Review on Interaction among Boundary
Planted Eucalyptus Globules with Soil
Melkamu Terefe Asmare*
Ethiopian Environment and Forest Research Institute, Ethiopia
Submission: November 08, 2019; Published: February 03, 2020
*Corresponding author: Mahmoud Bali, Higher Institute of Sciences and Techniques of Water, University of Gabès, Tunisia
How to cite this article: Melkamu Terefe Asmare. Review on Interaction among Boundary Planted Eucalyptus Globules with Soil and Crop. Int J Environ Sci Nat Res. 2020; 23(3): 55613. DOI: 10.19080/IJESNR.2020.23.556113
In recent year single rows of E. globules tree planted along field boards have become a dominant feature of central highlands of Ethiopia. Different journals showed that different extracts of E. globulus leaf had varying degrees of inhibition on germination and seedling growth of S. nigrum weed and more inhibition was seen with higher concentrations. In present study, methanol and ethyl acetate extracts had the strongest inhibitory effects. Therefore, it is possible to use these two extracts as a component for production of bio-herbicides. Eucalyptus species caused drawbacks rather than improving the performance of the undergrowth vegetation unlike the mentioned multipurpose trees. Plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) offer plants chemical defences against herbivores and are known to influence intake and diet choice in both insect and mammalian herbivores. That is why eucalyptus leaf palatability to sheep and goat is reduced.
Eucalyptus is one of the most widely used genera in global commercial plantation timber industries . These plantations are generally nonspecific and have been managed successfully and sustainably for many years. Nevertheless, concerns have been raised about the costs of fertilizers, reduced biodiversity, and productivity losses from pests and disease [2,3]. Mixed-species plantations containing a eucalypt and a nitrogen (N2) fixing species have the potential to address some of these concerns and improve nutrient cycling , soil fertility , biomass production [6,7] and carbon sequestration [8-10] while providing other benefits through a diversification of [5,11,12], improved risk management and protection from pests and diseases [3,5,13].
Mixtures can also be used as a silivcultural system for growing high quality timber [11,13-15]. The design and silviculture of a mixture depends on the specific objectives. For example, the admixed N2-fixing species may be used to produce a wood product or simply to increase N availability, and the aim of the admixture may be to maximize biomass, volume, or structural diversity, or to improve tree form and wood quality.
Scope of this term paper includes impacts of Eucalyptus globules on crop, animal, weed, economy and soil properties
of different journals. Eucalyptus globules in soil, crop, weed and animal interaction is an iterative process that can be refined through repeated experimentation, monitoring, and readjustments. A single approach by a researcher will not lead immediately to a satisfactory solution for the interaction. The function of the researcher is to provide technical expertise and help the concerned stakeholders in the identification of their problems, the analysis of information, facilitation and monitoring of changes. To this end, a review of different journals approach is employed in this term paper to develop scientifically tested information on their interaction. Research works for greenhouse and field test on chemical characterization allopathic extracts as well as the economic interaction of this tree species is limited.
Nutrient losses in Eucalyptus globules plantations on soil nutrient status depend on the intensity of biomass removal at harvest. Hydrophobicity can affect soil microorganisms, plant growth, soil hydrology and soil erosion processes at centimeter to catchment scale as confirmed partly by Florenzano (1956) who found that the nitrifying bacteria were very low under the litter of Eucalyptus plantation. Soil under eucalyptus plantation in central highlands of Ethiopia is highly acidic. this is due to leaching of cations deep into the soil since the soil is red and rainfall is high (1560mm) and due to incorporation of maize stalk that increase
humic and fulvic acids in the soil (Dou et al. 2008).
Eucalyptus globules reduce the amount of soil moisture
content, organic matter content and base saturation of soil. Soil
microorganism is negatively influenced by Eucalyptus. Other
than exchangeable calcium and magnesium Eucalyptus globules
has low impact on soil potassium content. As Telashwork chane
and others said sowing of Maize, Vica faba, barely and Tomato
under canopy of eucalyptus have significant impact on yield.
