Ethiopia has a various lakes and rivers with significant ecosystems’ services and biodiversity. Central Ethiopia rift valley lakes are the most common lakes that are found in central rift valley of Ethiopia. Lake Ziway, Abiyata, Shalla and Langano are the common central Ethiopia rift valley lakes. These lakes are seriously affected by different anthropogenic and natural factors. The major threats of central Ethiopia rift valley lakes are over population, overgrazing, industrialization and urbanization, deforestation, siltation, agricultural expansion, investment, pollution, climate change, land use and land cover change and others. The best opportunities to reduce this different threat of lakes are policy conviction, monitoring and evaluation, impact assessment, partnership, building capacity, creating awareness and improve upstream and downstream relations.
Keywords: Over exploitation Wetlands Fresh water, Pollution Siltation
Ethiopia has a number of lakes and rivers with significant ecosystem services. The Ethiopian rift valley is one of the Great East African rift valleys and also called the Afro-Arabian rift, which extends from Jordan in the Middle East, East Africa to Mozambique in Southern Africa and from Kenya border up to the red sea and divides the Ethiopian Highlands in to the Northern and Southern halve (Lemma H, 2016). The Ethiopian rift valley is created by volcanic and faulting activities that formed volcano tectonic depressions in the floor of the rift, which later becomes lakes .
The CER valley is well-known for its biodiversity. Even though the vegetation of the area is now extensively overgrazed, but it is characterized by Acacia open woodland, whereas deciduous forests occupy the ridges and slopes . Increased human activity has resulted in open vegetation which is floristically poor and uniform. Population pressure during the last three decades has resulted in the conversion of natural vegetation, overgrazing of natural grasslands, removal of natural shrub for firewood and clearing of forests for construction material (Lemma H, 2016). Due to land use change, susceptible sloping areas in the area face increased erosion and depletion of nutrients required for vegetative growth. Erosion and resulting sedimentation elsewhere can have an influence on the regional hydrology .
The Central Rift Valley (CRV) is one of the most environmentally vulnerable areas of Ethiopia. Most of the lowland in the CRV is arid or semiarid, and droughts occurfrequently. Approximately the area of Central Rift Valley (CRV) is a closed to 10,320km2 . The area consists of a chain of lakes, streams and wetlands with unique hydrological and ecological characteristics . Owing to the fragility of the environment and competing claims for land and water resources, the area has been experiencing serious environmental deterioration and socioeconomic challenges, a growing threat to the local community’s existence.
Over the last few decades, the rate and severity of the environmental degradation causes deterioration of resource use, unregulated population and climate change related stresses [6,7]. Increasing population pressure and economic developments put an increasing privilege on the valuable freshwater resources. Until recently, water from the lakes mainly supported agriculture and commercial fishery, domestic use, industrial soda extraction and recreation, while the lakes and surrounding wetlands supported a wide variety of endemic birds and wild animals. Surface water extraction for irrigation, industrial and domestic use is continuously increasing in the Central Ethiopia Rift valley lakes. Therefore, the overall objective of these review is to identify the major threats and opportunities of Central Ethiopia Rift Valley lakes.
Lake Ziway is one of the largest freshwaters Rift Valley
Lakes of the country with maximum depth of 9 m, whereas the
average depth is only 2.5m (Lemma H, 2016). The lake and its
watershed play a significant role in supporting the livelihoods
of the approximately 2 million people in the watershed  and
1.9 million livestock . The volume of the lake is approximately
1.1 billion m3 (ILRI, 2001). According to Jansen , the lake
delivers 7-8 million cubic meters (m3) of water per year for
domestic and livestock use as well as the municipality of Ziway
Town abstracting thousands of cubic meters of water per day
from lake for their household’s consumption. it is also a source
of water for open and closed farm irrigation. Water is freely
abstracted from the lake, with no use charge; because of all water
resources are the common property of the people and the state
. It is also a source of fish supply to huge market centers in
the country. A large number of people, both in cooperatives and
individually, depend on this lake for their livelihoods, including
women and children involved in processing and selling the fish.
According to Vuik , besides its economic and livelihood
values, the lake and its watershed support unique ecological and
Lake Ziway contains fresh water, which mainly originates
from the two inward rivers, being the Ketar River and Meki River,
and rainfall. Both rivers are perennial rivers. The lake shows a
slight reduction after the late 1980s, as a result of uncontrolled
water abstractions for small-scale irrigation schemes in the
upper reaches of the catchments, [13,14]. This lake is also
known mostly for its large size, fisheries and islands [15-17].
