Solid Waste Management Practice and Level of Satisfaction from Related Services among Commercials and Institutions in Jigjiga City, Ethiopia
Tewodros Manyazewal* and Tesfaye Walelgn
Dire Dawa Environment and Forest Research Center, Ethiopian Environment and Forest Research Institute, Ethiopia
Submission: August 01, 2019; Published: August 20, 2019
*Corresponding author: Tewodros Manyazewal, Dire Dawa Environment and Forest Research Center, Ethiopian Environment and Forest Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
How to cite this article: Tewodros Manyazewal, Tesfaye Walelgn. Solid Waste Management Practice and Level of Satisfaction from Related Services among Commercials and Institutions in Jigjiga City, Ethiopia. Int J Environ Sci Nat Res. 2019; 21(2): 556057. DOI:10.19080/IJESNR.2019.20.556057
Emerging cities of Ethiopia are characterized by rapid population growth caused by high fertility and migration from rural areas. Rapid growth of cities is mostly accompanied by a fast growth in commercial centers and institutions which contributes high volume of solid waste. The aim of this study was to assess practice of solid waste management and satisfaction level regarding solid waste collection service. A Cross sectional quantitative study was used and stratified random sampling with systematic random sampling technique was employed. Sample size was determined using a population proportion and assumption of 20% of total waste generation from commercials and institutions. Structured questionnaire was used to collect the data from 76 sampled commercials and institutions. The result showed that only 35.5% of commercial centers and institutions were engaged in solid waste separation. Major items separated for sale or exchange were glass, bottles and cans (56.7%) followed by plastics (23.1%). All 76 institutions and commercials had access to door to door waste collection service from small and micro enterprises. Among those with access 80% were satisfied with the service. Factors contributed for the satisfaction level of customers was determined using binary logistic regression. Location of commercial centers and institutions, number of people served per day and frequency of cleaning were identified as major contributors. This study revealed the current practice of solid waste management among commercials and institutions, and available services for waste collection. Thus, it can be an input to improve the service and for other studies in similar towns..
Municipal solid waste is defined as discarded items from households, including bulky waste, waste from commerce and trade, office buildings, institutions and small businesses, yard and garden, street sweepings, contents of litter containers, and market cleansing [1-3].
Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is a complex issue which requires a large sum of money, manpower and materials. The issue is more prominent in developing countries with rapid change in lifestyle, urbanization, and under-estimated contributors and stakeholders. In addition, the uncontrolled disposal of solid waste created a nuisance and contamination of water and soil. The limited knowledge and awareness regarding contamination, waste reduction techniques and other solid waste management aspects magnified the problem in developing countries [4-6].
Solid waste in Africa is basically generated from agricultural and domestic activities, marketplaces, institutions, public areas and manufacturing industries . Generators dispose their waste without considering the public health and environmental
impacts; thereby, aggravating the problem in most cities [8-10]. Rapid population growth in a rapidly developing city produces huge amount of waste which needs good infrastructure, institutional setup and community engagement [11,12].
Commercial centers and institutions are major contributors of waste generation in rapidly growing cities. Different types of activities produce a variety of waste items in commercial centers and institutions. Despite their smaller number, the amount of waste generated in a single commercial center or institute per day is larger compared to per household generation [7,12].
As most of developing countries, waste management is a concern in many cities of Ethiopia. Throwing solid waste along the boundaries of roads and in open areas is an issue [11,13]. Lack of sufficient data on community’s solid waste management practice and solid waste collection services makes it difficult to identify and implement appropriate actions [12,14].
Commercial centers and institutes are among the front runners in generating large amount of waste in Ethiopia. The practice of uncontrolled waste disposal along the roadsides, near their working area and in sewer lines are commonly observed
issues among commercial and institutions [9,15].
This study focused in one of the major commercial cities
of the country. The study was conducted to assess existing
municipal solid waste management practices and level of
satisfaction regarding solid waste collection services among
institutions and commercials in Jigjiga city, eastern Ethiopia.
