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Submission: September 23, 2017; Published: September 26, 2017
*Corresponding author: Hassan H Koshak, Head of the Dental Department and Dental Educator at Comprehensive Specialized Polyclinic, Ministry of Interior Security Forces Medical Services, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, P.O. Box 108999, Jeddah 21352, KSA, Tel: +966 (0) 555507035; Email: email@example.com
How to cite this article: Hassan H K. Is Bruxism A Risk Factor For Dental Implants?. Glob J Oto 2017; 11(1): 555801. DOI: 10.19080/GJO.2017.11.555801
The American Academy of Sleep Medicine defines bruxism as a stereotyped oral motor disorder characterized by sleep-related grinding and/or clenching of the teeth . While the American Academy of Orofacial Pain has extended the definition to include the presence of the same characteristics during wakefulness .
Taken all evidence together, bruxism seems to be mainly regulated centrally, not peripherally.
Disturbances in the central dopaminergic system have been described in relation to bruxism .
According to Lobbezoo and Naeije, (2006), the main etiology of bruxism:
a) Morphological: 10 %.
b) Pathophysiological: 70 %.
c) psychosocial factors: 20%.
Bruxism occurs due to an increase in the electromyographic activity of the masticatory muscles as a result of a sudden change in the depth of sleep from deeper to lighter sleep "Sleep Related Disorder" .
Polysomnographic recording (PSG) is considered the gold standard, but it's main limitation:
a) High costs involved.
b) Shortage of adequately equipped sleep laboratories .
Clinical assessment, combined with the use of questionnaires, remains the most common diagnostic option for clinicians in the attempt to identify bruxers. Many of the questions are based upon the assumptions that bruxism activity produces:
a) Muscle pain/tenderness.
b) Manifests itself through sounds caused by tooth grinding .
The literature has shown that neither of these assumptions is necessarily true. At least 80% of episodes of bruxism do not produce noise . Occlusal splints are currently used for the assessment of parafunctional habits .
Sleep dentistry (bruxism, snoring and sleep apnea), while not recognized as one of the nine dental specialties, qualifies for board- certification by the American Board of Dental Sleep Medicine (ABDSM). The resulting Diplomate status is recognized by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM), and these dentists are organized in the Academy of Dental Sleep Medicine (USA). The qualified dentists collaborate with sleep physicians at accredited sleep centers and can provide oral appliance therapy and upper airway surgery to treat or manage sleep-related breathing disorders.