Estimation and Comparison of Hydro-
Alcoholic and Water Extract for Sun Protection
Factor Activity from Naturally Available Resources
Shreya Naresh Naik* and Shuchi Desai
Department of Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance, Rofel Shri G M Bilakhia college of Pharmacy, India
Submission: July 29, 2019; Published: August 13, 2019
*Corresponding author: Shreya Naresh Naik, Department of Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance, Rofel Shri G M Bilakhia College of Pharmacy, India
How to cite this article: Shreya Naresh Naik, Shuchi Desai. Estimation and Comparison of Hydro-Alcoholic and Water Extract for Sun Protection Factor Activity from Naturally Available Resources. Int J Environ Sci Nat Res. 2019; 21(1): 556052. DOI:10.19080/IJESNR.2019.21.556052
Expose to sunlight causes various biological responses ranging from sun-burn, erythema to skin cancer. Synthetic sunscreen formulations are readily available in market but are expensive and includes a wide range of adverse effects. Therefore, formulation of the herbal sunscreen formulation and evaluation of its sun protection activity is an important aspect in the cosmetic industry. There are various naturally available herbal agents which contain significant sunscreen properties which may be useful for formulating herbal sunscreen creams and lotions. So, evaluation of its sun protection activity is an important aspect in the cosmetic industry. The comparative values of the calculated SPF of eleven natural resources were evaluated using mansur equation. Hydroalcoholic and water herbal extraction was carried out and absorbances were recorded between 290-320nm using UV-VIS spectrophotometer. It was observed that all the tested herbal extracts showed some uv protection capabilities with water and hydroalcoholic extract. Hydroalcoholic extract of mulberry showed highest spf i.e. 203.03 while tomatoe extract showed lowest spf i.e. 6.43. Water extract of mulberry showed highest spf i.e. 183.19 while kiwi extract showed lowest spf i.e. 8.08. Thus, natural resources extract can be formulated in the form of cosmetics formulation because of their better activity, acceptability, less irritant nature and these are less expensive, easily available.
Keywords: Sun protection factor (SPF); Mansur equation; Hydro alcoholic extract; Water extract
Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is divided into three categories: UV-C(200-280nm), UV-B(280-320nm), UV-A(320-400nm). UV-C radiation is filtered by the atmosphere before reaching the earth. UV-B radiation is not completely filtered by the ozone layer and is one of reason for sunburn. UV-A reaches to our deeper layer of epidermis and dermis and provokes the prematuration of skin. So, to protect dermis and epidermis from UV-A radiation different sunscreen are employed. Sunscreen preparation can be used for protection from both UV-A and UV-B radiations. Mainly two factors are responsible for protection of skin.
a) thickness of stratum corneum
b) pigmentation of the skin.
The thickening of the stratum corneum occurs due to effect of solar irradiation by increasing mitotic rate of epidermal cells and thus making it more permeable to passage of erythemogenic radiation. Increase in melanin content of epidermis also increases protection of skin. UV radiation causes excess formation of melanin which migrates upwards towards stratum corneum and skin
surface increases and thus increases the resistance. The efficacy of
a sunscreen is described by the sun protection factor (SPF). SPF is defined as the UV energy required to produce a minimal erythema dose (MED) in protected skin divided by the UV energy required to produce same med in unprotected skin. The med is defined as the lowest time interval or dosage of UV light radiation sufficient to produce a minimal, acceptable erythema on unprotected skin.
a) A protective layer can be formed on skin that prevent the
UV rays to reach the skin either by absorbing or by reflecting
them. Zinc oxide and titanium dioxide both have such property.
But this preparation has disadvantages of eliminating the
beneficial rays along with the harmful ones.
b) To incorporate substances in preparations to filter
the sun rays by absorbing medium range UV rays (280nm-
320nm) but allowing rays of higher wavelength to pass. All
modern suntan preparations are based on this principle and
contains such substances.
c) Biologically effective substances can be used effectively
to prevent symptoms of inflammation without reduction of
tanning. Because the damage of cells by sunburn liberates
histamine in tissue.
d) Substances that cause or accelerate tanning of skin can
be applied. Dioxyacetone causes tanning by forming a brown
complex with keration of corneal layer.
