quality of land and degraded it for agriculture use. Agriculture sector is directly linked with land while most of the agriculture land is degraded by some factors. Due to rapid changes in climatic conditions, deforestation, desertification, erosion, salinization, waterlogging, and organic matter depletion lead to land degradation. For restoration of land, it is important to minimize these activities and properly managed all factors. We can manage our land by ground covers, alternate fuels, timber replantation, dams and by making the policies. Furthermore, organic agriculture may be an alternative to save our land from degradation. The present review focuses on effect of land degradation on agriculture and environment; and how we can manage our lands from further degradation.
Agriculture is an important sector of economy and plays a significant role like GDP share, foreign exchange earnings and employment etc. The development in this is very important because it is an important economic sector, which gives the basic constituents to the population. It is observed that increased agriculture productivity and output tend to share substantially to all economic development sectors . However, there are many factors which influence the agriculture productivity such as weeds, poor nutrition and the most soil degradation. Land degradation is an environmental process in which biological, economical and quality of land is lost due to alteration in chemical, physical and biological properties. Land degradation may be caused by erosion, loss in soil organic matter, soil acidity, deforestation, desertification, salinization, soil compaction and such more phenomena that make agricultural land unfavorable for crop production . Globally, about 60 percent of area is degraded . Furthermore, land degradation alters biogeochemical and hydrological cycles in earth . Land degradation is an ecological sensation that disturbing arid lands and effect the economic and natural excellence of an agronomic land . Other hand land
degradation is a continuing deterioration of environment  and production . Globally annual degradation cost is about USD 40 billion . It will remain an important issue for 21st century due to of its negative effects on crop production, environment and food security. It has become an important environmental problem . Globally, degraded lands are approximately 18.1 million km2 in which 92 percent is due to mismanagement and 38 percent is due to overgrazing of animals . Overall, 20 percent of arable land, 30 percent forests and 10 percent grasslands are affected due to land degradation, affecting 1.5 billion people and it may be due to the result of different factors or combination of anthropogenic activities like climatic variations and unsustainable management of land . It occurs in the form of total loss in vegetative covers and loss of its economic productivity or biophysical by exposure of soil surface to water and wind erosion, and by water logging, soil and salinization, leading to decline in biological, chemical and physical soil properties. The continued vegetation loss due to human activities and salinization also depletes the biodiversity, and it decreases the capability of natural ecosystem for CO2 sequestration with long-term influence of climate and global warming; the overgrazing to animals in rangelands is particularly
very severe in arid lands . There are many strategies to
manage the soil degradation process by ground covers, alternate
fuels, timber replantation, dams and by making the policies.
Furthermore, organic agriculture may be an alternative to save
our land from degradation.  stated that land degradation can
be managed by conservation tillage and integrated soil fertility
management (ISFM) strategies. The present review focuses on
effect of land degradation on agriculture and environment; and
how we can manage our lands from further degradation.
Land is global environmental part that holds natural
assets (aquatic portion, flora and topsoil) the natural
geography, anthropological and progressions substructure and
disbursements that function inside the ecosystem . However,
Land degradation can be defined as long-term injury to ecosystem
productivity and functioning initiated due to disturbances from
which land and its components cannot recover . Before 1000
years ago, terrestrial ruination has accompanied humankind at
least consequently the extensive farming implementation 
and the intensification related populace . The most important
causes of degradation are poor farming practices, inappropriate
irrigation, overgrazing, urban sprawl, commercial development,
and land clearance. Moreover, land pollution includes quarrying
of sand and stone and minerals and industrial waste. High density
of population is not necessarily correlated with degradation
of land . About 50 percent of agricultural land are going to
be degraded from moderately to severely. Land degradation
effects about 1.5 billion humans globally, 15 billion tons’ soil
disappears every year, about 12 million ha-1 lost every year due to
desertification and drought, about six million km2 dry lands leads
towards desertification. The Biodiversity of about 27000 species
lost annually due to degradation of land, about 110 countries
have potentially at risk regarding dry lands, approximately 250
million people are affected and about 1 billion are under risk or
threat. Global cost of desertification is $ 42 million . Principal
processes of degradation include erosion by wind and water,
chemical degradation (leaching, salinization and acidification
etc.) and physical land degradation (hard-setting, compaction and
crusting). Some landscape units or lands are influenced by more
than one degradation process . There are different causes of
land degradation i.e. Deforestation, Livestock grazing Pressure,
water logging and salinity.