It is drained by the Bulbula River which enters Lake Abiyata.
Besides the thriving fisheries, the lake supplies water for the
town, irrigation for nearby floriculture farms.
The level of the lake is not controlled. As Wondowesen G et al.
 indicated, the surface area of lake Ziway is reduced by 0.63%
from its 1985’s size (Table 1). The annual fluctuation of the water
level of the lake was reported to be 0.8m, nevertheless larger
fluctuations, up to 2 meters, may infrequently occur (ILRI, 2001).
Current total surface water abstraction from the Ketar River and
Meki River is in the order of 28 million m3 per year, which is used
for irrigation (ILRI, 2001). Due to the sedimentation problem,
over irrigation and diversion of water from the two main feeder
rivers the lake’s water level has deteriorated over the past few
decades. However, after an adjustment made for the sediment
deposited in the lake using the bathymetric surveys of 1976
by Over Land Seas Development and 2005/2006 by Ministry
of Water Resources the annual water level of time series of the
Lake is decreasing.
Jackson R et al.  stated that, the change in temperature
and precipitation has a significant impact on the inflow volume
into the lake. The total average annual inflow volume into lake
ziway might decline which lead to the drop of the lake level up
to two third of a meter and shrink the water surface area up
to 25km2 . Therefore, in Lake Ziway Watershed, runoff is
likely to decrease in the future and be insufficient to meet future
demands for water of the ever-increasing population.
The major threat of the lakes are the natural factor and
anthropogenic factors. The natural causes including climate
change that could alter the ecosystem ending in undesirable
long-term effects. Anthropogenic causes are deforestation inthe upper watersheds, loss of Acacia woodlands, lake shore
farming and destruction of buffer zones. The existence of
land degradation in the watershed that induced large scale
sedimentation rate was reported by Legesse et al.  and Billi
et al. . The critical threats include siltation, water abstraction
as showed in (Figure 1), overfishing and release of pollutants
into the lake system [20,21].
According to Hayal D , The expansion of small-scale
farms and large-scale investment projects, mainly floriculture
industries and irrigation farms as indicated in (Figure 2),
and the subsequent intensive and unintended applications of
agrochemicals, untreated waste discharge, and poor watershed
management practices, etc. are deteriorating the water quality
of this lake. Moreover, recent development of public and private
works in the watershed are being abstracted water, free of any
charge, from the lake and its feeder rivers. The reduction of the
lake water level could also have resulted from siltation, due to
the decreased vegetation cover through deforestation in the
upper watershed. These activities are exploiting the lake, its
feeder rivers, and its watershed resources, seemingly beyond
their capacity, affecting both the water volume of the lake and its
fish production .
Concerning the major changes that have occurred in land use
and management in Lake Ziway watershed over the last 20 years,
the establishment and expansion of floriculture industries and
other investment projects which discharge different pollution to
the lakes (Figure 3), such as lodges; high population growth and
consequent expansion of settlements and cultivated lands at the
expense of other land use types, such as forestlands, woodlands,
etc.; high applications of agrochemical inputs (pesticides,
fertilizers, herbicides) to increase productivity; soil erosion;
and, unabated deforestation practices for fuel-wood, charcoal,
and farming .
Over-exploitation of wetland resources is now a major
threat in several wetland areas of Ethiopia. A good example of
over-exploitation is the fishery resource from Lake Ziway in the
Oromia Regional State . Excessive exploitation of resources
can also lead in some cases to a direct collapse of the wetland
itself. An excessive water withdrawal was believed to be a major
cause for the collapse of the lake even though siltation also has
played its part.
The maximum depth of the lake Abiyata is 13m, while the
average depth is 7.6m (Lemma H, 2016) and the volume of
the lake is approximately 750 million m3 (ILRI, 2001). Water
consumption for domestic use and smaller irrigation schemesalong the Bulbula river is unknown, but total extraction is about
59 million m3, which is about 38% of the mean annual Bulbula
river discharge recorded over the past 30 years (Legesse, et al.
2004). The annual water extraction for soda factory from lake
Abiyata lake through an artificial evaporation basin is estimated
at 2.25 million m3 (Legesse, et al. 2004) and 15 million m3 .
Since Lake Abiyata is fed mainly by excursions of the
upstream lakes of Ziway and Langano, and because of its
terminal position in the drainage area, and its shallow depth.
