Contribution of Research Projects and Environmental Impact Assessment Studies to
Fauna Biodiversity in Sudan
Zuheir N Mahmoud*
Department of Zoology, University of Khartoum, Sudan
Submission: April 03, 2020; Published: April 16, 2020
*Corresponding author: Zuheir N Mahmoud, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Sudan
How to cite this article: Zuheir N M. Contribution of Research Projects and Environmental Impact Assessment Studies to Fauna Biodiversity in Sudan. Int
J Environ Sci Nat Res. 2020; 24(2): 556135. DOI: 10.19080/IJESNR.2020.24.556135
Eighteen species of ants were recorded for the first time in Sudan including Lepisiota omeri n. sp.; Parasitological surveys of freshwater fishes of the Sudan during 2006 to 2014revealed the presence of four genera of parasitic crustacean; 42 species belonging to 19 monogenean genera parasites were collected from 26 fish species. Out of these the following five species are new to science (n. sp.): Quadriacanthus fornicatus, Q. pravus, Q. zuheiri, Q. mandibulatus and Dogielius senegalensis. Seven new records to the Sudan helminthes were added. These are: two cestodes (Monobothrioides tchadensis and Proteocephalus glanduligerus); one digenetic (Clinostomum complanatum larva) and three nematodes (Capillaria sp., Spinitectus sp. and Philometra bagri. Recording of Barsonella lafoni as a n. sp. of Proteocephalidean (Cestoda) from Clarias catfishes was based on material from Tarkana Lake (Kenya) and Wadi Halfa, Lake Nubia, Sudan.
Fourteen nematodes including Cucullanus mormyri sp. n. from Mormyrus caschive from Kosti (White Nile) and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) pseudospiralis sp. n. from Synodontis schall from Khartoum, and S. frontosus, S. nigrita and S. schall from Khashm el Girba (Atbara River). In addition to two nematodes Contracaecum sp. Third stage-larvae Type 2 and Capillariidae gen. sp., needs further evaluation. All these parasites represent new host and geographical records. With respect to fishes an apparently undescribed Haplochromis species, marked variation in Sarotherodon galilaeus populations were noticed. Paradistichodus dimidiatus and Enteromius macrops were reported for the first time from the main Nile Basin. The mormyrid species Cyphomyrus petherici and Petrocephalus keatingii, as well as the small mochokid Mochokus brevis are new locality record for the White Nile. Coptodon zilli is a new locality record for Lake Nubia. Six bird species: Pelecanus onocrotalus, Phalacrocorax africanus, Ciconia ciconia, Platalea leucorodia, Haliaetus vocifer and Pluvianus aegyptius were recorded for the first time from Lake Nubia.
Sudan is endowed with diversified habitats extending from the Red Sea hot brines (Atlantis II Deep) in the east to the high peaks of Jebel Marra in the west. Its ecological zones extend from low rain fall savannah in the south to deserts in the north with the meandering River Nile and its tributaries heading north to Egypt at the Mediterranean Sea. The goods, services and values provided by the biota in these habitats are immense. In line with this is the value of corals of the Sudanese Red Sea described by Jacques Cousteau “Life abounds in bank after bank of exuberant coral structures, second only to those of The Great Barrier Reef in extent and exceeding it perhaps in splendor” . The presence of some flora communities in remote and inaccessible areas calls for fund raising to fill in the gap in knowledge . This holds true for fauna.
The author contributed in the following four studies: diversity of ants of Sudan based on material collected during environmental
impact assessment surveys; parasitological findings from freshwater fishes collected from Kosti, Sinnar, Khashm el Girba “Parasitological survey of freshwater fishes of the Nile project” [3-5]; the diversity of fresh water fishes project  and the avifauna of Lake Nubia documented in “Watershed Management Framework: Nubia Lake Environmental Survey” .
The objective of this work is to cast light on the contribution of field work, research projects and environmental impact assessment studies to the fauna Biodiversity in Sudan based on data from four selected.
Ants were picked up using a strip of paper, preserved in 70% ethanol with one drop of glycerol. Identification of ant was based on Bolton [8-11]. The websites [10,11] contains notes on ants of the Sudan concerning location, habits, collector and authors.
The gills of freshly killed fishes were extracted and examined
in bottled water under a dissecting microscope. Live monogeneans
were individually picked from the gills with fine needles and
prepared for morphological studies following . Parasites
found in the intestine were isolated and prepared for examination
following [13,14] as appropriate.
For description of birds seen a binocular (B-111, 8x30 ZCF)
was used. Their identification followed [15-17]. Their status
information followed  and conservation status followed .
Documentation was made by a Nikon DX (AF-SNIKKOR 18-55mm
1:3.5-5.6G and 55-200mm 1:4-5.6G ED) digital camera whenever
The findings are summarized in the following points:
a) Lepisiota omeri Taylor was described as a new
Hymenoptera, Formicidae species for science from Haj Abd
Alla 13°58›0» N, 33°34›60” E) Sinnar State, Sudan . Oxford
University Museum of Natural History was the depository of the
prototype L. omeri (Figure 1).
b) Eighteen species of ants were recorded for the first time
in Sudan from 26 localities (Table 1).
c) Pachycondyla ruginota was most diverse and was
encountered in 10 localities, followed by Catagluphis adyssinicus
in 5 localities.