The higher is SPF, the more effective the product is in
preventing sunburn. So, it is necessary to determine SPF value of
the products used for preventing sunscreen. SPF on package can
range from as low as 2 to as high as 100. These number refers to
ability of product to screen or block out the sun burning rays. If the
product refer as SPF15 means that 1/15th of the burning radiation
reach the skin through the recommended thickness of sunscreen.
SPF can be determined by in vivo or in vitro methods, but the
in-vivo method is expensive and introduces the ethical testing on
humans and animal. So, mostly the in- vitro method that is rapid,
cost effective is used. In-vitro testing can be used as formulation
tool to identify new filters, optimize combination of old one and
new sunscreen formulas prior to in-vivo testing in humans.
a) Tomatoe: The red tomato helps protect the skin from
sunburn and skin ageing caused by sunlight exposure.
Lycopene also helps increase the collagen in the skin, keeping
it more elastic and preventing sagging lycopene also helps
increase the collagen in the skin, keeping it more elastic
and preventing sagging. Protects skin antioxidant system
((glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase
and superoxide dismutase activities), prevention of UV-B
radiation-induced liposome peroxidation SPF.
b) Kiwi: Kiwi are packed with more vitamin c which is
thought to smooth out wrinkles caused from the sun by
promoting the production of collagen than any other fruit.
Reduces DNA damage and erythema formation due to
protection of DNA repair enzymes from inactivation by ROS.
c) Orange: Orange contains highest amount of vitamin c
which in turns help skin to protect from UV rays. Protects skin
via transcriptional mechanisms of nf-κb and mapk signaling
d) Mulberry: Mulberry helps to prevent oxidative stress
due to UV radiation which causes mutagenicity and wrinkling
of skin. Mulberry are highest source of vitamin c.
e) Broccoli: Broccoli reduces the skin redness and
inflammation caused by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation.
Protects skin’s antioxidant systems (glutathione peroxidase,
glutathione reductase, catalase and superoxide dismutase
f) Flax Seed: Flaxseed oil in particular, can protect your
skin against UV rays and keep your skin moisturized so it
won’t dry out.
g) Mangoe: Yellow foods contain beta-carotene, an
antioxidant that may help prevent sunburn. Inhibits solar
radiation induced p53 powerful antioxidant enhancer.
h) Aloe Vera: Aloe Vera is touted as the “burn plant,” the
perfect natural remedy for a bad sunburn. A compound in
aloe called aloin is found to be responsible for the plant’s antiinflammatory
benefits. Aloe Vera can also help to moisturize
the skin and prevent the peeling that sometimes happens with
i) Pomegranate: Inhibits the adverse effects of UV-B
exposure including translocation of transcription factors nf-kb
and ap-1, over expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine il-
8, cleavage of procaspase-3 (a key step in apoptotic pathway),
and DNA fragmentation
j) Honey: Honey can be a sweet relief to a sunburn due to
its antibacterial properties.
k) Beetroot: Beetroot are greatest source of vitamin c
which helps in prevention against sunburn.
l) Ginger: Ginger contains anti-inflammatory properties
which will help in reducing redness and swelling. Thus, help
in sunburn. Scavenge ROS, by interrupting the activation of
protein kinase-c. Enhance glutathione content and gst activity.
Inhibit lipid peroxidation and arachidonic acid. Inhibit
ornithin decarboxylase (ODC) activity.
There are different methods used to determine and evaluate
the efficiency of sunscreen by its SPF (sun protection factor). We
know higher is SPF, more efficient is sunscreen and more will be
protection against UV-A and UV-B radiations.