Lake Abiyata has more pronounced sensitivity to changes in the
basin and any diversion of feeder rivers for irrigation projects
along the Meki and Ketar Rivers and water abstracted directly
from Lake Ziway for irrigation and domestic consumption .
The level of Lake Abiyata is influenced strongly by its inlet
Lake Ziway, which transfers water through the Bulbula River.
The area of lake Abiyata is decreasing from time to time due
to different factors as indicated in (Figure 4). According to
Wondowesen G. et al. , the surface area of lake Abiyata is
reduced by 25.6% from its 1985’s size (Table 1). Tenalem A
 also reported that, the level of the lake has decreased after
1985, when water abstractions and land use changes increased
dramatically. Since the 1970’s the lake level has dropped about
5m . Such kind of drastic change in surface area of lakes
may have long lasting negative consequences. The reduction in
surface area of the lake Abiyata intertwined negative impact on
ecosystems, biodiversity and livelihood of the community. The
level of Lake Abiyata is influenced strongly by the input into
Lake Ziway, which transfers water through the Bulbula River.
However, the monthly gains of Lake Abiyata to storage are
insufficient and less than 5% in most dry months. There was a
considerable reduction in the volume of Lake Abiyata in 1985
and 1990, amounting to about 51% of its present volume .
In general, the level of Lake Abiyata fluctuates according to
the precipitation trends in the highlands. However, the recent
drastic decline in its level and the increase in salinity coincide
with the time of large-scale water abstraction. The current
and future uncontrolled water abstraction will have obvious
environmental repercussions, which are thought to bring serious
consequences to the lacustrine environment in the predictable
future. Changes in Lake Abiyata should be perceived jointly with
the abstraction of water for irrigation around Lake Ziway.
Water consumption for domestic use and smaller irrigation
schemes along the Bulbula river is unknown; but, Legesse et
al (2004) estimated total extraction at about 59 million m3,
which is about 38% of the mean annual Bulbula river discharge
recorded over the past 30 years. The direct pumping of water
from the Lake Abiyata for commercial exploitation of soda ashby evaporation of brine also impacts on lake levels . Annual
water use for soda extraction from Lake Abiyata through an
artificial evaporation basin is estimated at 2.25 million m3 
and 15 million m3 (ILRI, 2001). Currently, there is no fish and
fishery activity, which could be due to the declined water level of
the lake, high salinity and associated effects.
The declining of lake Abiyata by five meters over the last
three decades is due to a saline-alkaline type and inters of lake
level variability  and also found to be heavily impacted
by anthropogenic activities [14,26]. Its size, for instance, was
decreased by 25% over the last thirty years because the lake
water is under burden due to the production of Soda Ash using
solar evaporation of brines from the lake in (Figure 5) and
the maximum drop agrees with the time of large-scale water
However, the inter-annual fluctuations are controlled by
climate variability. According to Legesse et al. , this lake also
reacts more rapidly to an abrupt shift to wetter conditions than
to dry conditions. The production of Soda Ash has not taken
place for the last three years of the reporting time because of
the significant decline in the water level . The fluctuation of
Abiyata follows the same trend as Lake Ziway, with an average
time delay of about 20 days and Any abstraction of water in the
Ziway watershed results in a greater reduction in the level of
Abiyata than in Ziway .
A high percentage of its water comes from precipitation. Hora
Kello forms its only outlet flowing into Lake Abiyata. Its mean
depth is around 20 meters. The sandy beaches on the westernshores attract tourists in high numbers . Lake Langano
experienced only small seasonal water level variations of about
1 m, and lower inter-annual water level variations compared to
other lakes in the basin [14,30]. Lake-bed sedimentation is also
estimated to the magnitude of about 0.5 to 0.6cm/y, with 85%-
95% water content .
As Wondowesen G. et al.  indicated, the surface area of
lake Langano is reduced by 0.84% from its 1985’s size (Table
1). Such kind of drastic change in surface area of lakes may have
long lasting negative consequences. The reduction in surface
area of lake Langano intertwined negative impact on ecosystems,
biodiversity and livelihood of the community
The absence of considerable water abstraction and large
groundwater flow from springs are considered to be the factors
against its relative stability of lake level variability. The area in
general is located in a dry and water scarce zone. Tourism is a
high-profile industry at this lake and its effects are not clearly
known . Without a control system in place, increasing resorts
and growing numbers of tourists can have negative effects in the
long term .