Chemicals like methanol and ethyl acetate produced from leaves
of eucalyptus retard the of Solinum nigrum weed growth. Study
shows that leaf of Eucalyptus globules is unpalatable to goat, sheep
and chattels. However, in dry area its shade protects animals from
impact of incoming solar radiation.
Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae family) is native to Australia and has
been widely introduced into countries throughout the world,
including Saudi Arabia, to produce cellulose, wood for fuel,
essential oils or to sequester carbon .
Boundary tree plantation is one of the Agroforestry practices
which include trees, birds on the tree as hest and crop. This
technology is widely practices in northern part of Ethiopia.
Eucalyptus globules is the popular tree species planted in the
boarder of road and farm. Traditional Agroforestry practices in
Ethiopia involve planting tree in various spatial patterns to meet
the wood, fuel and fodder requirement of farmers. In recent year,
however, single rows of E.globules tree planted along field boards
have become a dominant feature of central highlands of landscape.
Tree growing on farm boundaries is a very common practice,
but it requires agreement between the neighbours’ involved
avoiding conflicts. There are different ways of sharing trees
planted on a boundary. Sometimes two rows of trees are planted,
one on each side of the boundary, and then each farmer grows and
manages their own trees. Genotoxicity is defined as variable types
of DNA damage and mutations, ranging from gene to structural
or numerical chromosome changes. The occurrence of mitotic
abnormalities and induction of micronuclei in inter phase cells
are main criteria of genotoxic effect. Mitotic activity retardation
and disturbances of mitotic phases are reported as indicators of
cytotoxic effect (e.g. Delay in seed germination of any species).
Several phenolic compounds such as caffeic, coumaric, gallic,
hydroxybenzoic, syringic and vanillic acids have been identified
as allelochemicals in leaf extracts of Eucalyptus .
Nutrient losses in Eucalyptus globules plantations on soil
nutrient status depend on the intensity of biomass removal at
harvest. The whole tree harvesting represents an output of N, P,
K, Ca and Mg corresponding to 24.7, 3.6, 25.9, 69.5 and 11.6kg
ha-1 year-1, which is not compensated by the natural, inputs
(Cortez, 1996). In contrast, the harvest of stem wood only may
decrease such depletion to 5.8, 2.0, 10.8, 10.5 and 4.3kg ha-1. The
proportions of these amounts supplied by annual inputs from the
atmosphere were, respectively, 72.6%, 6.3%, 9.4%, 31.1% and
32.0%. Therefore, the amounts of N, P, K Ca and Mg, needed to
compensate the export through stem wood only removal were,
respectively, 1.60, 1.89, 9.79, 7.22 and 2.93kg ha-1 year-1. The
amounts with respect to Ca, K and Mg may be supplied in high
proportion by weathering [18,19] (Table 1).
The exchangeable calcium and potassium are all in the high range (Ilaco,1985). Dedecek et al. (2007) reported that Eucalyptus had a small effect
on K level.
Table 4, As stated in the table above eucalyptus improves
Candidia infection in normal and diabetic rats that in some ways
validates the traditional use of this plant in treatment of diabetic
patients. Eucalyptus administration significantly improved the
hyperglycemia, polydipsia, polyphagia, and it also compensated
weight loss of diabetic rats. Moreover, eucalyptus caused a
significant reduction in C. albicans concentration in liver and
Farmers are uses Eucalyptus for feulwood and charcoal
production. In tropic and subtropical countries, they plant
eucalyptus due to its economic advantages. Compared to other
exotic species eucalyptus grow fast and generate income to satisfy
their daily expenses. The extra income generated from eucalyptus
can contribute to food security. Eucalyptus can start to provide
income from age 3-4 in Ethiopian highlands excluding in-between
Small scale farmers use eucalyptus for fuel wood, fence and
construction of houses or to generate income by selling parts or
the whole tree (Cefeka, Mager, Weraj, Quwami, and fuel wood).