The methods are:
Spectrophotometric evaluation: This is basically to evaluate
the UV radiation absorption ability of the sunscreen compounds.
Using a UV-Spectrophotometer and taking specific concentration of the substance on the preparation, molar extinction coefficient
or absorbency can be determined and compared with any other
Erythemal dosage: It is important to estimate the
erythemally effective radiation or e-vitons/cm2, transmitted by a
suntan preparation. The erythemal energy is the product of the
solar energy transmitted through the film of suntan preparation
and the effectiveness factor at that wavelength.
Sunscreen index: This is evaluation of the relative screening
activity of the sunscreen compounds. This is measurement of
extinction coefficient at 308μm wavelength and comparison with
other. 308μm is the peak wavelength for effective sunburn.
In-vivo skin testing: This is a direct test on animal skin,
particularly rabbit, the site normally used is either backside or
abdomen as these sites have maximum sensitivity. Preparations
are applied on a site for a specified period of time. The effects are
In-vitro method: There are two in-vitro methods:
a) method which involve the measurement of absorption or
the transmission of UV radiation through sunscreen product
film in quartz plates or biomembranes.
b) method in which absorption characteristics of the
sunscreen agents are determine based on spectrophotometric
analysis of dilute solutions which is known as mansur equation
Mansur developed a very simple mathematical equation
which calculates and provide SPF value of wide range from 290-
320nm. Here, the test substances are prepared and subjected for
photo protective activity study by UV-Spectrophotometer in the
range of 290-320nm.
Where, CF= correction factor (10), EE(λ)= erythmogenic
effect of radiation with wavelength λ, abs(λ)= spectrophotometric
absorbance value at wavelength λ.
10 gram of sample is weighed in 150ml beaker followed
by solvent addition of (100ml of distilled water) and is kept
overnight for extraction. After extraction, it is filtered out using
whatman filter paper. The filtrate is then centrifuge at 2000rpm
for 20min. The obtained clear solution is diluted upto methanol
and examined for its absorbance using UV-Spectrophotometer.
10 gram of sample is weighed in 150ml beaker followed
by solvent mixture addition (60ml of distilled water + 40ml of
methanol) and is kept overnight for extraction. After extraction, it is filtered out using whatman filter paper. The filtrate is then
centrifuge at 2000rpm for 20min. The obtained clear solution is
diluted upto methanol and examined for its absorbance using UVSpectrophotometer.
There is lack of awareness about chemical toxic agent used
in sunscreen which causes skin cancer. This has lead to increase
demand of effective protection against sunburn without any
adverse effect. Thus, in above work some natural available
resources (ginger, tomatoe, aloevera, promegranate, mangoe, kiwi,
beet, broccoli, flax seed, orange, honey, mulberry) are checked and
tested for SPF (activity of protection).
Among all samples extracted and tested it was found that
there was effect of solvent on extraction. As we can see in Table
5 & 6, that the lowest SPF in water extract was found in kiwi but
lowest SPF for hydroalcoholic extract was found in tomatoe.
But for highest SPF for both extract it was mulberry. Because
mulberry is highly rich in vitamin c, they also help in good blood
circulation that makes skin more shine. Mulberry also helps
to prevent oxidative stress due to UV radiation which causes
mutagenicity and wrinkling of skin.
We can also see the effect of solvent extraction in the series
of sample positioned as show in Figure 1 & 2. This is due to some
constituents may be very soluble in water rather than hydroalcoholic
and some constituents may have very less solubility in
water and vice versa [1-23].
We can know there are some sunscreen commercially available
in market with some natural sources but above all samples do not
have any formulation supporting sunscreen preparations. So, it is
a great concern for cosmetic industry to use natural source and
invent new formulation with higher efficiency.
Our results showed that mulberry have highest SPF in both
water and hydro alcoholic extract. So, a new formulation of mulberry for sun protection will show great activity, acceptability,
safety and efficacy.