Lake Shalla is an alkaline closed lake, located in the southern
part of ASLNP
(7030’N-38030’E) and has the lowest altitude, 1570m.a.s.l,
from the other three
lakes in the central Rift Valley . Lake Shalla is 3km south
of Lake Abiyata and they are separated by an elevated strip of
land, which is part of the old depression edge. Lake Shalla is a
deep saline depression lake with a surface area of 329km2 at an
altitude of 1570m a.s.l. It has a maximum depth of 266 meters
and a mean depth of 87 meters . Shalla has an independent
sub-basin of its own and drains a catchment of 3920km2. The
Park was established to protect biodiversity and large number
of very important birds which use Lake Abiyata as feedings
and Lake Shalla as nesting and breeding grounds. Shalla is an
important site for breeding colony of great white pelicans
(Figure 6) and wintering ground and maintenance station for
large number of birds including from Southern African, Sub-
Saharan and Palearctic species.
As Wondwossen G et al.  indicated Area of lake Shalla is
reduced by 1.48% from its area of 1985 (Table 1). Such kindof drastic change in surface area of lakes may have long lasting
negative consequences. The reduction in surface area of the lake
Shalla intertwined negative impact on ecosystems, biodiversity
and livelihood of the community. The Over all status central rift
valley lakes area is summarized in the following table 1.
A threat of lake Shalla is not well documented yet, because
the lake is completely protected, together with an area of
peripheral land, in the Abiyata-Shalla National Park and there
is the limited literature concerning Lake Shalla due to limited
interest in the lake water because of its alkaline nature .
ASLNP was submitted to the Ramsar Convention on wetlands as
an international important candidate wetland site. However, the
water level and surface area of the lake and the status of the park
are deteriorating may be due to human encroachment, grazing by
cattle, uncontrolled water abstraction and other anthropogenic
activities (Reaugh, 2011).
Tesfau B et al.  noted that, wetlands are being encroached
over time by the local community and other investment activities.
As indicated in (Figure 7), the major driving factors of wetland
loss are:- population growth which lead to farm land scarcity,
overgrazing due to shortage of grazing land and increase in the
number of heads of livestock, sedimentation due to soil erosion
from the catchment, direct drainage and conversion of wetlands
in to other land use types, lack of awareness, vegetation
clearance, and introduction of exotic species.
Long term draining interferes with the ecological recovery of
the wetland system and will fasten it drying up. In Afar regional
state, many areas of wetland have been lost during 1960’s due to
the increase of irrigation practice in the area . As a result, the
state has lost many of wetlands from the area.
Over grazing has contribute for the deterioration of central
rift valley of Ethiopia as observed in (Figure 8). Wetlands are
often a last destination for pastoralists during the dry season.
Over grazing is a threat when year-round grazing excludes
ecological recovery period of the wetland which implies loss of
biodiversity  Compaction of the wetland also have impact
on the infiltration capacity of the soil hence affecting the
hydrological system and balance of the wetland itself.
Over-exploitation of wetland resources is now a major
threat in several wetland areas of Ethiopia. A good example of
over-exploitation is the fishery resource from Lake Ziway .
Excessive exploitation of resources can also lead in some cases
to a direct collapse of the wetland itself. A good example for
this scenario is the collapse of Lake Abiyata. An excessive water
withdrawal was believed to be a major cause for the collapse of
the lake even though siltation also has played its part.
The accumulation of silt complete change in the ecosystem
biodiversity alteration, decreases in the water holding capacity
and in the worst case the collapse of the wetland itself (Figure
9). Introduction of nonnative plants to the wetland  removal
of buffering vegetation and upland forest degradation (Figure 8)
are the main causes for the loss of vegetation.
Mekonnen G & Yared W  indicated that, Pollutions, which
are originating from the point and non-point sources causes
degradation of wetlands; particularly fishes, macrophytes,
riparian vegetations, and other biodiversity that are found
in these ecosystems are suffering from these pollutions. The
pollution that discharge from Hotels and hospitals effluents,
garages, farms, which uses huge amount of pesticides, and
manufacturing industries are considered as point source
pollutant, whereas domestic wastes and agricultural fields
are non-point sources. These both point and non-point source
of pollution are negatively affecting the central rift valley
wetlands of Ethiopia which include Ziway, Shalla, Langano and
Abiyata lakes and wetlands in the Awash River basin due to
The other problem of rift valley lakes over fishing as showed
in (Figure10). Overfishing may result in the loss of some fish
species. On Lake Ziway, the ‘gancho’ net has caused the rapid
depletion of fish population which cause 70% of the fish
landed from the Rift Valley Lakes comes from Lake Ziway alone,
suggesting disproportionate fishing pressure .