The aim of the study was to identify current practices by the
commercials and institutions and the service delivered by micro
and small enterprises and the municipality.
A quantitative descriptive cross-sectional study design was
applied to assess the practice of solid waste management and
level of satisfaction regarding solid waste collection service
among commercial and institutional waste generators.
All commercials and institutions in the city were the source
population from which the required sample size was drawn. The
study population was all commercials and institutions selected
through the sampling technique used. The study units were
individuals available at the time of data collection.
The sample size of the institutions and commercials
included in the study was calculated using a single population
proportion. The assumption used to estimate the sample
was through considering households and institutions waste
generation contribution. Literatures indicate 80% of the waste
came from households and the rest 20% came from commercials
and institutions. Therefore, the initial step was to calculate the
household sample size. Then we have calculated 20% and took it
as the required commercials and institutions sample size.
Where n= sample size
α /2 = confidence limit
Zα/2= confidence level= (95% confidence)
d= margin error=0.05
p =population prevalence q= 1-P
Although the total households in the included strata were
below 10,000, we have used 384 as the final sample size to
increase the likelihood of increasing representative commercials
and institutions. Thus, we have taken the final sample size for
commercial and institutions as 20% of the total households
(384). The sample size of commercials and institutions =
384*20% = 76.
For selection of representative samples, first the town was
divided in to two distinct strata as center of the city (close to
the center) and periphery (part of the city away from the city)
based on their geographical location, population density and
availability of different infrastructures. All institutions and
commercial centers within a radius of 1.5 kilometer from the
center of the city (as marked by the city administration) were
included in strata 1 (center of the city) and the rest were
considered as strata 2 (periphery of the city). A total of 1153
registered commercials and institutions were found in both
strata. Among these, 728 were found in strata 1(at the center
of the city) and 425 of them found in strata 2 (periphery of the
The calculated sample size was distributed to each
stratum using proportional allocation based on the number of
commercials and institutions in each stratum as indicated below.
For strata 1= 76*(728/1153) = 48
For strata 2= 76*(425/1153) = 28
The commercials and institutions included in this study
were selected by systematic random sampling method using the
list of registered commercials and institutions in each stratum.
We have determined the sampling interval (K) by dividing the
number of commercials and institutions in the stratum by the
desired sample size. Thus, for each stratum the K value was 15.
Therefore, commercials and institutions at the 15th interval in
the sampling frame were taken as study population.
The data was collected using a structured questionnaire
through face to face interview. The questionnaire was prepared
in English and translated to three local languages (Amharic,
Oromiffa, and Somali). Owner, manager or representative of
the commercial or the institute was interviewed. Pre-test was
conducted in 24 commercials and institutions at Harar city,
The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the
Social Science (SPSS) software version 20.0. The results are
presented in the form of frequencies and percentages. Binary
logistic regression was used to identify factors which determine level of satisfaction regarding solid waste collection service
by micro and small enterprises. The level of satisfaction was
dichotomized as satisfied and unsatisfied to perform the binary
regression. For all statistical significance tests, the cut of value
set was p<0.05 as this is considered statistically reliable for
analysis of this study.
The respondents were asked about frequency of cleaning
their institutions and commercial centers. From the total
respondents 74 (97.4%) of them claimed to clean their institute
or commercial center every day; while the rest two were
cleaning between two to three days interval. Once they cleaned,
31(40.8%) of them used metal containers for onsite solid waste
storage. The other 23(30.3%), 15(19.7%) and 6(7.9%) of the
respondents used plastic container, sack and basket storage
materials respectively. The findings in this study were similar
with another study in Gonder . The preference of materials for
onsite solid waste storage is mainly based on the characteristics
of solid waste, collection equipment, generators financial power,
collection frequency, and space for storage materials .
Thus, the results in this study reflected the diversity of waste
generators. Frequent waste generators may use easily available
and cheap storage materials like plastic containers, while offices
and stationaries may use more of permanent waste collection
materials than disposable items such as plastics.
