In Ayurvedic samhita Madya Varga explained under one of 12 Ahara Varga. It is used as Ahara Dravya (Food Adjunct), as Anupana (After Drink) or as Aoushadhi (Medicine). In sushrut Samhita there is reference of it is also used for Sandnyaharana (Anesthesia) in Shastra Karma (Surgeries). On the basis of use, Madyais classified into two types- as medicine and as beverage. it is further classified into 5 types depending on method and raw material used viz; Asava, Arishta, Sura, Varuni, Sithu. Out of that first two are used for medicine & remaining as beverages. Madya (Alcoholic Beverages) is one which produces Mada (Excitement). When consumed with proper rules about quantity, time and procedure, it gives happiness, strength, reduces fear, strain and act a as Amrut (Nector) for the body.But the same when consumed without following these rules it results in Madatyaya.
For the present review detailed literary study is performed. The content and references are analysed from Charak, Sushruta and Vagbhatta. Also relevant references are taken from other Ayurvedic, modern’s texts and research articles.
Madatyaya Nidan Laxan and Chikitsa is described in 24th chapter of Charak Chikitsa Sthana.
Panatyayapratishedha is described in 47th chapter of Sushrut Uttaratantra. Treatment is also given according to these conditions.
In Ashtangahriday Madatyaya Nidana is described in Nidana Sthana 6th chapter. In the same chapter Mada, Murcha and Sanyasa is also described. Chikitsa of Madatyaya is described in Chikitsa Sthana, 7th chapter.
In Kashyapa Samhita, Madatyaya is described in Chikitsa Sthana after chapter on Krumi. In this text, the
attributes of Madya, ill effects of Madya and their treatmentare described with special reference to pregnant woman and infants. In Madhava Nidana, Madatyaya is described after description of Krumi Nidana and followed by Daha Nidana. In this text, Sushrut version is followed.
In Bhavaprakash, Madatyaya is described in Madhyamakhanda after description of Murcha, Bhram, Nidra, Tandra and Sanyas Adhikarana and followed by Daha Adhikarana. Sushrut version of Panatyaya is followed and some formulations along with treatment principles are discussed. In Yogaratnakar, Madatyaya Adhikara is described after description of Murchadhikara and followed by Daha Adhikara.
Madatyaya compromises of two words Madaa and Atyay. Mada means Harsh (Excitement) Atyay  means Atikrama (excess). This over excitement is caused by excess consumption of Madya. Depending on the involvement of the Dosha, its toxic effects are occurs [2,3].
a. Nidana: If a person is excessively emaciated because of Krodha, Shoka, Bhaya, Vyavaya, Chankramana, Sahasa, while eating Ruksha type of food, less quantity of food or limited quantity of food, drinks Madya at night which is excessively fermented, then this leads to the impairment of his Nidra and Vatapray type of Madatyaya instantaneously develops.
b. Lakshana: The Vatapray type of Madatyaya is
characterized by the following symptomatology‐Hikka, Shwasa,
Shirah Kampa, Parshva Shula, Prajagara and Bahupralapa.
Kashyapasays that in Vatika type of Madatyaya patient will be in
a.a.Nidana: If a person, indulging in food that is Amla,
Ushna and Teekshņa, having wrathful disposition and having
liking for excessive exposure to the fire and sun, drinks
excess quantity of Madya that is Teekshna, Ushna and Amla,
then he suffers from the Pittapraya type of Madatyaya.
b. Lakshana:Pittapraya type of Madatyaya is
characterized by symptoms like Trishņa, Daaha, Jvara,
Sweda, Moorcha, Atisara, Vibhrama and Haritavarna.
a. Nidana: If a person who is habituated to Madhura,
Snigdha and Guru Ahara, who does not perform Vyayam,
who takes Diwaswap and who indulges in Sukhaseenata,
excessively drinks Madya which is not an old one or which
is prepared of Guda, and Paishtika, then he immediately
develops Kaphapraya Madatyaya.
b. Lakshana:Kaphapraya Madatyaya is characterized by
Chhardi, Aruchi, Hrillasa, Tandra, Staimitya, Gaurava.
a. In Sannipataja Madatyaya all or some of the above said
features of three individual Dosha can be seen.
b. Lakshan in Sannipataja Madatyaya‐Shareeradukham,
Balavatsammoha, Hridayavyatha, Aruchi and PratataTrishna,
JwaraSheetoshnalakshana, Shirokampa, Jrumbha,
Sphuranam, Veepanam, Shrama, Urovibandha, kasa, Hikka,
Shwasa, Prajagara, ShareeraKampa, Karnakshimukharoga,
Trikagraha, Chhardi, AtisaraandHrulasa, Bhrama, Pralapa.
B. Sushrut: According to Sushrut, the adverse effects of
chronic usage of Madya against the rules and regulations
prescribed for Madya intake are classified in to four types.
They are Panatyaya, Parmada, Panajeerna and Panavibhrama.
Sushrut  used Panatyaya term in the place of Madatyaya,
and accepts 4 types of Panatyaya viz. Vatakrita, Pittakrita,
Kaphakrita and Sarvakrita.