The rift valley in Ethiopia is a hot spot for flower production
as specified in (Figure 11). Water availability and transport links
provide suitable conditions for this industry. One large company
Sher Ethiopia now occupies about 300 hectares in Ziway.
In many parts of the world, change of hydrological cycle,
temperature increase, and a sea level rise might contributed a
lot to the lake’s degradation . Similarly, some of the lakes in
Ethiopia are affected by natural hazards such as drought, over
flooding and seismic events. Wetland ecosystems are threatened
by the impacts of climate change. Globally, the impacts of climate
change on freshwater systems are expected to outweigh the
benefits. Climate change is increasing uncertainty in water
management and making it difficult to close the gap between
water demand and supply .
In Ethiopia Population growth rate remains high, and a large
number of people are living in poverty and their livelihoods
system depending on wetland resources . Un wisely use of
wetland resources for irrigation, domestic purposes, and over
grazing also adversely affect wetlands in many parts of the
country . Because there is no fair allocation of waters among
different users, no penalties for wastage of water, no regulations
and payment for water usage, and absence of organized water
users’ associations, the water use efficiency in most wetlands of
the country is very low, and the wetland ecosystems are used
unsustainably . The disruption of natural processes due to
urbanization, agricultural intensification, dam construction,
pollution, water transfer, and other factors the hydrological and
ecological systems of many wetlands have been lost in Ethiopia
. As Abebe et al.  stated that, lake Chamo, Shalla, Abaya,
Abiyata, Ziway and Tana are among the lakes, which are severely
threatened due to water abstraction for either industrial or
CRV Ethiopia is a home to many notable aquatic and terrestrial
ecosystems, but degradation of natural resources is definitely
intertwined and expressed. Generally, rapid population growth,
agricultural expansion, environmental fluctuations, degradation
of natural resource and loss of biodiversity are the most visible
socio-economic and environmental problem in the CRV area
and all these put pressures on the water bodies (mainly on
the four lakes, Ziway, Langano, Abiyata and Shalla). Landscapechange as a result of LULC and simultaneous landscape pattern
changes are ongoing phenomena in the CRV area. Eyasu E et al.
, over the last 30 years’ period (1985 to 2015), the major
LULC changes in CRV were: arable land expansion (small and
large-scale farming including irrigated agriculture), reduction of
natural vegetation and shrinkage of water resources in size and
depth significantly. However, lake Abiyata showed a progressive
decline by 25.9% resulting in severe degradation of the fragile
ecosystems that have sustained the unique biodiversity for long
and Consequently, the Abiyata-Shalla National Park is on the
threshold of collapse, the second incident of lake collapse in
the nation next to Lake Haramaya if a serious measurement is
not taken on time . These all may alter the nutrient levels,
water regime and other related processes and may damage both
aquatic and terrestrial biodiversity which reduce production
Almost all of lakes in Ethiopia are under a serious problem
and at the same time the efforts to restore the health and normal
functioning of lakes is insignificant. So, this section considers
ways in which to reverse existing damaging trends and to improve
the situation. Even though the cause of lakes degradation and
loss are multidimensional and complex which leads to various
unexpected cost to the societies and environment, the problems
usually receive less attention.
Moreover, due to the current socio-economic and political
status of the country, the issue of lakes of Ethiopia as general
and central rift valley lakes particularly should get priority
and become the agenda of the country to reverse the adverse
impact of lakes degradation. So, searching the means to reverse
the existing damaging and improve the condition of lakes is
important. Therefore, Multiple stakeholder analysis is very
important on how can minimize the extent of lakes degradation
and its consequences. In spite of the complication and complex
nature of the problems, there is no quick solution to compensate
the threats being faced to lakes. In spite of comprehensive study
is not yet done in Ethiopian lakes, there are studies done and
there recommending what and how is an opportunity to lakes
The capacity building and education programs can be
contributed to CERV lakes policies, legislation and regulation,
community empowerment, pollution control, initiatives related
to climate change, invasive alien species control, threatened
species conservation, and adaptive management of ecosystems
in response to a changing environment. Additionally, the value
and role of indigenous and traditional people knowledge should
not be left out when setting up awareness, advocacy and capacity
Integrated Watershed Management (IWM) and Adaptive
Management are important for central Ethiopia rift valley
lakes management. Implementing integrated management and
Adaptive management plans which cover every aspect of the
lakes and their relationships with their catchments as well as
giving required priority to lakes habitats conservation issue in
terms of impact assessment. Monitoring and evaluation used to
address the issue of lakes integrity and change in lakes quality.