Onsite solid waste separation practice of respondents was
also assessed. It showed that, only 27 (35.5%) of them separate
items which are salable or exchangeable in the local market.
The majority or 49(65.5%) didn’t separate solid waste at all.
Although, 27(35.5%) of the respondents practiced solid waste
separation, only four of them, sort the waste regardless of salable
and exchangeable items in the waste stream. The rest 23 of them
never performed waste separation, if items were not valuable for
sale or exchange. The major items separated for sale or exchange
were glass, bottles and cans (56.7%) followed by plastics
(23.1%). The rest items including metals, textiles and electronic
wastes account 20.2%. The waste types identified were similar
with another study at Dessie . This can explain the similarity
in the type of waste generated from commercials and institutions
in the other part of the country. The smaller percentage of waste
separation practice maybe due to lack of market for recyclable
items or poor institutional organization in the solid waste sector
. According to a study , the absence of a clear organized
approach and mechanism of solid waste separation at household level makes solid waste separation tough for waste reduction
through recycling and disposing it safely.
The municipality and micro and small enterprises (MSE)
were the formal solid waste collection service providers for
the institutions/commercials of Jigjiga city. In addition, some
respondents used to get service from informal solid waste
collectors. All the institutions/commercials had access to
door to door waste collection service from small and micro
enterprises (MSE. In addition, 93.4% and 5.3% of them have
additional service access from the municipality and informal
waste collectors respectively. Regarding frequency of the service
from the municipality, 30(42.3%) of the respondents had access
to collection within 8-15 days and 27(38%) of them had between
4-7days. The rest 7(9.9%), 4 (5.6%) and 3(4.2%) got service
within 1-3 days, 3-4 weeks and above a month respectively.
Similarly, the service delivery frequency from MSE were also
within 8-15days 30(39.5%) and 4-7days 25(32.9%). The
remaining 14(18.4%), 4 (5.3%) and 3(3.9%) had access within
1-3 days, 3-4 weeks and above a month respectively. The results
indicated that, in average majority of commercials/institutions
should have to wait four days to two weeks for waste collection
service. Major urban centers in Africa have shown that the
problem of waste management has become serious issue due to
inefficient collection of the generated solid wastes . Despite
the huge sum of money spent, most collection activities are a
failure. Viewing waste collection as a one-size-fits-all situation
without considering local factors is a main reason for the failure.
In the current study, this was exhibited as similar collection
service by the MSEs was provided without considering the
difference among the commercials and institutions.
The payment per month for door to door solid waste
collection service from municipality and small and micro
enterprises (MSE) was also investigated. The maximum fee
claimed to be paid by 9(11.8%) of the respondents was 250 ETB
(equivalent to 10.87 USD during the time of data collection). The
majority, 31(40.8%) paid 100 ETB; while 17(22.4%) paid 150
and another 17(22.4%) paid 200 ETB. The minimum payment
was 50 ETB (2.6%). On the other hand, institutes/commercials
that used informal sectors, 4 (5.3%) paid 40 ETB or 50 ETB
per month depending on the volume of the solid waste to be
disposed. The payment for solid waste disposal was more or less
similar with the study at Gonder  and somehow greater than
the price paid by households at Mekele city . This can be
due to large volume of waste from commercials and institutions
compared to households.
The level of satisfaction regarding solid waste collection
service was assessed and presented in Figure 1. Among the
respondents who had access from small and micro enterprise
and municipality respectively, 73.7% and 63% of them said
the service was satisfactory. The other 20% said they were
unsatisfied with the service delivery from the municipality and
9.2 % were unsatisfied by the service provision from micro
and small enterprises. Delayed collection frequency (10) and
poor service quality (6) were mentioned as major reasons of
dissatisfaction. Among those who were unsatisfied with the
service, 11 of them were forced to use illegal dumping. A similar
study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia also revealed dissatisfaction
in solid waste collection services due to delayed collection
frequency and poor service quality . All waste generators
don’t generate equal amount of waste per day. Thus, identifying
large volume generators and providing collection service in a
daily basis may solve the issue of dissatisfaction.
