Assessment of Ambient Air Quality Status of Industrial Complex, Balasore City, Orissa
Gitarani panda1, Trinath Biswal*2 and Rahas Bihari Panda2
1department of Environmental Science, Fakir Mohan University, India
2Department of Chemistry, VSS University of Technology, India
Submission: April 18, 2018; Published: April 26, 2018
*Corresponding author: Trinath Biswal, Department of Chemistry, VSS University of Technology, Burla, Odisha, India, Tel: x002B;91 9439363041; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
How to cite this article: Gitarani p, Trinath B, Rahas B P. Assessment of Ambient Air Quality Status of Industrial Complex, Balasore City, Orissa. Int J Environ Sci Nat Res. 2018; 10(3): 555789. DOI: 10.19080/IJESNR.2018.10.555789
The district Balasore holds a key place in Odisha's economic arena. Ambient air quality with respect to SPM, SO2 and NO2 are monitored in different areas of industrial zone of Balasore. The parameters were monitored during 2012 and 2015in three different seasons except rainy season and concentrations of these gaseous pollutants were analyzed. Maximum, minimum, values along with standard deviations and mean deviation were calculated for the monitoring parameters for each station and the results were discussed in the present study. In most of cases it was observed that the SPM concentration was higher than the permissible limits of AAQ standard and SO2 and NO2 concentrations were found to be an alarming state. In the post monsoon and summer season the concentrations were lower than winter season. The data indicates how concentrations were increasing day by day. The data revels that Balasore city is under the alarm state of air pollution. Mostly various industrial activities as well as vehicular pollution causes increasing air pollution in Balasore town. The present study will help for a better environmental management practice to control air pollution load in the city of Balasore.
Keywords: SPM; SO2; NO2; AAQ: Ambient Air Quality Standard
Now a day the ambient air quality is gradually detoriated due to growing population and increasing urbanization. Air pollution is an increasing problem that affecting the health of human beings and animals causing damage to vegetation and materials. This needs to be the proper control technology to minimize air pollutant concentrations, so that they are within the threshold limit and pose no threat to human health [1,2]. A World Bank report (May1992) has warned that as many as many city dwellers in developing countries will be exposed to unhealthy and dangerous levels of air pollution by the end of the century. Air pollution is posing disastrous health problems in some of the biggest cities of the world and has now become an inescapable part of urban life everywhere [3,4]. Due to the complicity of the industry and manmade activities a lot of pollution is being generated in the township areas and is increasing day by day with the density of township . In urban areas with the constant increase in high grade highway mileage and the significant improvement in production technology of the high speed diesel engine and increasing need for heavy duty trucks for transportation, the number of diesels vehicles is increasing which resulted the increase in smoke emission to vehicular pollution in township areas. Here the present study was proposed to estimate the air pollution load in term of SPM, oxides of Sulphur and oxides of nitrogen at different stages inside the Balasore town which are heavily crowded and one of the major city in Odisha [6,7].
The area selected for the study is Balasore city which is situated in the state of Orissa in eastern part of India. Balasore is one of the coastal district of Orissa lies on the northern part of the state. The region is bounded by latitude 21a32x2019;30x201D;N and longitude 8a49x2019;37x201D;E. Balasore city started industrialization after 1980 and the rapid industrialization is due to the easy availability of land, communication, manpower, water and moreover very nearer to Kolkata city which is one of the major business center of India. The town is divided into four industrial sectors such as Balgopalpur, Ganeshwarpur, Chhanpur and Somanathpur. Some major industries like ISPAT Alloys, Oriplast, Emami paper mill, Gas bottling plant etc. are growing in the industrial estate along with the number of medium and small scale industries. The study area experiences moderate type of monsoon climate. Rainfall is observed between June to September. Normal rainfall was reported to be 1500mm; the relative humidity is 55x0025; during June Table 1: Location of monitoring stations.to September, 28x0025; in October to March and 20x0025; during April to May. The highest temperature in the summer season is 45x00B0;C and lowest temperature is 15x00B0;C in the month of January. The soil quality of Balasore is reported as transported alluvial soil. The soil is highly suitable for paddy cultivation. Hence the main crop of the area is paddy (Table 1).
Air quality monitoring stations were selected keeping in view, point source of pollution generation and dominant wind direction prevailing in the area [8,9]. Monitoring is carried out to study the existing air quality status from selected monitoring stations. Continuous monitoring of SPM, SO2 and NO2 is done for a period of one month in three seasons (summer, monsoon and winter) in the year 2012 and 2015. During each season monitoring is carried out for 4 weeks at the rate of 24 hours per samples, twice in a week in the three seasons of the study period . For monitoring of ambient air quality High Volume Air Sampler APM-460 (Enviro tech make) has been used. GF/4 glass micro filter paper has been used for monitoring of SPM (suspended particulate matter). The SO2, NO2 has been monitored through high volume air sampler, attached with gas sampler [10,11]. The SO2 pollutant has been monitored through sodium- tetrachloromercurate and analyzed Results by adopting West Gaeke spectrophotometric method. Similarly, NO2 has been monitored through Sodium Arsenate solution as absorbent and analyzed by spectrometers by using phosphoric acid sulphamlamide, hydrogen peroxide and NEDA (1-nephtyl ethylene diamine dihydro-chloride) through spectrophotometer [12,13].
Standard methods are used for analysis of pollutants. The collected data were compared with the CPCB ambient air quality standard . The data identified and quantified the various pollutants present in the atmosphere in Balasore city. The results were compared by calculating maximum, minimum and standard deviation. Assessment of the result of SPM, SO2 and NO2 will explain the extent of pollution at Balasore city, which will enable us for thinking for alternative air pollution control strategies or pollution control measurement for a sustainable city [14,15].