The extent and causes of loss and degradation of lakes can be
determined and successful conservation measure is taken
through monitoring and evaluation programs. However, the
monitoring and evaluation could be carried out at different levels
of intensity, depending on available funding and/or technology
The most sound and important to reverse the threats of
lake ecosystem is cooperation between different stakeholders.
Some of the many stakeholders of Central Ethiopia rift valley
lakes are Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Water Resources,
Environmental Protection Authority, Biodiversity Institute,
Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization, Ethiopian
Environment and Forest Research Institute, higher institution,
Ethiopian Wildlife Conservation Organization, the Regional
States and international NGOs such as Horn of Africa, idh, ide
and other stakeholders who directly involve in lake conservation
activities. For instance, Walkite university and Arsi university
sign agreement to restore and protect the upper catchments
central Ethiopia rift valley lakes in order to reduce siltation and
sedimentation that affect the life span of the lakes. Multisectoral
interest is an opportunity to lake conservation if they were work
jointly. For example, experience has shown that seizing land
from the people and setting aside a conventional protected area
is not workable . Many advantages and synergies can be
achieved because of working in partnership with all concerned
Improve the relationship between upstream and
downstream in related to utilization of resources is very
important to reduce the threat of lakes. Establishing different
soil and water conservation activities on the upper catchment by
collaborating with the downstream community play a great role
to reduce the effect of siltation and insure the existence of lakes.
Disproportionate consumptive use or pollution of water by
upstream users may negatively influenced the downstream users
of their genuine use of the shared resource and consequently,
upstream users must recognize the legitimate demands ofdownstream users to share the available water resources in
order to reduce or manage the conflict between downstream
and upstream stakeholders . Therefore, any initiatives and
development plans should maintain the associations between
upstream and downstream users of water.
There are many formulated national and international
lakes conservation policy to insure the sustainable use of lake
ecosystem and maintain its biodiversity. Formulating policy
and sign different international agreement is not enough unless
implementing it very well. Encouraging political conviction
is another important opportunity to reduce the threats of the
central Ethiopia rift valley lakes of Ethiopia. politicizing the
issue of lake ecosystem may also play a great role to get required
attention from government to insure sustainable conservation.
Such a policy and political convections enable to cope up with
the various functions of lakes and guarantee into which lakes
are integrally managed. So, develop a National lakes Policy as
an integral part of Ethiopia’s Land Use Policy is very important
Ethiopia is gifted with numerous lakes which provide
different ecosystem service such as provisioning, supporting,
regulating and cultural services. Most of these lakes are situated
in central Ethiopia rift valley. The major known lakes of central
Ethiopia rift valley are lake Ziway, Abiyata, Langano and Shalla.
The major threats of central rift valley lakes are deforestation,
siltation, urbanization and industrialization, population growth,
over grazing, over fishing, investment, land use and land cover
change and climate change. The major opportunities to reduce
the loss of lake degradation in central rift Ethiopian rift valley
are capacity building, awareness creation, political conviction,
partnership, and etc.
Economic policies and strategies that diminution the
biodiversity and food security of local communities should
be avoided. The understanding of possible solutions to lake
degradation has to be reviewed encouraging effective local
strategies. Sound strategies and projects need to be designed
and implemented to rehabilitate degraded lakes. The amount
and type of agricultural chemicals used in the lake’s catchment
and leached into it has to be studied. Empowering local
communities to conserve and protect their lakes and finally, it
is useful to remain realistic about the feasibility of policy and
strategy, implementation and law enforcement.
The gap that has been identified during reviewing different
research articles on central Ethiopia rift valley lakes are
a) limited research work on lake Shalla and Langano
b) lack of research work on management techniques of
different threats because of most of the research done are
a kind of surveying the problem, cause and consequences of
c) there is the limitation of research work on ecosystem
service valuation of central rift valley of Ethiopia which is
very important input for policy recommendation
d) the impact of each threats on the storage capacity
of each central rift valley lakes are not well quantified
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