Land degradation is basically a huge worldwide issue due
to its antagonistic influence on agriculture efficiency. It also has
bad impact on ecological circumstance and nutritional safety.
Ecosystem is also affected by degradation, because nonstop
degradation has now faraway getting categorizations: it expresses
problematic situations for ecological growth, it splits adverse
effects on the socio-economic circumstances and agriculture
also . Land degradation is an outcome of regular or atrophic
aspects which can cause decrease in production. In framework
of production, land degradation marks from a gap among land
excellence and land usage . Globally above 20% of agricultural
zones, 30% of plantations and 10% of savannas are effected by
land degradation, this degradation caused by human actions like
unmaintainable land managing and environmental deviations
. Furthermore, Recent studies suggest that about 5 to 6 million
ha of agriculture land are permanently lost annually due to
salinization and soil erosion and many other land degradation
practices. Degradation cause yield losses which may develop
more significant relation to the yield growth and loss in future,
as the yield rates are projected to drop below 1% annually in
coming decades. This is more sever in the semi-arid and arid
regions because of combined resources; lack of infrastructure
and economic factors . About 50 percent of agricultural
land are going to be degraded from moderately to severely. Land
degradation effects about 1.5 billion humans globally, 15 billion
tons’ soil disappears every year, about 12 million ha-1 lost every
year due to desertification and drought, about six million km2
dry lands leads towards desertification. The Biodiversity of
about 27000 species lost annually due to degradation of land,
about 110 countries have potentially at risk regarding dry lands,
approximately 250 million people are affected and about 1 billion
are under risk or threat. Global cost of desertification is $ 42
million .  observed that land degradation causes loss of
soil nutrients and O.M and then reduction in crop production.
 reported that the major component that may cause reduction
in productivity is physical land degradation within the root
zone. The most important reason for increased erosion is urban
sprawl industrial, deforestation and agriculture. Usage of tillage
implements in agriculture will damage top vegetation and causes
Land degradation is an ecological sensation that disturbing
arid lands and effect the economic and nature of agronomic lands
. Land degradation directly influenced cultivation, ecosystem,
production, environment, nutritional value and biodiversity .
It also influences the biophysical environment by distressing the
land by anthropological or natural processes. The natural sources
contain earthquakes, tidal waves, erosion, overflow of water and
cyclone. Degradation through anthropological activities mostly
significantly affect the environment . Global estimations of
land degradation demonstrated that Asia has extremely affected
but Africa, and Europe are slightly influenced . Early historical
study demonstrated about nonstop effect of volcanic activity lead
to land degradation and has a great impact on the environment
 demonstrated about land degradation can be managed
by conservation tillage because it required minimum employs and low cost. Integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) deals
with the reclamation of problematic lands and make them more
productive. Through IFSM efforts we can increase nutrient uptake,
improve soil fertility and inorganic nourishments which leads to
improvement in land efficiency and productiveness. IFSM services
not only increased the crop yield but also recover degraded zones
.  demonstrated that arid land for the improvement and
reclamation of degraded lands the domestic structure must be
integrated in all related areas which gives direction for asset in
sustainable land management (SLM) and stimulating community
response towards SLM. Management techniques such as fencing,
fertilizer application, placement of salt and supplements, burning
and water development can control overgrazing by animals and
leads to improve soil fertility . Irrigation system management
can also helpful to reduce land degradation, irrigation must be
controlled i.e. drip irrigation to decrease soil and water erosion.
Using low and high salt water was the most efficient way for
maintaining the clay soil productive capacity. Often heavy
irrigation can cause nutrient leach down and top fertile degrade.
Management of irrigation water is key factor to improve soil
quality . Community-based societies must be recognized at
native public level to link conversations among systematic data
and specific consumers .
Land degradation has many negative impacts on agriculture
and environment. Land degradation may be caused by i.e.
water erosion, deforestation, soil compaction, desertification,
salinization, waterlogging and many more. It became more
dangerous because it directly or indirectly effects the food security
and environment. So, it is important to minimize the losses caused
by land degradation. The present review concludes that the land
degradation can be managed by integrated application of organic
and inorganic fertilizer, use of drip irrigation and reduce the use of
heavy tillage implements. Furthermore, new policies are required
to reduce the damage caused by land degradation
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