Respondents have also given their suggestion in order to
overcome the constraints and to improve the service. Organized
monitoring and control of MSEs (4) and community participation,
and awareness (12) were mentioned as appropriate solutions.
In relation with it, they were inquired about an access
to information regarding solid waste management. Majority
of respondents (92.1%) obtained training, education or
information about solid waste management, impact of illegal
solid waste dumping and related consequences. Among these
respondents; solid waste management campaign (43.4%) and
open seminars (31.6%) were chosen as favorable methods
to gain additional information. Exhibitions presenting good
practices in solid waste management and recycling activities
were also mentioned (11.8%) as favorable approaches to deliver
information. The opinions of the respondents exhibited the
importance of a continuous effort to create awareness regarding
solid waste management as mentioned in previous studies as
Under access to information, the respondents were asked
if they know the rules and regulations related to solid waste
management. About 88.2% of them didn’t know the city’s rules
and regulations related with solid waste management. Lack of
communication between the municipality and citizens does not
motivate residents to handle waste properly and to keep rule
and regulations of the town. To answer level of communication,
the respondents were asked whether they ever seen the
solid waste management department of the city perform
supervision and control on illegal dumping of solid wastes.
About 72(94.7%) of the respondents observed supervision
activities but suggested for a frequent supervision and control.
This study showed similarity with the findings in some cities
of Ethiopia . Therefore, suggestions/recommendations of
respondents should be considered in order to improve solid
waste management services.
We have performed a binary logistic regression to determine
the effects of location, frequency of cleaning, separation of
items for sale and exchange, and number of people served per
day on the likelihood that commercial centers and institutions
satisfaction regarding solid waste collection service by MSE. The
logistic regression model was statistically significant, χ2 (6) =
23.2, p < .001. The model also explained 51.2% (Nagelkerke R2)
of the variance in level of satisfaction and correctly classified
89.3% of cases. Commercials and institutions which located
further away from the center of the city were 1.4 times less
likely to be satisfied with the service compared to those located
around the center of the city. Commercials and institutions
serving more than 200 customers per day showed an increased
likelihood of dissatisfaction with the odds of 1.3 times than
those serving below 200 customers. Frequency of cleaning and
separation practice of items for sale and exchange were also
associated with level of service satisfaction. Commercials and
institutions located at the periphery had less access to solid
waste collection. This may be due to the availability of higher
number of institutions and commercials around the center of the
city which shifted the attention of micro and small enterprises
to focus in these parts of the city compared to the periphery. In
similar way, serving higher number of customers may lead to the
generation of larger volume of waste in these areas. This is more
visible in commercial centers such as hotels, restaurants and
The study has identified the problems related to solid
waste management practice among commercial centers and
institutions. The low level of solid waste separation practice
was one of the major issues found in this study. The availability
of items for sale or exchange in the solid waste stream was
mentioned as major reason to perform onsite solid waste
separation. Therefore, creating a market which demands
recyclable items can promote separation of waste among the
commercials and institutions. Despite the availability of solid
waste collection service, there was a difference in the level of
satisfaction among commercial centers and institutions. The
findings showed location, number of people served per day
and frequency of cleaning were the factors which determined
the level of satisfaction regarding solid collection service.
Thus, the distribution and frequency of collection by micro and
small enterprises should be based on these factors rather than
random distribution. Low level of access to information and
rules and regulations regarding solid waste management among
respondents created a gap in solid waste management practice.
Therefore, conducting solid waste management campaigns,
open seminars and exhibitions can be solutions. In general, a
holistic approach must be adopted to achieve a meaningful and
lasting solution. Hence, the municipality should work together
with commercial centers, institutions, informal waste collectors
and micro and small enterprises for an effective solid waste
The authors would like to extend their sincere gratitude
to Ethiopian Environment and Forest Research Institute for
allocation of all financial support for the study. We are also
thankful for Jigjiga city administration Mr Abdurazak, Head of
Sanitation and Beautification Agency of the city, and all staffs for
their unlimited assistance during data collection.
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