Study the Agriculture Wasted of Natural Short
Sisal Pulp to Rein Forced Epoxy for the
used Composites Sheet Materials
Anupam Kumar1, Ramratan2* and Rohit Kumar3
1Professor, Department of Textile Engineering, Maharaja Ranjit Singh Punjab Technical University, India
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Textile Engineering, Maharaja Ranjit Singh Punjab Technical University, India
3Research Scholar, Department of Textile Engineering, Maharaja Ranjit Singh Punjab Technical University, India
Submission: May 18, 2020; Published: June 16, 2020
*Corresponding author: Ramratan, Department of Textile Engineering, Giani Zail Singh Campus College of Engineering and Technology, Maharaja Ranjit Singh Punjab Technical University, Bathinda-151001, Punjab, India
How to cite this article: Anupam K, Ramratan, Rohit K. Study the Agriculture Wasted of Natural Short Sisal Pulp to Rein Forced Epoxy for the used
Composites Sheet Materials. Int J Environ Sci Nat Res. 2020; 25(1): 556154. DOI: 10.19080/IJESNR.2020.25.556154
In this study it has been aimed to use sisal fibres pulp in composite materials and to study the mechanical properties of the produced samples. The mechanical tests results (thickness test, tensile strength and impact strength tests) and SEM micrographs indicated sisal fibres as an alternative natural fibre source for developing reinforced composites for various industries. The content of sisal fiber pulp is varied (35%, 45%, 55%) weight percentage whereas the epoxy resin is varied (50%, 40%, 30%) percentage is kept constant 15% in hardener. Composites have been fabricated using hand layup technique using a suitable mold developed in industry. All the sample have been tested in universal testing machine as per ASTM standard for tensile strength and impact strength it is observed that composite with 35% paddy pulp is having highest tensile strength of 4mm (4.08Mpa) and 8mm (7.91Mpa). The impact strength of composite with 35% sisal fiber pulp was highest than 45% to 55% sisal fiber pulp. The composites were tested by tensile strength testing and impact strength tester.
Keywords: Short sisal fiber pulp; Epoxy resin; Hardener; Tensile strength; Impact strength; SEM
Nowadays most developed countries are paying special attention to environmental issue. Some of the most important action to protect the environment is focused on the optimum use of natural resources. Researches have begun to focus attention on natural fiber composites (i.e. coir, jute, sisal, banana, hemp fibers) which are composed of natural or synthetic resins, reinforced with natural fibers . Natural fibers exhibit many advantageous properties; they are low density natural yielding relatively light weight composites with high specific properties. These fibers also have significant cost advantages and ease of processing along with being highly renewable resources. Natural fiber composites are very cost-effective material especially in building and construction purpose packaging, automobile and railway coach interiors and storage devices [2,3]. Composite material depends on the properties of constituent material the fiber and the resin used. At present day, the advance composites material has been broadly used composite in the engineering field due to their noble mechanical properties. A lot of advanced research literature is mentioned on natural fiber reinforced green composites in the
way of refining mechanical strength and mark them suitable in many engineering applications [4-6]. Because of these aims the attention of Composite material going in the direction of the green composites. Which do not have a negative effect on the environment and they are biodegradable, full sustainable, environment friendly in nature. All the above reasons force the researches to develop material that are biodegradable in nature and have good mechanical properties. Natural fiber is composed of cellulose, Hemicelluloses and Lignin and pectin. This resulted in the important problem of compatibility between pulp and matrix due to weakness in the adhesion between to surface fiber and the polymer matrix so changing the fiber surface by treatment [7,8].
The values of different plant fibers and compared it with glass fibers. The tensile strength and the Young’s modulus of the synthetic fibers are visibly much higher than that of the natural fibers. However, the difference in the specific values of synthetic and natural fiber, most important with respect to applications, is not as great. Jute, sisal and flax have similar and better mechanical properties compared to other natural fibers . Further the jute fibers are less dense than flax . In this work experimental
investigation is carried out on free vibration characteristics of
short sisal fiber (SFPC) and short banana fiber (BFPC) polyester
composites and is found that 50:50 ratio of resin and fiber volume
fraction gives good result. Further length of the fibers is also
considered. Damping nature of the fibers is also studied . The
investigation carried on mechanical properties, odor emission and
structure properties of abacca, jute and flax fibers and reveals that
jute is found to have superior tensile and flexural modulus than the
other two . The prepared starch-based batters incorporating
jute, flax fibers inside a hot mold. Compared to flax, jute had more
reinforcing effect (observed from the SEM photographs) than
flax fibers . Use of these fibers saves environment and also
reduces the energy consumption which is required in processing
manmade fibers. It is also coated that more research has to be
carried out on the natural fibers to avoid any set back during the
finalization from lab scale to commercial level .
This present research works short sisal fibres pulp reinforced
epoxy composite material sheet has been utilised with 35%,
45%, 55%. But previous literature view studies according to be
utilised sisal fibre composite sheet 15% to 25%. Application of
high-performance composites using natural fibers is increasing
in various engineering field. Composite material comprising
one or more phase belonging to natural or biological origin. The
composites produced to day with the incorporation of natural
fiber as rein forcements. In epoxy matrix are used for boat hulls,
surfboards, sporting goods, building panel this not only reduces
the cost but also save from environmental pollution.