1) Panatyaya :Panatyaya is divided into four types
depending upon the characteristic features of Dosha
a. Vatika Panatyaya: It is characterized by Stambha,
Angamarda, Hridayagraha, Toda, Kampa and Shiroruja.
b. Paittika Panatyaya: It is characterized by Sweda,
Pralapa, Mukhashosha, Daha, Murcha and Vadanalochana Peetata.
c. Kaphaja Panatyaya: It is characterized by Vamathu,
Sheetata and Kaphapraseka.
d. Sannipataja Panatyaya: Symptomatology of three
2) Paramada :Paramada is characterized by
Ushmanam, Angagurutam, Sleshmadhikatvam, Aruchi, Malamutra‐
Sanigam, Trishna, Shiro and Sandhiruja.
3) Panajeerna :Aadhmanam, Udgiran Amlarasa,
Vidahi and other features of aggravated Pitta characterize
4) Panavibhrama :Panavibhrama is characterized
by Hritgatra, Toda, Vamathu, Jwara, Murcha, Kaphasravana
C. Vagbhatta:Vagbhat  explains 4 types of Madatyaya
viz. Vataja, Pittaja, Kaphaja and Sannipataja. Apart from this
Dhvamsaka and Vikshaya  is also explained.
a. Nidana: If a person, who suddenly stopped drinking
Madya, takes recourse to drinking Madya in excess once
again, he suffers from Dhvamsakaand Vikshaya.
b. Lakshana:Dhvamsaka: Sleshmapraseka,
characterize the Dhvamsaka; Vikshaya: Sammoha, Chhardi,
Angaruja, Jwara, Trishna, Kasa, Shirashoola characterise the
Prognosis: Since a person suffers from Dhvamsaka or
Vikshaya who is already emaciated because of his earlier
drinking habit, these two diseases are difficult to cure.
In Charak Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, Madatyaya chapter the
various Awasthas in an individual becoming addicted with Madya
is elaborated. Giving an emphasis on the importance of tranquil
mind for attaining the highest goals of human life, Charak says,
whatsoever is useful after death, whatsoever is good for the
present life, and whatsoever is supreme for attaining salvation
are based on the tranquillity of the mind of an individual. Madya
considerably agitates this mind as a strong wind shakes the tree
located on the bank of a river. These people with a Madyalalasa
become Madandha and lose all happiness of life.
According to Kashyapa, Madatyaya is Amaja. That is why
while treating Madatyaya, Langhana should be done first. All the
types of Madatyaya are of Tridoshaja. Therefore, in the beginning,
treatment should be done for the most predominant Dosha. If all
the Doshas are equally aggravated, then the treatment should be
done first for the location of Kapha, followed by that of Pitta and
lastly that of Vata.
The ailments caused by the drinking of Madya in Mithyaa-
Atiyoga -Heena yoga can be cured by taking the Madya in
appropriate manner and quantity (Samayoga). Here the same
type of Madya or other varieties of Madya can also be given. Intake
of excessive Madya which is Teeksha, Ushna, Amla and Vidahi
makes the Annaras Utkleda and will be digested improperly
which ultimately turns Kshara and causes Antardaha, Jwara,
Trishna, Pramoha, Vibhrama and Mada. To correct these ailments,
Madya should be administered because when a KsharaDravya
gets mixed with a Amla Dravya, the outcome becomes sweet
in taste, and Madya is the best among the Dravyahaving Amla
Rasa. Madya is Panchrasatmak. These along with other ten
Guna Madya has fourteen attributes in total. It is because of
this fourteen attributes, Madya stands supreme among all the
Amla Rasatmak Dravya. Madya removes the obstruction in the
Srotasa, helps in the Vatanuloman, acts as Deepana‐Pachana
and becomes Satmya, when consumed habitually i.e. Abhyasat.
When the obstruction in the Srotasa is removed and Vayu moves
downwards, the pain subsides and the ailment caused by intake
of Madya gets cured.
For Vatika type of Madatyaya type of Madya (prepared of
the paste of cereals) mixed with Beeja Puraka, Vrikshamla, Kola
and Dadima, some quantity of Yavaani, Hapusha, Ajaaji and
Shrinigavera should be taken along with salt. For Paittika type of
Madatyaya Madya prepared from Sharkara or Mardvika type of
Madya which is diluted with large quantity of water along with the
juice of Kharjura, Mridveeka, Parushaka, Dadima should be given.
For Kaphaja type of Madatyaya Vamana Karma and Langhana
should be administered. If the patient suffers from Trishna, then
the Kashayas prepared of Hribera, Bala, Prishniparni, Kantakaari,
Naagara should be given. For Dosha Pachana, Kashaya prepared
from Dusparsha, Mustha, or Parpataka should be given.
For Sannipataja Madatyaya, which can be often types ,
according to the Dosha dominance, the appropriate treatment,
should be done. When there is involvement of three Doshas with
equal dominance, then first treatment should be done for Kapha
Dosha followed by Pitta Dosha and Vata Dosha.