Each of the above activities has different market value including
leaves of eucalyptus (Table 5) in different areas. For instance, the
price for one sack of leaves (used for baking of Injera) weighing
about 25- 30kg is ETB 10-15, one bundle of Cefeka (20- 25 single
tree) is ETB 40-45, and Mager (one single tree) is ETB 10-12 in
Sendafa town. In Addis Ababa the price for the leaves and the
Chefeka is 80-100% more and for a single tree about 40% higher.
Small scale farmers sell their product at small towns like Sendafa
(farmers get somewhat small profit in contrast with the value sold
in the big cities).
Source: Surevy 2011.
Estimation what the farmers and retailers say.
The average benefit per single stem is around 4 ETB and the
average benefits per ha per year was about 15,105 ETB. Farmers
can get more befits from small wood lots compared to large; the
price per stem decrease to about half if a hectare is added to the
woodlot (i.e. from the 0.44 ha which is the average of the sample).
To increase the rotation with an extra year (beyond the sample
average of 7.7 years) will add about 16% to the benefit obtained
per stem. For every 1,000 extra seedlings planted per ha (from the
sample average of 10,843 seedlings per ha) the benefit per stem
will decrease only with 3.25% giving a total gain in benefit per ha
up to about 20,000 seedlings per ha (if decrease is constant and
planting cost is not considered) Table 5 [31-42].
Sonune A, Ghate R (2004) Developments in wastewater treatment methods. Desalination 167: 55-63.
Gómez M,Plaza F, Garralón G, Pérez J, Gómez MA (2007) A comparative study of tertiary wastewater treatment by physico-chemical-UV process and macrofiltration–ultrafiltration technologies. Desalination 202: 369-376.
Jhaveri JH, Murthy ZVP (2016) A comprehensive review on anti-fouling nanocomposite membranes for pressure driven membrane separation processes. Desalination 379: 137-154.
6. Fersi C, Gzara L, Dhabi M (2005) Treatment of textile effluents by membrane technologies. Desalination 185: 399-409.
Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Agency for International Development (1992) Guidelines for water reuse. EPA/625/R-92/004, September, Washington, D.C.
8. Marcucci M, Nosenzo G, Capannelli G, Ciabatti I, Corrieri D, et al. (2001) Treatment and reuse of textile effluents based on new ultrafiltration and other membrane technologies. Desalination 138: 75-82.
9.Tang C, Chen V (2002) Nanofiltration of textile wastewater for reuse. Desalination 143: 11-20.
10. Fersi C, Dhahbi M (2008) Treatment of textile plant effluent by ultrafiltration and/or nanofiltration for water reuse. Desalination 222: 263-271.
Zhu H, Wen X, Huang X (2012) Characterization of membrane fouling in a microfiltration ceramic membrane system treating secondary effluent. Desalination 284: 324-331.
GhandehariS, Montazer-Rahmati MM, Asghari M (2011) A comparison between semi-theoretical and empirical modeling of cross-flow microfiltration using ANN. Desalination 277: 348-355.
Rezaei H,Ashtiani FZ, Fouladitajar A (2011) Effects of operating parameters on fouling mechanism and membrane flux in cross-flow microfiltration of whey. Desalination 274: 262-271.
Van der Bruggen B, Cornelis G, Vandecasteele C, Devreese I (2005) Fouling of nanofiltration and ultrafiltration membranes applied for wastewater regeneration in the textile industry. Desalination 175: 111-119.
Tchobanoglous Garby J, Bourgeous K,McArdle J, Genest P, Tylla M (1998) Ultrafiltration as an advanced tertiary treatment process for municipal wastewater. Desalination 119: 315-322.
Kim YJ, Yun T, Lee S, Kim D, Kim J (2014) Accelerated testing for fouling of microfiltration membranes using model foulants. Desalination 343: 113-119.
WangZ, Cui Y, Wu W, Ji S, Yao J, et al. (2009) The convective model of flux prediction in a hollow-fiber module for a steady-state cross-flow microfiltration system. Desalination 238: 192-209.