Parasitological surveys of freshwater fishes of the Sudan
during 2006 to 2014 revealed the following:
a) Four genera of parasitic crustacean were
a) Four genera of parasitic crustacean were record. These
were Argulus, Ergasilus, Lamproglena and Lernaea and 12 species
new for science were documented. Forty two species belonging
to 19 monogenean genera parasites were collected from 26 fish
b) The monogenean genera identified are: Annulotrema,
Bagrobdella, Bouxiella, Characidotrema, Cichlidogyrus,
Dactylogyrus, Diplectanum, Diplozoon, Dogielius, Enterogyrus,
Gyrodactylus, Heterobothrium, Heteronchocleidus, Onchobdella,
Protoancylodiscoides, Schilbetrema, Scutogyrus, Synodontella and
c) Seven species (four new) of Quadriacanthus were
collected from the gills of three species of catfishes from the
Nile River Basin (Sudan). These were as follows: Quadriacanthus
aegypticus El-Naggar and Serag, 1986, Quadriacanthus clariadis
Paperna, 1961, Quadriacanthus fornicatus n. sp., Quadriacanthus
pravus n. sp., and Quadriacanthus zuheiri n. sp. from Clarias
gariepinus (Clariidae); Quadriacanthus mandibulatus n. sp.
from Heterobranchus bidorsalis (Clariidae); and Quadriacanthus
bagrae Paperna, 1979 from Bagrus docmak (Bagridae), .
Parasitological survey of Labeo (Cyprinidae) horie and L. niloticus
at Kosti (White Nile) and Sinnar (Blue Nile) in Sudan revealed
the presence of ten species of Dactylogyrus and three species of
e) Studies of the species of Characidotrema (Monogenea:
Dactylogyridae) and reported from Brycinus nurse: Characidotrema
brevipenis, C. nursei, C. spinivaginus, C. zelotes and the new species
Characidotrema pollex n. sp from Kosti and Sinnar . The
morphology of Schilbetrema spp. from Sudan, complemented
with molecular analyses of nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence
data (28S, 18S and ITS-rDNA), is still under evaluation. Eleven
Schilbetrema species have been distinguished. Phylogenetic
analysis showed division of Schilbetrema species into two main
clades corresponding to host species (A–Schilbe intermedius and
S. uranoscopus; S. mystus) .
f) Most of the monogenean and crustacean parasites
were attached to the gills than to the fins and body surface. Two
monogenean species belonging to the genus Enterogyrus were
found even in stomach .
g) To the Sudan helminthes Barsonella lafoni was added
as a new genus and species of Proteocephalidean (Cestoda)
from Clarias catfishes was based on material from Tarkana Lake
(Kenya) and Wadi Halfa, Lake Nubia, Sudan . Redescription
of the following cestodes: Proteocephalus sulcatus of Clarotes
laticeps , Sandonella sandoni , Tapeworms of Synodontis
spp., , Proteocephalus glanduligerus from Clarias catfishes
 and revision on Wenyonia spp. from catfishes was based
on material from Khartoum and Kosti . The presence of the
cestode Monobothrioides tchadensis, from Auchenoglanis sp. from
Kosti and the digenetic Clinostomum complanatum larva, from
Heterotis niloticus from Khartoum were confirmed.
h) Nematodes of some freshwater of Sudan and two new
species were added . The new species were: Cucullanus
mormyri sp. n. from Mormyrus caschive from Kosti (White Nile)
and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) pseudospiralis sp. n. from
Synodontis schall from Khartoum, and S. frontosus, S. nigrita
and S. schall from Khashm el Girba (Atbara River). Other 10
species were described. These were Falcaustra (=Spironoura)
hexapapillata, Falcaustra sudanensis, Falcaustra similis, Cucullanus
barbi,Cucullanus baylisi, Cithariniella, Multicaecum heterotis,
Camallanus longicaudatus, Paracamallanus cyathopharynx,
Spinitectus polli, in addition to Contracaecum sp. Third stagelarvae
Type 2 and Capillariidae gen. sp. .
i) Taxonomic evaluation was made on the basis of both
morphometrical observation and molecular methods and
constituted the material of 10 publications [3-5, 21 to 30].
j) Material collected in 2014 is still under identification
Moritz et al.  reported from Kosti (White Nile) an apparently
undescribed Haplochromis species. They also noted a marked
variance in Sarotherodon galilaeus populations. Specimens from
Makhaleif and Kosti differ clearly in head contour, overall body
shape and colouration pattern from standard Nilo-Sudanian S.
galilaeus commonly occurring in the White Nile and elsewhere.
They reported Enteromius macrops for the first time from the Nile
Basin and confirmed the first record of Paradistichodus dimidiatus
in the Nile system made by . The mormyrid species Cyphomyrus
petherici and Petrocephalus keatingii, as well as the small
mochokid Mochokus brevis are new locality record for the White
Nile . Coptodon zilli is a new locality record for Lake Nubia .
The survey of birds of Lake Nubia (21°00’00” and 22°00.00”N,
30°30’00” and 31°30’00” E) was made in 2015 by  recorded
32 species falling into 13 families, while 41 species falling into 14
families were recorded by .
The following six species Pelecanus onocrotalus, Phalacrocorax
africanus, Ciconia ciconia, Platalea leucorodia (Figure 2), Haliaetus
vocifer and Pluvianus aegyptius were recorded for the first time
from Lake Nubia.
According to IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (http://
www.iucnredlist.org, 2012) all the birds listed in Table 2 are
categorized as least concern (ver 3.1). The list given in Table 2
included  data as well.
Lake Nubia provides food for a considerable number of bird
species. Based on  the birds of Lake Nubia can be divided into:
aquatic plants feeders such as the White faced Whistling Duck;
aquatic insects’ feeders such as Swifts; invertebrate’s feeders
such as migrant waders and railsn; piscivores such as Osprey
and kingfishers (Figure 3). Cattle Egret is partially dependant on
aquatic food .
The plans for future work include collection of faunal material
from other localities, especially those inaccessible for the time
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