Preparation of test sample: Short sisal fiber length (1mm)
Put 1kg dried fiber in the cooking pot. Make a solution of sodium
hydroxide and soda anthraquinone pour the solution in the pot
with sisal fiber and boil for 3 hours. After that, it will become
pulp and we will wait for it to cool down and wash him with
water three or four time, after that we will blend with the help
of blending machine and then we will are squeeze with help of
cotton fabric after that, the polyester resin and hardener mixed in
a container and Stirred well for 3 to 5 minutes. The sisal fiber pulp
was then added gradually and stirred to allow proper dispersion
of fiber within the gel like mixture. Before the mixtures were
poured inside the mould, the mould was initially polished with
a release agent to prevent the composites from sticking to the
mould upon removal. Finally, after the mixture had been poured
into the mould, it was left at for 3 to 4 day. For fully cured and
hardened (Figure 1).
Epoxy: Molecular with many no. of epoxy group, which can
be hardened into a usable plastic. epoxy resin is produced from
combining epichlorophydrin and bisphenol.
Hardener: To convert epoxy resin to epoxy plastic a reaction
take place with a suitable substance
Sisal fibers: The physical and mechanical characteristics of
sisal fibers are given in (Table 1) and the chemical composition
of sisal fiber. The characteristics of the fibers depend on the
properties of the individual constituents, the fibrillar structure
and the lamellae matrix. The fibre cells are linked together by
means of middle lamellae, which consists of hemicelluloses, lignin
and pectin (Figure 2) (Table 1-3).
Thickness testing: For measuring the thickness of a wire or a
plate, calipers micrometer is used. Principal of the measurement
of sheet thickness, the thickness test was performed as per ASTMD
– 1777 standard.
Tensile strength testing: Tensile strength is the ability of
material to resist the forces that pulls it apart or it is the resistance
of material to breakage under tension. The tensile test was
performed as per ASTMD – 638 standards. For tensile testing the
Specimen were cut as per the dimensions, detailed dimensions for
this are shown in (Figure 3 & Table 4) the test were conducted using
a universal testing machine (UTM). Two sample of each composite
were tested and their mean value is taken (Figure 4 & 5).
Tensile strength = maximum load /Area of Specimen
Impact strength: Test impact strength is the ability of a
material to absorb impact energy without breaking. Impact test
are performed to know the toughness of material. The Specimen
was subjected to a large amount of force for a small interval
of time. A material with more impact energy will have more
toughness. The impact test was performed as per ASTMD -256
standards for impact testing the Specimen were cut as per the
dimensions, detailed dimensions for this are shown in (Figure 6 &
Table 5) impact Specimen shape (Figure 7 & 8).
SEM is basically an electron microscope that images the
sample surface by scanning it with a high. Energy beam of
electrons. The signals produced by SEM result from interaction of
the electron beam with atom at or near the surface of the sample
SEM can produce very high-resolution images of a sample surface
revealing details about less than 1 to 5min in size due to the very
Narrow electron beam. SEM micrographs have a large depth of
field yielding a characteristic three-dimensional appearance
useful for understanding the surface of a sample show below
Figure 9(a, b).
Six different type of Composite sample are tested in dak series
7200 machine name universal testing machine. Sample are lift to
break till the ultimate strength occurs. The figures Table 9 shows
the variations in tensile strength of different sample.
a) As we can see the above table readings the tensile
testing, the results up to 35% pulp Ratio composition the reading
b) The tensile testing was done on six composite sheet andresult are noted in form of (Table 9 & Figure 11).
The impact capability of sample impact test is carried out
using Izod – charpy digital impact testing machine. Absorbed
energy obtained for six different composite sample from the
machine. The Table 8 shows the variation in impact strength of
a) The impact strength testing was done on six composite
plate and the result are noted in form of Table 10.
b) As we see that as pulp to resin ratio, when the percentage
of Fiber is decrease, we have increase in impact strength of
c) As per shown Figure 12, analysis of composite plate of
impact strength of composite
Accumulation of unmanaged agro waste especially from the
developing countries has an increased environmental concern.
Develop a natural particulate composite material with better
strength and to study the physical and mechanical characteristics of
the composite material. This process leads to finding the optimum
composition and methodology to manufacture such a composite
material. the results of the work show that a useful composite
with good properties could be successfully development using
sisal fibre pulp as reinforcing agent for the polymer of composites tensile strength and impact strength. This process leads to finding
the optimum composition and methodology to manufacture such
a composite material.
This study involves mechanical Characterisation of properties
of sisal fibre pulp epoxy resin composites. experimental and
analytical observation of pulp or resin composites leads to
a) The decrease in pulp percentage give higher density of
b) As we can see that as pulp to resin ratio, when the
percentage of pulp is increasing, we have decrease in tensile
c) The decrease in pulp percentage give higher impact
strength of composite sheet.
The Authors wishes to express their heartfelt gratitude to
the authorities of GZSCCET bathinda to provide the facilities for
conducting the required test in their laboratories. Special thanks
are also due to HOD and staff of textile Engineering Department
of Giani Zail Singh Campus College of engineering and technology,
without whose help this work would not have been completed.
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