Three season's data were collected and analyzed in two different years (Tables 2-7). It shows the analytical data for SPM, SO2 and NO2 concentrations which ultimately provide the status of air pollution, observed during the year. The data for three seasons revealed that SPM concentration at almost all the monitoring stations exceeds the permissible limit specified by central pollution control board (CPCB) during winter, summer and post monsoon season . The results of different monitoring station are discussed as follows. In the year of 2012 the concentrations of SPM have been tabulated in Tables 2-4. The maximum, minimum and mean value exceeds the permissible limits in summer and winter season but in case of post monsoon the concentration is below the CPCB standards. But in the year of 2015 the concentrations of SPM have been tabulated in Table 5-7. The minimum, maximum and mean values exceed the CPCB standards in all the three seasons. The data indicates that the concentration of SPM is increasing in rapid manner in Balasore. The particulate pollution is high in Balasore industrial complex as well as residential zones. The concentration is high mostly due to industrial activities and vehicular pollution. Similarly, the concentration of SO2 and NO2 is higher in 2015 than 2012 data.
In residential areas the concentrations of NO2 is higher than permissible limit so the data indicates that the NO2 pollution load is increased in Balasore city and the SO2 is an alarming state. Rapid industrialization in the developing country like India is inevitable & all these activities generally lead to localized environmental problems in the region which needs to be properly addressed. The Government of India as well as the state Government have been taking many control measures to prevent air Pollution including formulation of a new on revision of the existing policies/ legislations, criteria for setting emission standards for the industries, guidelines for the sitting of industries, Environmental Impact Assessment, Environmental Audits, Adoption of improved pollution control Technologies & Awareness Creation etc. The following recommendations are made to improve the air quality of the Balasore city.
a) Installation & Proper operation of highly efficient pollution control devices like electrostatic precipitation (ESP), Gas clearing plant (GCT) Pulse jet bag filters, cyclone separators etc. in mineral based metallurgical industries.
b) Installation of dry fog systems in crusher & screen house and transfer points of conveyors handling fines in mines & mineral processing units.
c) Adoption of best available clean technology and effective monitoring of the operational efficiency of pollution control equipment and up gradation from time to time.
d) Provision of highs suggestion & rise stalks for better dispersions of the particulate matter thereby resulting in equitable of participate pollutions over a significantly longer area through dilution effect.
e) The wastes should not be discarded directly to the environment because it may pollute air.
f) Reduction of particulate matter in the line source emissions viz, fugitive emissions due to transpiration of raw materials by road by adapting the following measures.
i. Widening & black/concreting the roads used for transportation.
ii. The tailpiece of the Silencer pipe of transporting Vehicle should not be directed towards the road which creates re suspension of road surface to avoid the settled dust of roads from being fugitive.
g) Proper maintenance of vehicles to ensure reduction of emission.
h) To undertake periodic environmental monitoring including source. Inventories for planning and monitoring.
i) Strict implementation of the regulatory mechanism by the statutory authority Vis-sa Vis AAQ monitoring as per the guidelines of the Central Pollution Control Board.
j) To conduct detailed health surveillance of people residing in the vicinity of industries with fixed priority to create baseline data and to establish correlation between air pollution and its impact on human health.
k) Adoption of air pollution management strategies to control the air pollution.
l) Identifying and evaluating alternative strategies.
m) Awareness programmers are arranged by non govt. organization (NGO) to create awareness among people, students and factory workers about the bad effects of air pollution.
n) Road connecting different sectors of the Balasore town and main road inside the industrial area as well as main road of the township should be the well build up either concrete or tarred or hard topped and should be maintained properly throughout the year which will reduce the dust pollution due to vehicular movement.
o) Road side drainage system properly maintained to avoid accumulation of water on the road. Because of accumulated water on the road is not only the cause of destruction of road but also cause of heavy pollution of air.
p) Dust suppression system with water spray and sprinkling systems and also regular cleaning and wetting of the ground within the premises.
q) The premises of industry should have boundary wall of adequate height i.e. shouldn't be less than 5 ft.
r) The crusher unit should be located at least 500m away from national highway and 100m from other roads.
s) The aerial distance of the nearest point of boundary of the industry should 500m away from prominent public sensitive water body, prominent sensitive workshop/ school/ hospital/archeological monuments.
t) Burning of inorganic solid waste should be reduced, which is generating air pollution or improved the burning process.
u) Old vehicles must be banned which emitting more exhausts to the atmosphere.
The plant species constituting Green Belt of Effective Dust capturing plant species should be developed around industrial units as the Trees can act as efficient biological filters, removing significant amounts of particulate pollution.
Balasore town especially the industrial zones of the town are not safe with respect to air pollution and the high concentration of SPM causes various health problems. The high concentrations of SO2 & NO2 causes a number of health problems and also cause of acid rain nearby that area. Hence steps should be taken urgently to check the pollution load in the town. As suggested in the recommendation chapter the heavily pollution creating industries should be shifted to 25km away from the town to ideally located places. The heavy vehicles running inside the town in day time should be restricted as well as the old vehicles more than 10 years of old should be banned. Road should be made concrete properly. More and more plantation should be done along road sides as well as in vacant places of the town. The small scale and medium scale industries should strictly follow the standard norm of emission.Ambient air quality data reveals high air pollution potential in the concerned project area and surrounding locations. The data will be useful in developing an effective air pollution control strategy for township area as well as industrial area of Balasore town.